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iC consulenten LLC
Reytarskaya str., 37, 3rd
floor,
Kyiv, 04053, Ukraine
T: +38 044 38 44 337
www.ic-consulenten.com.ua
Assessment of Quality of
Road Maintenance Works
in Ukraine
Client
NGO “My Road” & Ministry of
Infrastructure of Ukraine
Document title
Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region:
Final Report
04.08.2015
Revision: 1
iC consulenten
Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015
Revision: 1 Page I
Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET
PROJECT NUMBER: Project number 52xUA004
PREPARED BY: iC consulenten Ziviltechniker GesmbH
Schönbrunner Strasse 297, A-1120 Vienna
Tel: +43 1 521 69 0
Fax: +43 1 521 69 180
E-Mail: office@ic-group.org
iC consulenten LLC
Reytarskaya str, 37, 3rd
floor, Kyiv 04050, Ukraine
Phone: +38 044 38 44 337
E-Mail: ukraine@ic-group.org
PREPARED FOR: NGO “My Road” & Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine
Roman Khmil
DATE: 04.08.2015
EDITOR: James Mathews;Oleksii Melnyk
Date Revision No. Editor Checked by Approved by Signature
24/07/ 2015 Rev. 0 Mathews/ Melnyk Useini Woetzinger
03/08/ 2015 Rev. 1 Mathews/ Melnyk Useini Woetzinger
iC consulenten
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Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
CONTACT SHEET
Full legal name of Organisation: iC consulenten Ziviltechniker GesmbH
Trading Name (if different from above): ---
Country of Registration: Austria
Address of registered office: Schönbrunner Strasse 297
1120 Wien
Postal address (if different from above): ---
Telephone number: +43 1 521 69 – 256
country code city code Number
Fax number: +43 1 521 69 – 180
country code city code number
Main contact person for this project: Mr James Mathews
Main contact person’s position in the
Organisation:
Project Manager
Contact person’s email address: j.mathews@ic-group.org
Website of the Organisation: www.ic-group.org
Full legal name of Organisation: iC consulenten LLC
Trading Name (if different from above): ---
Country of Registration: Ukraine
Address of registered office:
ave. Heorgiya Gongadze 20,
04215 Kyiv, Ukraine
Postal address (if different from above): Reytarskaya str., 37, 3rd floor, Kyiv 04053
Telephone number: +38 044 38 44 337
country code city code Number
Fax number:
country code city code number
Main contact person for this project: Elena Rybak
Main contact person’s position in the
Organisation:
Managing Director
Contact person’s email address: ukraine@ic-group.org
Website of the Organisation: http://ic-consulenten.com.ua/
iC consulenten
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Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
CONTENT
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ 1
1. Introduction..................................................................................................................... 4
1.1. Roles and Responsibilities .......................................................................................................... 5
1.2. Cooperation................................................................................................................................ 5
1.3. Scope of work............................................................................................................................. 6
1.4. Report structure ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.5. Sites visited................................................................................................................................. 7
1.6. Map location............................................................................................................................... 8
1.7. Site visit schedule, roads, contractors, supervisors, description of the road condition. ........... 9
1.8. Information received................................................................................................................ 11
1.9. Meetings held........................................................................................................................... 11
2. Methodology of the study .............................................................................................. 13
2.1. Methodology of the roads selected for Inspections. ............................................................... 13
2.2. Methodology of assessment and inspection............................................................................ 14
2.3. Changes in study methodology and project scope. ................................................................. 15
2.4. List of Ukrainian standards and rules for repair works ............................................................ 15
2.5. Assessment of documents received......................................................................................... 16
2.6. Assessments of the selection procedure and methodology of Repair methods ..................... 18
3. Findings and Results ....................................................................................................... 19
3.1. Quality inspection results summary......................................................................................... 19
3.2. Assessments of the completed repairs .................................................................................... 30
3.3. Сore samples ............................................................................................................................ 33
3.4. Quantity cross check of performed works ............................................................................... 35
3.5. Summary................................................................................................................................... 35
4. Recommendations.......................................................................................................... 40
4.1. Definition of scope and methodology of repair works............................................................. 40
4.2. Procurement of road maintenance.......................................................................................... 44
4.3. High-level economic analyses of Ukrainian road maintenance techniques............................. 45
4.3.1. Economic viability of patch repairs and resurfacing ................................................................ 45
4.3.2. Economic analysis of two maintenance strategies for a sample road kilometre..................... 46
4.3.3. Assumptions ............................................................................................................................. 47
4.3.4. Results and provisional conclusions......................................................................................... 49
5. Methodology for forthcoming road maintenance inspection programme for international
Consultants.................................................................................................................... 51
6. Conclusions.................................................................................................................... 52
7. Appendices .................................................................................................................... 54
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Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
7.1. APPENDIX 1. Register of Documents Received ........................................................................ 54
7.2. APPENDIX 2. Minutes of meetings ........................................................................................... 59
7.3. APPENDIX 3. Example site visit check list................................................................................. 66
7.4. APPENDIX 4. Terms of reference for future road maintenance quality Inspection contracts. 68
7.5. APPENDIX 5. Photos of site inspections ................................................................................... 71
7.6. References and Bibliography.................................................................................................... 97
TABLES
Table 1: Site visit schedule, roads, contractors, supervisors, description of the road condition. ........ 10
Table 2: Works performed .................................................................................................................... 35
Table 3: Typical road deformations and destructions, causes and solutions ....................................... 36
Table 4: Standards requirements and road conditions......................................................................... 39
Table 6: Typical economic road user costs vs. road roughness levels. ................................................. 48
Table 7: Cost-Benefit Analysis results: M01 sample section................................................................. 50
FIGURES
Figure 1: Map location ............................................................................................................................ 8
Figure 2: Locations of inspected section............................................................................................... 29
Figure 3: Patch repair ............................................................................................................................ 30
Figure 4: Lack of gravel, used for spray injection method .................................................................... 32
Figure 5: Spray injection method.......................................................................................................... 32
Figure 6: Cracks repair with crack master material and covered with stone screening dust ............... 33
Figure 7: Thickness of the patch repair layers....................................................................................... 34
Figure 8: Preventative maintenance and correct repair ....................................................................... 37
Figure 9: Investigation and assessment process................................................................................... 41
Figure 10: Maintenance Treatment Options for Flexible Pavements with Asphalt Base ..................... 42
Figure 11: Patch procedure................................................................................................................... 43
iC consulenten
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Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
iC consulenten (the Consultant) was awarded the service contract by the NGO “My
Roads” on June 15, 2015 for a one month pilot project in the Kiev region “Assessment of
Quality of the Road Maintenance Works” (the Project). The Project commenced on June
22, 2015 as the first documentation was received from Ukravtodor.
iC consulenten formed an independent team consisting of an International Expert and a
Ukrainian Expert to support the regional road administrations in performing quality
/performance inspections for road rehabilitation/maintenance works.
During the Project, nine roads of the Kyiv region were inspected, which included 22 spot
checks of performed works and two sites with ongoing works. Inspections covered three
types of roads: International, National and Regional (Territorial), and included those
with larger scope of works, different contractors and all types of repair works performed
during the inspected period.
During the Project, the co-operation between the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine,
Ukravtodor and the Consultant has been very positive and productive.
A significant finding during the Project was that the patch repair overall has a good
quality. Three, four, five-year-old patches and older are still in place and in relatively
good condition. The Consultant team noted that the majority of patch repairs were in
good condition and that the ones that had failed had done so because the surrounding
road had continued to fail or because the road base layer had failed under the patch
repair. However, the spray injection repair was being over-used and/or used in
inappropriate applications such as filling deep or large potholes. Also in many cases,
stone or gravel was not being added to the repair, which will reduce the expected life of
the repair. This type of repair was often starting to fail after just 1 or 2 years.
This demonstrates that the construction quality of the asphalt patch repairs is sound
and that the repairs are achieving and exceeding their expected design life of 5 years.
The problem however is that in many cases the road is simply failing around the patch
repair.
During site inspections, the core samples were visually evaluated. From a visual
assessment of the core samples, it can be seen that asphalt mixtures used for repair
works at some sections have small size gravel with particles less than 15mm that
correspond to the standard requirements to have thickness of the compacted layer not
less than a ratio of 2.5 times the diameters of the largest gravel size. However, in
another sections, the used asphalt mixture has particles with diameter around 25mm
that does not correspond to either the Ukraine or the international standards.
Through the course of the site investigations, the Consultant team noted that in general,
all roads have very similar problems. Many sections of roads have structural cracks and
rutting which indicate a failure at the foundation of the road and wearing course is
fatigued and in a worn-out state.
The inability of the current road maintenance repairs to effectively repair the damaged
road is causing the road to continue to fail. Which in turn will increase the amount of
repairs required and the severity of the failure each passing year.
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The Consultant team consider that a fundamental problem lies with the prescription
and usage of types of repair works, which only offer short-term partial solutions and
are not preventing the continued decline of the quality of the road in the medium to
long-term. Emergency and ongoing small repair works in many instances should be
substituted with Capital repairs.
The Consultant suggests that a procedure is established to more accurately detail the
scope, quantity and location of maintenance repair works required.
It is recommend to further develop the requirements for execution of reports on
performed works compiled by the contractors. This will enable Ukravtodor to better
inspect the completed works, cross check estimates of material used, check that the
specified material and maintenance technique has been implemented in the required
location.
The Consultant recommends that road condition inspection methods are implemented
to develop the scope of repair works required documents. These scope of repair works
required documents could then be used to estimate the financial cost of repair works
required and accurately specify them. This will also enable Ukravtodor to easier
crosscheck and verify the repair works undertaken by the contractors.
It is also apparent that the majority of the repairs undertaken in recent months were
only shallow repairs of 5-6cm depth. These shallow repairs do not solve the problems
with the road’s base course or foundations. Consequently, these shallow repairs will not
prevent the road from deteriorating faster than it would do if it were properly
maintained.
It is the Consultant’s understanding that there is currently no set procedure contained in
the Ukrainian standards to define and control how maintenance works are specified and
defined. Although the standards contain information on the types of pavement
investigation works to be undertaken, there is no guidance on how this survey
information is to be interpreted and how the appropriate maintenance solution is to be
chosen and specified.
It is recommend to implement a defined set of procedures and methodology that will:
1. Provide a maintenance assessment process: Data survey and pavement
investigation results to be interpreted and analysed;
2. Decision making during evaluation of road conditions to define type of repair;
3. Pavement treatment design. Selection of the appropriate road maintenance
procedure and design of the repair.
The Consultant team was made aware of the limited financial budget available for
highway maintenance works and that this has directly impacted on the type and scope
of the maintenance works being undertaken. The Consultant has considered this
contributing factor throughout the study and all of the Consultant’s findings and
recommendations were made with this fact in mind.
The Consultant has undertaken a high level cost comparison and of different road
maintenance scenarios:
 a basic analysis of economic viability regarding the share of road surface
repaired by annual patching versus resurfacing of larger areas;
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Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
 a more comprehensive (yet still high-level) economic analysis for two
maintenance/reconstruction scenarios for a sample kilometre on the
Ukrainian M01 road comparing the respective costs and benefits for a 20 year
operation period.
Based on the 5 years of useful life typically assumed for patch repairs and the according
price data, our findings suggest that patching is preferable as long as the road area being
patched within this period does not exceed 54% of the total road surface. Put
differently, if each year, the average annual amount of road surface being patched
exceeds some 11% in a given section, then it would be more economical to choose
resurfacing as the primary method of maintaining the road surface.
The Consultant has noted that on many sections of road, more than 11% of the surface
is being patched each year. Consideration should be given to assessing the area of road
needed to be patched that year and also assessing the likely area of road which will
need to be patched the next year, in a given section. Proper planning and coordination
of road maintenance could lead to the selection of road maintenance methods, which
can deliver a more cost effective solution.
Also, that reconstructing certain stretches of the M01 (this road was taken only as an
example for the analyses) are economically preferable to continuing the current practice
of patching and re-patching.
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1. INTRODUCTION
The Ukraine Government is looking for solutions, which will help to improve the
Ukrainian roads conditions. As a part of reforms in the road sector of Ukraine, the
Ministry of Infrastructure, NGO “My Road” implemented a Pilot Project to investigate
and report on the quality of the road maintenance in the Kiev region. This involved the
inspection of rehabilitation works in progress, the retrospective inspection of already
implemented works (during March-May 2015), the reporting of findings, analysis and
recommendations on the quality of the road maintenance works. If this pilot project is
successful then the Ukraine Government has indicated that it intends to expand the
investigation of road maintenance quality to include all regions of Ukraine.
As this is initially to be considered as a pilot project, consequently the task description
and methodology has been adjusted as the project developed in accordance with the
initial findings and the availability of information.
iC consulenten was awarded the service contract by My Roads on the 15th
June 2015 for
a 1 month pilot project in the Kiev region. The Project commenced on the 22nd June,
2015 as the first documentation was received from Ukravtodor.
iC consulenten formed an independent team of experts consisting of an International
expert and a Ukraine Expert to support the regional road administrations in performing
quality /performance inspections for road rehabilitation/maintenance works.
This report will summarise the findings from the team’s visual inspection of recently
completed road maintenance and comment on the quality of the repairs in relation to
Ukraine and international standards. This report will also comment on the
appropriateness of the type of repair undertaken and suggest possible improvements to
the procurement and implementation of road maintenance.
Additionally, this report will also provide comment on the cost benefit analysis of a
comparison of different road maintenance methods and scenarios.
In accordance with the agreed Terms of Reference, the Consultant has not undertaken a
financial investigation into the costs of the road maintenance but has instead focused on
the quality of the maintenance.
The Consultant team was made
aware of the limited financial
budget available for highway
maintenance works and that this
has directly impacted on the
type and scope of the
maintenance works being
undertaken. The Consultant has
considered this contributing
factor throughout the study and
all of the Consultant’s findings
and recommendations were
made with this fact in mind.
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1.1. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The table below identifies the Ministry of Infrastructure representatives, the
Consultants Key Experts and the Ukravtodor’s staff members who have been involved in
this study.
Company Name Function
Ministry of
Infrastructure
Roman Khmil
Client
Ministry of
Infrastructure
Oleksii Zaryckyi
Ministry representative
iC consulenten Mr. James Mathews International Highway Engineer
iC consulenten Mr. Oleksiy Melnyk Ukraine Highway Engineer
iC consulenten Ms. Elena Rybak Principal client contact/ Director iC Ukraine
iC consulenten Ms. Galina Teriohina Project Assistant
iC consulenten
Ms. Irina
Omelianenko
Translator / Project administrator
Ukravtodor Oleg Fedorenko Head of Ukravtodor road service and safety
Ukravtodor Oleg Slobodyan (OS),
Deputy of the head of Road Service department in
Kyiv region
Ukravtodor Volodymyr Sarancha
First Deputy to the Head of Road Service in Kiev
region
Ukravtodor Sergey Oshkalo
Head of the Quality assurance, technical control and
new technologies department in Kyiv region
Ukravtodor Anatoliy Zynka
Head of Ukravtodor innovation development and
costing department
Ukravtodor Maxim Pogrebniak
Head of economic monitoring of financial and
economic department
Ukravtodor Vitaliy Stiozhka
Deputy Director, State enterprice “Center for
scientific and technical support of road works and
certification of road products (SE DorCentr)
Ukravtodor Manitskyy Eugene
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management M01
Ukravtodor Manitskyy Eugene
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management N 07
Ukravtodor Gaydamaka Maxim
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management M 03
Ukravtodor Gaydamaka Maxim
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management T10-18
Ukravtodor Peristyy Alexander
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management N 01
Ukravtodor Gaydamaka Maxim
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management N 08
Ukravtodor Anatoly Kirichenko
Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management M 07
1.2. COOPERATION
The Consultant would like to mention that the co-operation between the Ministry of
Infrastructure, Ukravtodor and the Consultant has been very good throughout the
project with all meetings being very productive. All of the representatives of the
Ministry and Ukravtodor have endeavoured to provide us with the information we
requested in a reasonable time frame. Representatives of the Ukravtodor have escorted
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Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine
us on site visits to personally provide additional technical information on the roads and
the road maintenance.
1.3. SCOPE OF WORK
The Consultant`s assessment of the quality of road maintenance works in the Kiev
region included the following activities:
Visual inspection of completed repairs, which were undertaken in the period March -
May and are within the contractor’s 1-year warrantee period.
The following tasks were undertaken:
 Visual evaluation of the suitability of the construction materials used for patch
hole fill works.
 Visual assessment of the quality of the repair and the methodology
undertaken.
 Visual assessment of the suitability/ appropriateness of the repair works
undertaken.
 Visual evaluation of the amount of repairs undertaken on the specified section
of road.
 Selection of a small number of repairs to be core drilled and analysed in a
laboratory. Core drilling and laboratory to be organised by a third party.
 Cross check of amounts and type of work undertaken against the Reports on
Performed Tasks for the corresponding section of road.
 Assessment of how the repairs of pot holes comply with relevant EU standards
and Ukraine standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public
Roads and repairing of Public Roads, Types of repairs and Lists of Works.
Spot check inspection of ongoing repair works.
The following tasks were planned to be undertaken:
 Assessment of methodology and equipment used.
 The Contractor will be required to reopen a completed repair to allow the
Consultant to inspect the quality of the repair.
 Assessment of how the Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and
Repairing of Public Roads - SOU 42.1-37641918-105:2013 Repairing of Public
Roads, Types of Repairing and List of Works - GBN G-1.218-182:2011 repairs
comply with relevant EU standards and Ukrainian standards such as
Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and repairing of Public
Roads, Types of repairs and Lists of Works.
 Visual assessment of the suitability/ appropriateness of the repair works
undertaken.
 Visual evaluation of the amount of repairs undertaken on the specified section
of road.
 Visual evaluation of the suitability of the construction materials used for patch
hole fill works.
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1.4. REPORT STRUCTURE
The Consultant has prepared this report to present on the findings, assessment and
recommendations following the inspection works undertaken.
For each site inspection that was performed, a brief inspection report was prepared.
This report includes the following information for the Kiev region:
 A description of the section of roads inspected and corresponding dates along with
the details of the sub-contractor who undertook the repairs for the section.
 A summary of the findings from each section of the roads inspected
 The Consultant’s assessments based on the visual inspections, which will include
comment on; methodology, materials, quantity of repairs and compliance with EU
and Ukraine standards.
 A selective assessment of the key materials used based on the material certificates
(passports) provided by the contractor. Material certificates are to be supplied to the
Consultant prior to the commencement of the Consultant’s works.
 The Engineer’s assessment of the core samples and the laboratory analysis. This will
comment on the material used, method and quality of the repair.
 Assessment of how the repairs of pot holes comply with relevant EU standards and
Ukraine standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and
repairing of Public Roads, Types of repairs and Lists of Works.
 Based on the results of the visual inspection, the core samples, observing on going
repairs, this report comments on the compliance of the repairs of pot holes with EU
and Ukraine standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and
Repairing of Public Roads - SOU 42.1-37641918-105:2013 Repairing of Public Roads,
Types of Repairing and List of Works - GBN G-1.218-182:2011. this report will also
report on the results of a cross check against the Contractor’s Report on Performed
Works and this will assess descriptions of the repair works undertaken.
 This report comments on the general effectiveness of the repairs undertaken on each
section of road. The Consultant will make recommendations and suggested
alternative methods of repair, which may be more appropriate and fit for purpose.
 This report outlines a suggested method statement, which will set out, based on the
Consultant’s experience during this pilot project, the scope of works and
methodology for the forthcoming road maintenance inspection programme to be
undertaken by international Consultants.
1.5. SITES VISITED
As the methodology and programme for the site visits was developed, a site visit
schedule was created, that includes different locations, categories of the roads, different
contractors, and different types of repair works.
The Consultant team visited three classes of the road – international, national, and
territorial, class 1, 2 and 3 roads, different locations and distance form Kyiv, different
directions – North, South, East, West, and checked 6 different contractors.
Table 1 below shows details of site visit schedule, road names, contractors, supervisors
and general description of the road condition.
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1.6. MAP LOCATION
Figure 1: Map location
Legend:
Day 1. 2015/06/24 Day 2. 2015/06/25 Day 3. 2015/06/25
Day 4. 2015/06/29 Day 5. 2015/06/30 Day 6. 2015/06/01
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1.7. SITE VISIT SCHEDULE, ROADS, CONTRACTORS, SUPERVISORS, DESCRIPTION OF THE ROAD CONDITION.
№ Date
Road
Name
Road
Category
Contractors names Supervisor Road description
1 24.06.2015 М-01 1
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Brovary Road maintenance
Department"
Manitskiy
Eugen
Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has
many small shallow holes. Road is not rutting and is relatively
even which suggests that the road foundation is not
overloaded. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of
base course, which is being accelerated by water ingress.
2 24.06.2015
Н-07
(N-07)
2
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Brovary Road maintenance
Department"
Manitskiy
Eugen
Road is cracked, surface course is fretting and has some
shallow potholes. Road is even and not undulating or rutting.
Approx. 40% of the road surface in this section has been
patched over the last few months
3 25.06.2014 М-03, 1
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Kiev Road maintenance Department"
Gaydamaka
Maksym
Road was repaired with surface dressing in 2001 in this
section. In general uneven. At the connection point with
Northbound P03 large area (3026,36 m2) have been repaired
in April, 2015. Sections of the resurfaced carriageway are
already rutting, suggesting a problem with the base course
layers. At the tight radius turnaround areas structure of new
(2015) repaired patches is already cracking and rutting.
4 25.06.2015 Т 10-18 3
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Zgurovsky Regional road department"
Gaydamaka
Maksym
Road is cracked along both sides and across the road. Cracks
are unevenly distributed on the sections - some areas with
high density, some areas has no cracks. Cracks extend out
from potholes. Asphalt patch in a small areas along cracked
sections. In newly repaired areas cracked asphalt is still
unrepaired. Road is rutting along cracked areas.
5 26.06.2015
Н-01
(N-01)
2
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Concha-Zaspivsk Road maintenance
Department"
Peristyi
Olexandr
Road is cracked, surface course is fretting. Road is even and
not undulating or rutting. Old and new patches cover the
road. Road in the past have been treated with slurry mixture.
In some areas big spaces (over 20m2) recently been repaired.
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Table 1: Site visit schedule, roads, contractors, supervisors, description of the road condition.
№ Date
Road
Name
Road
Category
Contractors names Supervisor Road description
6 29.06.2015 М-05 1
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Bila Tserkva Road maintenance
Department"
n/a
Road is cracked, uneven, surface course is worn out, fretting,
rutting. Potholes are developing at the wheel tracks and
surface is rutting where more cracks to be beginning to
appear.
7 30.06.2015
Н-08
(N-08)
2
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Kiev Road maintenance Department"
Gaydamaka
Maksym
Patch repair completed in March, 2015.Spray injection
method used in previous 1-2 years is failing. Road surface is
cracked, Cross cracks have symmetric location – looks like
concrete slabs underneath. One lineal crack goes directly at
the middle of the road. Spray injection works completed in
previous years are starting to fail.
8 01.07.2015 М-07 2
Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road
Management (publicly-traded corporation, public
corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated
organization "Kyiv-Svyatoshin Road maintenance
Department." Limited Liability Company "Dorstroy
installation"
Kyrychenko
Anatolii
Road surface is even. Net of cracks and small size potholes.
Patch repair performed with spray injection method. On the
surface of repair small size gravel poured. Works completed
in May, 2015 Some of the cracks repaired with mastic and
some areas repaired with spray injection method.
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1.8. INFORMATION RECEIVED
For each inspected road section, the following documentation was supplied to the
Consultant team by Ukravtodor and was considered as input data:
- Reports on performed works.
- Defect acts (if present)
- Material certificates and passports;
- Core samples laboratory results (if present);
- List of roads sections and scope of works, performed by contractors during last 3
month;
- List of contractors, which performed the works;
- Comments from the Supervisors, who are responsible for inspected roads;
- Map of Kyiv region road network
- Rejection delivery of works, performed by Contractor (for road N-08);
Appendix 1 contains a detailed list of all documents received.
1.9. MEETINGS HELD
A number of meetings have been held during project implementation. Set out below is a
brief summary of the key meetings.
Initial meeting. Ministry of Infrastructure, Ukravtodor, Kyiv, Ukraine.
This meeting was held on 25th
of May, 2015 to discuss the Terms of Reference and
Contract details.
During meeting the Project objectives, location, scope, approach and methodology was
agreed in principle. In addition, the current situation with the roads in Ukraine, existing
procedures for works supervision, list of information and documentation required for
the Project was discussed.
Please see full version of this minutes of meeting in Appendix 2.
Introduction meeting with Motorway service department in Kyiv region, Kyiv, Ukraine.
This meeting have been held in Kyiv on 22nd
of June, 2015, after contract signature.
Communication procedures, documents transferring and site visit schedule were
discussed. During the meeting, MSDKR stated that due to that fact that medium
maintenance works are not ongoing, detailed defect lists are not provided to the
Contractor – only approximate scope of works and sections are defined (e. g. how many
m2 to be repaired in the section X-X). Currently there are no detailed description of
works to be performed, methods to be applied are contractor’s decision. Also, it was
agreed that Motorway Servicer Department in Kyiv region will provide laboratory core
samples analysis at the locations which are to defined by the Consultant experts.
Please see full version of this minutes of meeting in Appendix 2.
Meetings with local experts:
Oleg Ostroverhyi. NGO “My road” expert.
In the meeting, the current situation and condition of the roads were discussed. Types of
repair works, methodology used by Ukravtodor. Existing standards and norms in road
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design, construction and maintenance. Organization structure of Ukravtodor’s quality
control system.
Sergey Kuzmenko. NGO “My road”.
Road traffic and roads current condition were discussed.
Interim meeting with Ministry of Infrastructure, Roman Khmil. Kyiv, Ukraine. 02, July,
2015.
Project findings to date and status update. Next steps to be taken by team to undertake
the study in the most efficient way. It was agreed that investigation works will be to
discontinue with further inspections of completed works and instead to focus on looking
into the methodology of prescribing repair works and the definition of the repair works,
which are contracted. Laboratory core samples and terms for Project Report and final
presentation were also agreed.
Please see full version of this minutes of meeting in Appendix 2.
Meetings during site visits with Supervisors on quality of repair works
During all site visits, The Consultant team were accompanied by the Road Supervisors,
responsible for the road maintenance works quality control from Kyiv regional road
service department for the relevant road.
During these meetings, the current situation of the inspected roads was discussed and
additional information received from the road supervisors including:
- location of repaired sections were specified;
- year of construction or capital repair (if available);
- maintenance works from previous periods – type of repair, methodology;
- how repaired sections were defined, which parts to be repaired;
- methods, used for recent repair works;
- how supervision of works performs and how the scope of work is checked.
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2. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
2.1. METHODOLOGY OF THE ROADS SELECTED FOR INSPECTIONS.
Based on the initial information received from the ministry and Ukravtodor, the
following methodology was developed in order to define the roads, locations and
sections to be inspected by the Consultant expert team.
1. Information was supplied by the Ministry, which contained details of the
extent and locations of the road maintenance repairs from March until
June.
2. These initial documents, issued by the Ministry to the experts, included:
a. Road Defect act sheets;
b. Reports on the performed works for the last three months;
c. Repair works schedule;
d. Road map of Kiev region;
e. Materials certificates and passports, used by Contractor to perform
repair works;
f. List of Contractors, which performed the works.
3. The following types of the road were considered:
a. Class 1: M – International road (5% of all roads of Ukraine);
b. Class 2: H - national road (3% of all roads of Ukraine);
c. Class 3: T – territorial roads (18% of all roads of Ukraine).
4. Scope of works, performed by Contractors on the defined sections of the
road
a. The scope of the repair works and the amount of repair works were
considered.
5. Road direction: North, West, South, East and distance from Kiev.
6. Type and methods of repair: asphalt patch, cracks repair, spray injection
method, resurfacing.
After analysis of the received information, it was decided that the inspection sites
should include:
- Four directions: East, South, West, North. This criteria will allow the inclusion of
different types of topography and traffic conditions at different quarters of the
region;
- Three types of roads: International, National and Regional (Territorial). This
criteria will allow the inspection of the road maintenance quality of different road
construction thicknesses and traffic levels;
- Sections of roads where a larger scope of works was performed during last three
month. This criteria allows the inspection of larger sections during limited time of
the Project;
- The different types of repair works. It is important to evaluate methods, approach
and quality of all types of repair – to see the difference between them and to find
out what type of repair are efficient, and what may be improved.
As a result of the above criteria, the following list of roads was draw up:
- M-01 – International road in North direction, 1st category, amount of repair works
5460m2;
- N-07 (H-07) - national road in North - East direction, 2nd category, amount of
repair works 2360m2;
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- M-03 – international road in East direction, 1st category, amount of repair works
756m2;
- T-10-18 – local road in East direction, 3rd category, amount of repair works
467m2;
- N-08 (H-08) – national road in East- South direction, 2nd category, amount of
repair works 3639m2;
- N-01 (H-01) – national road in South - East direction, 2nd category, amount of
repair works 7125,2m2;
- M-05 – international road in South direction, 1st category, amount of repair works
10350,4m2;
- M-07 – international road in West direction, 2nd category, amount of repair
works 703m2.
2.2. METHODOLOGY OF ASSESSMENT AND INSPECTION
The received documentary information was analysed and the following methodology
was implemented by the Consultant team:
- Assessment of standards and rules for repair works. Consultants analysed
existing Ukrainian standards for repair works. The document, described type
and methods of repair works is P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and
maintenance works. Based on this document a comparison of the actual road
condition in relation to the road condition required by the standards and a
comparison of methods used for repair works and methods described in
standard have been performed.
- An assessment of the road maintenance repair in relation to international
standards. Specifically the UK standards the Design manual for Roads and
Bridges document HD 31/94.
- Assessment of received documentation to confirm that:
o The scope of works and methods for road repair were defined in an
appropriate way;
o The materials used for works correspond to national standards
(based on material certificates);
o The previously performed laboratory tests correspond to national
standards.
During the site inspection of completed maintenance works, the following inspection
methodology was implemented by the Consultant team:
- Visual inspection of recently repaired sections. For this purpose special
form of Site visit check list was developed (see Appendix 3), in which the
following information was recorded:
o Date, time, location, class of the road;
o Condition of the road – description of general conditions of the
road/ section, how it visually looks, quality of the road, repairs
(recently performed and from previous periods), potholes on the
section. All details of visual inspection written and photos prepared;
o Possible cause of road failure – visually to evaluate possible cause
of road problems: cracks, potholes, rutting, etc. Based on expert
assumptions and table 2.4 of VBN V.2.3-218-186:2004 Roads
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Bituminous pavement cause of road failure specified. Further
laboratory tests would be required to have clear understanding of
the failure;
o Type of repair, methodology and materials used;
o Appropriateness of repair – recently performed works as well as
repairs, performed in previous years;
o Visual assessment of methodology to check compliance with local
and international standards;
o Description of repair quality, both the recent repairs and the repairs
from previous years;
o Notes and necessity to perform core samples for laboratory tests;
- Photo report of the inspected sections.
2.3. CHANGES IN STUDY METHODOLOGY AND PROJECT SCOPE.
During the course of the initial phases of the study and after meetings with the Ministry
and Ukravtodor and following receipt of the requested information, the Consultant
team decided that it will be necessary to adjust the methodology of the study. For site
visits, the following changes were implemented:
- Cross check of defect lists against visual inspection of road. The
Consultant discovered that the defect list is exactly the same as the act of
performed works record. There was no proper description of the state of
the road to be repaired or a definition of the scope of works before
execution. Thus, it was not possible to check how the scope of repair works
is defined in defect acts;
- Area of repair section it was not possible to quantify the amount of repairs,
as acts of performed works records were organized without details on the
location of the individual repairs and lacked sufficient detail. Also the
sections of road repair are so long that it would not be feasible to
undertake a re-measure of the areas of patch repairs;
- Difference between report on performed works and site inspection –
reports on performed works do not have sufficient details on the precise
location of individual repairs, thus no possibility to track differences.
2.4. LIST OF UKRAINIAN STANDARDS AND RULES FOR REPAIR WORKS
The following standards are in use for repair and maintenance works and were
considering during assessment of works methodology, materials used and type or repair:
1. DBN B.2.3.-4-2007 Transport facilities. Roads and Motorways. Part 1. Design.
Part 2. Construction.
This standard describes the methodology and design parameters for the public roads
and motorways construction, capital reconstruction and repair works.
2. DSTU 3587-97 Road traffic safety. Automobile roads, streets and railway
crossings. The requirements to operation condition.
This standard sets the requirements to road operating condition. Consultant’s
assessment of roads condition and comparability to national standards was
undertaken with reference this document.
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3. DSTU B V.2.7-127:2006 Building materials. Stone mastic road concrete mix
and stone mastic asphalt. Specifications.
Using this standard, the Consultants checked the materials certificates, passports
and tickets on the correspondence to national standards.
4. DSTU B V.2.7-119:2003 Building materials. Asphaltic concrete mixtures, road
and aerodromes asphaltic concrete. Specification.
Using this standard, the Consultants checked materials certificate, passports and
tickets on the correspondence to national standards.
5. SOU 42.1-37641918-105:2013 Classification of Works for Service of Public
Roads and Repairing of Public Roads.
This standard contains a list of activities and types of emergency works applied on
the roads.
6. GBN G-1.218-182:2011 Repairing of Public Roads, Types of Repairing and List
of Works.
In this standard is a description of repair works types: capital, ongoing small, ongoing
medium and list of works for each type of repair.
7. VBN G.1-218-050-2001 Repair interval for road coatings and surface for the
roads of public use.
Standard describes intervals for repair and maintenance works after capital and
medium repair works.
8. VBN V.2.3-218-532:2007 Thin surfacing on the roads of nationwide scale
In this standard usage of thin surfacing application and methods described type of
materials and thickness allowed.
9. VBN V.2.3-218-186:2004 Roads Bituminous pavement.
Standard describe requirements to the design and condition evaluation of road
surface.
10. P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and maintenance works. Technical
rules.
In this standard requirements to the road condition for comfortable, safe, continuous
movement. Rules set requirements for road surface condition, type and methods of
repair works and maintenance of the road.
2.5. ASSESSMENT OF DOCUMENTS RECEIVED.
Defect acts.
The Consultant was provided with the defect acts by Ukravtodor for the sections of
road to be inspected. The defect acts received by the Consultant team, were simply
copies of the acts of performed works records but the costs removed. The Consultant
team was also informed by Ukravtodor that for the repair works, the scope and a
description of works and defect acts are provided upon completion of the works at the
section by the contractor. Such an approach didn’t allow the Consultant team to
provide an comparison or cross check of the amount of repairs undertaken at the
section in relation to the defect acts and reports on performed works.
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The Consultant team had expected to be provided with a report on the condition of the
road section selected for repair, which contained a description of the road failure and a
specification of the types of repair to be implemented at specific locations along the
road along with approximate measurements of the repair work required.
Reports on performed acts.
The Consultant was provided with the reports on the performed acts by Ukravtodor for
the sections of road to be inspected. The reports were executed in KB-2 form according
to the requirements for State owned companies. A report on the performed acts
consists of information on the road name, section, Contractor assigned to, type and
scope of repair works undertaken, materials used, unit rates and cost of works. The
reports are compiled on a monthly basis and contain information on the works
undertaken in the month on the specific road.
Each report is prepared for the whole section of the road, which is in the responsibility
of the contractor and there were locations of the repaired sections/ potholes defined.
Few sites contained drawings and list of patch repairs, where location and amount of
performed works described. Due to the extremely long sections of road repaired and the
lack of properly defined repair locations, it was not possible to provide cross check of
amounts and type of work undertaken against the Reports on performed works for the
corresponding section of the road. This problem was further compounded by the fact
that the same lengths of roads had been repaired on separate occasions on different
months and it was there for impossible to distinguish between a repair undertaken in
May from a repair undertaken in March and compare the repair to the appropriate
report on the act of performed works.
The Consultant undertook a cross check of the methods of repair works as described on
the act of performed works reports. The methods are clearly described and are in full
compliance with Ukraine standards (P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and
maintenance works)
Materials certificates and tickets (passports)
Each act of performance report contains Materials certificates and tickets of the
mixtures, bitumen, and gravel used by the contractor during maintenance work
execution.
The Consultant team under took a cross check of the materials used as described on the
material passports against the Ukraine standards. The recommendation on the type of
materials to use for the repair works can be found in P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads
repair and maintenance works and DSTU B V.2.7-127:2006 Construction materials.
Asphalt cement and asphalt concrete mixtures. Technical requirements.
Based on the analysis of received documentation – material certificates, tickets – all
materials, used for repair works correspond to national standards.
The Consultant noted that there are often several different types of material used on
each section of road but the reports do not specify which material was used in which
location and for what type of repair.
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Laboratory analysis
On the M03 a capital repair resurfacing work had been undertaken and as part of these
works core samples had been taken by Ukravtodor and laboratory analysis executed.
The Consultant team were provided with copies of the laboratory test results and the
Consultants undertook a check against compliance with standards requirements (DSTU B
V.2.7-127:2006 Construction materials. Asphalt cement and asphalt concrete mixtures.
Technical requirements) – no deviations were found, all characteristics of laboratory test
fully comply with the existing standards in Ukraine.
2.6. ASSESSMENTS OF THE SELECTION PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY OF REPAIR
METHODS
Methodology of repair works described in Ukraine Standards (5, 6, 7, 10). Standards
describe:
- types of repair works: capital repair, ongoing medium and small, emergency
repair works;
- intervals for repair works;
- list and type of methods for repair works;
- maintenance activities;
- criteria to evaluate road condition;
Standards do not have:
- identification of possible maintenance schemes;
- decision making guidance during evaluation of road condition to define type
of repair;
- selection procedure of most suitable repair method to be applied;
- repair design requirements;
- requirements to consider economic implications of selection of maintenance
procedure.
Actual process of repair works include:
- procurement of a service contract with contractor for a period of one year. In
contract sections and roads to be maintained and budget defined;
- contractor is instructed to provide repair works in the defined sections;
- road supervisor provide assessment on the scope of works in cooperation
with contractor;
- depending on financing available, section supervisor and contractor define
most urgent area for repair and type of repair works;
- supervisor not always present at the ongoing works;
- scope of works inspected by supervisor considering information of materials
used for repair works.
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3. FINDINGS AND RESULTS
3.1. QUALITY INSPECTION RESULTS SUMMARY
During the quality inspection of the completed road maintenance repairs for each road
section, a “Site visit check list” was completed. An example site visit check list is
contained in Appendix 3
Set out below is a summary of the findings from each section and road inspection, type
of repair used, quality, appropriateness and effectiveness of repair works, road failure
and the possible cause of the road failures.
A Map of the inspected locations is included as Fig. 2.
Day 1. 2015/06/24
Road M-01. International road, class 1.
Section KM 18+730-20 North
Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many
small shallow holes. Road is not rutting and is relatively even which suggests that the
road foundation is stable.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress through cracks could be causing freeze
thaw action to destroy surface course. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of
base course.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection and asphalt patch using
asphalt or asphalt emulsion
Repair quality. Repairs have been carried out on top of previous pothole repairs.
Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from
previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. The
spray injection repairs are already being worn away. No evidence of stone or gravel
being applied with spray injection.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches and spray repairs have
not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw
action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement.
Areas of densely packed patch and spray repairs. Consideration should be given to a
resurfacing or reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Section KM 25-27-31 North
Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many
small shallow holes. Road is not rutting and is relatively even which suggests that the
road foundation is stable.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress through cracks could be causing freeze
thaw action to destroy surface course. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of
base course.
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Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection and asphalt patch. From
visual inspection only, Asphalt or Asphalt emulsion. Throw and roll asphalt patches have
straight cut edges. Spray injection repairs do not have cut edges.
Repair quality. Repairs have been carried out on top of previous pothole repairs.
Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from
previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair.
The spray injection repairs from previous years are already being worn away. No
evidence of stone or gravel being applied with spray injection.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches and spray repairs have
not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw
action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement.
Areas of densely packed patch and spray repairs. Consideration should be given to a
resurfacing or reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Section KM 29 South
Road condition. Road is badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow
holes. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Road section is completely covered in
patch repairs. The sections of road which are not patched are badly cracked.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks
could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which
suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate
structural failure of base course.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only,
Asphalt and Bitumen emulsion. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges.
Spray injection repairs have no cut edges.
Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Many
patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality
patch repair. Some patches from previous years have failed.
Spray injection repairs from previous years have started to fail.
The repairs do not cover all of the cracks and holes.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of
the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter
months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Road section is
completely covered in patch repairs. Patch repairs are on top of patch repairs from
previous years. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this
section.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Summary for the road M-01.
Road surface is worn out. In some areas - weak foundation layers should be considered
to be repaired. In general the whole section sections of the surface course and most
likely also the base course and possibly the road foundation need to be replaced. The
amount of work needed to properly repair the road can only be determined by a series
of road investigation tests.
Day 1. 2015/06/24
Road H-07. National road, class 2.
Section KM 32+300 East
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Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many
small shallow holes. Evidence of standing water. Road is undulating which suggests
problems with road foundation layers.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks
could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is undulating which
suggests problems with road foundation layers.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only,
asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges.
Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older
patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality
patch repair.
One patch repair from three years previous has failed.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of
the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter
months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Areas of densely
packed patch repairs. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers
in this section.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Section KM35+000
Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many
small shallow holes. Evidence of standing water. Road is undulating which suggests
problems with road foundation layers
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks
could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is undulating which
suggests problems with road foundation layers.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only,
asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges.
Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older
patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality
patch repair.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of
the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter
months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Areas of densely
packed patch repairs. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers
in this section.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Section KM 43, West
Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow holes.
Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Approx. 40% of the road surface in this
section has been patched over the last few months.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks
could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which
suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate
structural failure of base course.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only,
Asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges.
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Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older
patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality
patch repair. Some patches are over 10m2.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of
the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter
months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Approx. 40% of the
road surface in this section has been patched over the last few months. Consideration
should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Summary for the road H-07.
Road surface is worn out. Foundation of the road is weak. The whole section requires
capital repair.
Day 2. 2015/06/25
Road M-03. International road. Class 1
Section 19+800 – 20 East, built in 2004
Road condition. Road is in a good condition, no systematic cracks, no potholes, no
rutting. Existing cracks are filled with bitumen. In some areas two-three year old asphalt
patch repair is performing well and in a good condition – no cracks or fretting.
Cause of road failure. Failure on this section could be caused by heavy truck on first two
lanes, as on the 3rd
and 4th
lanes there are almost no cracks. Depth of cracks is unclear
Type of repair, materials and method used. Cracks filling with bitumen. Spray Injection,
Asphalt patch, Asphalt (for 2012-2013 repair), Bitumen spray. Old asphalt patches have
straight cut edges, no cracks appeared. Cracks filled with bitumen in a proper way and
no gaps.
Repair quality. Cracks repair is even and looks tight. Spray injection repairs are failing on
the surfaces and already squeezed out. This may be due to the repair being too deep for
this method.
Appropriateness of repair. Asphalt patch and cracks repair is appropriate for road
condition. Spray injection method better to be replaced on asphalt patch. No evidence
of stone or gravel being applied with spray injection.
Section 41+300 – 45, East
Road condition. Road was repaired with surface dressing in 2001 in this section (micro
surfacing with 20 mm thickness). In general uneven. At the connection point with
Northbound P03 large area (3026,36 m2 according to acts of performed works) have
been repaired in April, 2015. Sections of the resurfaced carriageway are already rutting,
suggesting a problem with the base course layers. At the tight radius turnaround areas
structure of new (2015) repaired patches is already cracking and rutting.
Cause of road failure. Base course layer has not been replaced in the last capital repair
and may be damaged, possibly by heavy truck traffic.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt inlay 6cm thick. Asphalt. Cutting old
material and edges. Asphalt inlay machine laid.
Repair quality. Asphalt patch looks performed in a proper way – cut edges and primed
Appropriateness of repair. New inlay has signs of rutting, a deeper repair and also
repair of road foundation may have also been required. At the turn around area, new
asphalt has cracks due to heavy tracks and lateral forces of turning trucks. Stronger
material could have been applied in this area.
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Summary for the road M-03.
Section 18-35 is in a good condition. Cost benefit analysis for preventive maintenance
recommended for this section – using of surfacing will allow increase life cycle of the
section.
For the section 41+300-45+000 is recommended capital repair works as heavy traffic
transit damages newly rolled asphalt. Use of stronger material recommended in the
section, where turnabout is located.
Day 2. 2015/06/25
Road T-10-18. Local road, class 3.
Section 55+000 – 70, East
Road condition. Road is cracked along both sides and across the road. Cracks are
unevenly distributed on the sections - some areas with high density, some areas has no
cracks. Cracks lead to potholes. Asphalt patch in a small areas along cracked straps. In
newly repaired areas cracked asphalt create new potholes. Road is rutting along cracked
areas.
Cause of road failure. Old road – surface is worn out. Failure could be causing by rutting
and cracks to be appear. Cracks leads to water ingress and following destroy of surface
course.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch, performed in local small
patches. Asphalt. Cutting old material and edges. Throw and roll asphalt.
Repair quality. Asphalt patch looks performed in a proper way – cut edges and primed,
in some areas edges are uneven and new asphalt overlap old in unappropriated way.
Appropriateness of repair. In general whole section require capital repair due to
amount of cracks. Cracks near new patches asphalt allows water to go under, there is a
risk of damage of patches in a season, and new potholes to be appear. Optionally – all
cracks to be repaired. Not all of the heavily cracked and damaged sections of road have
been repaired by the patches.
Summary for the road T-10-18.
Section 55+000-70 requires capital repair work including foundation repair.
Day 3. 2015.06.26
Road H-01. National road. Class 2.
Section South KM 34+800 – 45
Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is fretting. Road is even and not
undulating or rutting. Old and new patches cover the road. Road in the past have been
treated with slurry mixture. In some areas big spaces (over 20m2) recently been
repaired.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Road is even which suggests that the
road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base
course.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. Asphalt.
Repair quality. In general patches are level and even and appear to be in good
condition. In some patches new layer is lower than old one - this suggest that
besecourse (or roadbase) to be weak. Old patches looks in a good condition – no cracks.
This suggests a good quality patch repair. Some patches are over 5m2.
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Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of
the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter
months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Consideration should
be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section and revision of basecourse
and roadbase.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy
Section South KM 53+000 – 61+300
Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is worn out and fretting. On the
downhills and uphill undulation appeared. Rolls of asphalt along the right sides of the
road.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. It looks like during hot period heavy
trucks roll out asphalt, creating rutting and roll asphalt out. Also, roadbase is weak to
carry the upper layers with loadings.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. Cold Asphalt. Asphalt. Throw
and roll asphalt, cutting edges
Repair quality. In this section cold asphalt have been poured during the cold season.
Material is looks solid after several month on the road. Also, old patches carry the heavy
loads and in a good condition
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all
rutting along the road. Section requires capital repair of the roadbase and asphalt.
Section South KM 81+000 – 82+300
Road condition. Road is badly cracked, surface course is worn out and fretting. Cracks
created along wheelspan. Section has new patch repair. Also patches of 2, 3, 4 years old
on the section. Rutting and cracks are appear at the new patched areas.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. As road is even the cause of failure
could be very old asphalt. New rutting gives an idea that roadbase to be inspected.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only –
asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges.
Repair quality. Patches has straight edges and signs of bituminous at the edges.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Cracks not repaired, that will
lead to new potholes after water ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months.
Patch repair will not solve the problems of the section and resurfacing or capital repair is
advised.
Section North KM 64+000 – 66+000
Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is worn out and fretting. Big areas (over
20%) are patched on the section. Potholes appear at the wheelspan and rutting.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Road is uneven. New rutting gives an
idea that roadbase to be inspected.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection,
asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges.
Repair quality. Patches has straight edges and signs of bituminous at the edges. Patches
are level and even. In general, patch repair has good quality.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Roadbase to be proper
inspected and capitally repaired if necessary. Cracks repair in such amount and condition
is considered as not cost effective method. It is reasonable to resurface asphalt or
reconstruct the road.
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Summary for the road H-01.
All inspected sections of the road requires capital repair works including foundation
repair.
Day 4. 2015/06/29
M-05. International road. Class 1
Section South KM 101+650 – 102+000
Road condition. Road is cracked, uneven, surface course is worn out, fretting, rutting.
Potholes appear at the wheel tracks and rutting where more cracks to be appear.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Cracks allows water ingress and by
causing freeze thaw action destroy surface course. New rutting gives an idea that road
base needs to be inspected.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection,
asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges.
Repair quality. Patch has straight edges. Patch is level and even. In general, patch repair
has good quality.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. At the surface of repaired
patch new wheels tracks to appear. It looks like repair of wearing course is not effective
at this section.
Section South KM 107+500 – 108+000
Road condition. Road is cracked, uneven, rutting. Areas covered in previous patch repair
with new patches around.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out, old. Cracks allows water ingress and by
causing freeze thaw action destroy surface course. Also, as cause could be heavy traffic.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection,
asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges.
Repair quality. Patch has straight edges. Patch is level and even.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. At the surface of repaired
patch new wheel tracks to appear.
Section North KM 90+500 – 92+000
Road condition. Road is cracked. Areas covered in patch repair of previous years.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out, old. Cracks allows water ingress and by
causing freeze thaw action destroy surface course. Heavy traffic could be as a cause.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. Bitumen and stones. Spray
injection of bitumen and stone.
Repair quality. Bitumen with gravel have been injected at the cracks (small potholes
(diam. less than 50cm)). Not all area of cracks repaired.
Appropriateness of repair. Repair works will not influence at the whole situation at the
road with many cracks around. In a period of 2-3 month after works completion,
repaired surface is worn out.
Summary for the road M-05.
Road requires capital repair, some section need road foundation repair.
Day 5. 2015/06/30
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Road H-08. National road, class 2.
Section South East KM 1+900 – 2+000
Road condition. Road in cracks. Section supervisor did not accept Works as wrong
materials used.
Cause of road failure. Road surface and is worn out. It looks like cause of the problem is
road base.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Cracks repair. Bitumen. Filling cracks with
liquid bitumen.
Repair quality. Material, used for repair has low quality.
Appropriateness of repair. Method, used for repair works is an unappropriated.
Material is leaking from cracks at the hot temperature.
Section South East KM 8+000 – 9+000
Road condition. Road is cracked, even. Cross cracks have symmetric location – looks like
concrete slabs underneath. One lineal crack goes directly at the middle of the road.
Spray injection works completed in previous years does not look good.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is old. Could be the cause of weak roadbase.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Crack filling with mastic and small size (3-
5mm) gravel on top. Mastic and stones. Blow of hot air in the crack for cleaning and
drying. Cracks filled with mastic and covered with gravel of 3-5mm size. Crackmaster
material used.
Spray injection method of previous years.
Repair quality. In a three month period since works completed quality of repair works is
good.
Appropriateness of repair. Method, used for crack repair is appropriate.
Section South East KM 32+900 – 33+000
Road condition. Patch repair completed in March, 2015.Spray injection method used in
previous 1-2 years is crippled. Many cracks on the road and small size potholes and
pitting. Rutting.
Cause of road failure. Road surface and is worn out. It looks like roadbase need
repaired.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Patch repair. From visual inspection –
Asphalt. Cutting and cleaning of potholes. Cutting edges. Lay and roll asphalt.
Repair quality. Repaired areas has straight edges and well compacted.
Appropriateness of repair. Patch repair, performed this year is sinking. This repair works
will not solve the problem with layers underneath. Rutting is suggest that problem in the
roadbase. Cracks around repaired areas will let water ingress and continue to destroy
wearing course.
Summary for the road H-08.
Some sections of the road requires surface treatment and some capital repair including
foundation repair.
Day 6. 2015/07/01
Road M-07. International road, class 2.
Section West KM 24+000 – 25+000
Road condition. Road surface is even. Net of cracks and small size potholes. Some of the
cracks repaired with mastic and some areas repaired with spray injection method.
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Cause of road failure. Structural cracking possibly caused by road design traffic being
exceeded or possibly thermal cracking.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. Cracks repair. From visual
inspection – Mastic and gravel for cracks and bitumen emulsion with gravel for spray
injection method. Cutting (width and depth - 12-15mm) and cleaning of cracks with
filling of mastic (200C) and pouring of small size gravel. Spray injection.
Repair quality. Repaired cracks in a month after repair looks good and no damages
appear.
Appropriateness of repair. Cracks repair is appropriate.
Section West KM 66+300
Road condition. Road surface is even. Net of cracks and small size potholes. Patch repair
performed with spray injection method. On the surface of repair small size gravel
poured. Works completed in May, 2015.
Cause of road failure. Probably road base is weak or failure in the wearing course.
Structural cracking possibly caused by road design traffic being exceeded or possibly
thermal cracking.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. From visual inspection –
bitumen emulsion and gravel. Spray injection of bitumen emulsion and gravel.
Repair quality. In this location, sprayed emulsion covered with gravel, which will protect
emulsion in the future.
Appropriateness of repair. Local repair does not cover all cracks around and water will
continue to ingress and destroy wearing course with freeze thaw action. The remaining
cracks should be sealed or the wearing course replaced.
Section West KM 74+900
Road condition. Road is even and no rutting. Road has small cracks, small size shallow
potholes, Patch repair works completed in May, 2015.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Patch repair. From visual inspection –
asphalt. Cutting asphalt, edges. Lay and roll asphalt.
Repair quality. In a month since works completed patches looks good- no cracks or
holes.
Appropriateness of repair. Local repair does not cover all cracks around and water will
continue to ingress and destroy wearing course with freeze thaw action Around recently
repaired patches new potholes appear as old asphalt is continue to destroy. The
remaining cracks should be sealed or the wearing course replaced.
Summary for the road M-07.
Some sections at the road requires re-surfacing, some sections to be repaired including
foundation of the road.
Day 7. 2015/07/21
Road H-07. National road, class 2.
Section Westbound KM 50
Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow holes.
Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Road surface in this section has been
patched over the last few years.
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Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress through cracks could be causing freeze
thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which suggests that the road
foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base
course.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection –
asphalt. Cutting potholes, cutting edges and debris removal. Cleaning with compressed
air. Grounding with bitumen. Throw and roll asphalt.
Repair quality. Asphalt mixture has temperature lower, that in material ticket.
Equipment used for repair works is old and has low quality for cutting and rolling.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of
the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter
months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement.
This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
Day 8. 2015/07/23
Road T1027. National road, class 1.
Section Westbound KM 50
Road condition. Rutting on the road. Road is cracked. Road surface in this section has
been patched over the last few years and has been repaired on the surface of 70-80%.
Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old
asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks
could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which
suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory.
Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. From visual inspection only,
gravel 5-8mm, bitumen emulsion. Cleaning of the cracks with compressed air, Blowing
emulsion, blowing mixture of gravel and emulsion, blowing of gravel on top to protect.
Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Spray injections have not
covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action
in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. This is
not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
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Location data list
2015/06/24 M-01 - 1
2015/06/24 M-01 - 2
2015/06/24 M-01 - 3
2015/06/24 H-07 - 1
2015/06/24 H-07 - 2
2015/06/24 H-07 - 3
2015/06/24 M-01 - 4
2015/06/25 M-03 - 1
2015/06/25 M-03 - 2
2015/06/25 T-10-18 - 1
2015/06/26 H-01 - 1
2015/06/26 H-01 - 2
2015/06/26 H-01 - 3
2015/06/26 H-01 - 4
2015/06/29 M-05 - 1
2015/06/29 M-05 - 2
2015/06/29 M-05 - 3
2015/06/30 H-08 - 1
2015/06/30 H-08 - 2
2015/06/30 H-08 - 3
2015/07/01 M-07 - 1
2015/07/01 M-07 - 2
2015/07/01 M-07 - 3
Figure 2: Locations of inspected section
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3.2. ASSESSMENTS OF THE COMPLETED REPAIRS
Set out below are the Consultant’s general comments on the quality of the types of
highway maintenance which were in evidence at the site of the site visits.
The Following types of repair works were inspected.
1. Patch repair. From the Consultants inspections and assessment of the act of
performed works records, it would appear that the methods used on the inspected
sections are in compliance with the requirements of national and international
standards, in particular with P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and
maintenance works (section 4.7). All potholes cut with straight edges and signs of
bitumen (as primer) are presented, Due to that fact, that works completed it is hard
to prove whether surface was cleaned, dried and primed with bitumen properly.
Considering that patch repair from previous years in good condition, which gives an
idea of good quality of hidden works during patch repair.
At some sections, the patch repair implemented was smaller than it should be
according to standards. As shown at the Figure 1 patched area will not solve the
problem and cracks around repaired area will allow water to ingress and continue to
destroy wearing course. According to Standard (10 section 4.7.7.) repaired area
should be wider that area of cracks.
Although the Consultant only undertook a visual inspection, the Ukravtodor
representative clarified that the patch repairs are usually only a maximum 5cm deep
irrespective of the type and cause of the road failure. In many instances the design
life of a shallow repair will be limited as the road failure may be due to problems with
the road foundation or base course. A 5cm deep repair will not resolve these
problems and will therefore be only a short term solution.
The Consultants were informed that due to limited financing, such works are not
undertaken strict accordance with the standards.
Figure 3: Patch repair
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The Consultant observed on going patch repair works and noted that the methodology
used by the contractor was in line with both Ukraine and International standards.
During visit of ongoing patch repair works it was noted that:
- Area of repair is not cover all problem areas at the section - cracks and small
size pothole still will be around repaired area. This will lead to further
destruction of road surface with “thaw-freeze” process and necessity to make
new patch repair at the same section next season;
- Equipment used – cut machine does not provide required quality of cutting –
this leads to increase in additional workforce and lower quality of adhesion;
- Asphalt mixture – truck, delivered mixture was not covered, that led to
decrease of mixture temperature;
- Grounding – has to be improved, as at the moment worker pour the liquid
bitumen with law efficiency;
- Roller – 1,5t roller is very old and have very low compaction efficiency.
Please see the quality inspection reports summary section of this report, for a more
detailed report of ongoing works site visit. A complete set of photographs showing the
methodology are contained in Appendix 5 of this report.
2. Spray injection. The Consultant noted that this is a widely used method due to its
speed of application and lower cost. Liquid bitumen emulsion with small size gravel (2-
5mm) injected into the destroyed areas, in shallow potholes only and where area is
less than 0.5 m2
. This method requires cleaning and drying of the patch surface, but no
cutting of the edges. In most of the repaired areas – only bitumen is visible. The
standards state that after pothole filling with bitumen and protection layer of gravel
has to be applied on top. The Consultant noted that in the majority of roads there was
no gravel or stone in the bitumen and only 1 road had been repaired with a spray
injection mixture containing gravel or stone. Injected mixture of bitumen emulsion
should be carefully designed to achieve the correct density.
The Consultant noted that in many places the spray injection repair was beginning to
fail after 1 or 2 years. Also that the spray injection repair was being over used in
inappropriate applications such as crack sealing or filling deep or large pot holes.
The Consultants inspected one site with ongoing spray injection works.
The observed method includes the following procedures:
- Cleaning with compressed air. While visually inspected cracks and small size
potholes, where cleaning works performed with compressed air in cracks with
above 20mm width still has signs of dust and debris inside;
- Injection of bitumen emulsion. Injection of bitumen emulsion allows to
penetrate deeply and provide efficient cohesion with asphalt;
- Injection of gravel and emulsion mixture. This process fill cracks and potholes
with mixture that will carry the traffic;
- Injection of gravel protection layer. Very importance process in this method,
that protects newly repaired area from emulsion removal. Also, as no any
compaction process applied, gravel has to be on top considering following
compaction with traffic passing by.
In the inspected section it was plan to repair cracks with width over 20mm as gravel
size used for repair was 5-8mm.
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Important note! In many visited areas, the Consultant noted, that only bitumen
emulsion is visible and lack of gravel leads to a reduction of the life of the repaired
area. This has to be taking into consideration by Ukravtodor and the quality of this
type of works should be improved.
Figure 4: Lack of gravel, used for spray injection method
Please, see Appendix 3 for detailed report of ongoing works site visit
Figure 5: Spray injection method
3. Crack repair. This type of repair use different methods: with cutting of the crack or
without cutting. Also, method use different type of materials: mastic, bitumen
emulsion, poured with stone screening dust. Usually at the areas, where cracks have
width and length less than 15mm cutting performed and special heated bitumen
poured in the crack and stone screening dust on the top applied. The Consultant team
noted that the crack sealing had in some areas been undertaken using in appropriate
materials. This repair work had been failed by Ukravtodor as being substandard in
quality.
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Figure 6: Cracks repair with crack master material and covered with stone screening dust
3.3. СORE SAMPLES
With the support of Ukravtodor and Road Maintenance Service Department in Kyiv
region, it became possible to take core samples of the recently competed repairs.
During site inspection the core samples were visually evaluated:
- Thickness of patch repair;
- Quality of adhesion with old layer;
- Visual evaluation on the quality of mixture.
Further laboratory tests will provide information on:
- Correspondence of material used to national standards;
- Correspondence of material used to the material tickets (certificates);
- Correspondence of material used to international standards.
During site inspection three characteristic sections were defined, where core sampling
has to be performed. Following sections of the roads were included:
- Road H-07, section 43km;
- Road M-05, section 101km;
- Road H-08, section 32km.
In general, following number of core samples were taken:
- H-07: 5 drilled core samples;
- M-05: 10 drilled core samples;
- H-08: 4 drilled core samples.
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Visual inspection showed that thickness of the patch repair layers is following:
- H-07: 5-5.5cm
- M-05: 5cm
- H-08: 6-7cm
Figure 7: Thickness of the patch repair layers
From a visual assessment of the core samples, it can be seen that asphalt mixtures used
for repair works at H-07 and H-08 have small size gravel with particles less than 15mm
that correspond to the standard requirements (4, art. 4.3.3) to have thickness of the
compacted layer not less than a ratio of 2.5 times the diameters of the largest gravel
size. While the asphalt mixture, used at M-05 has particles with diameter around 25mm,
that does not correspond to either the Ukraine or international standards.
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The results of the laboratory tests confirmed that all of the core samples are compliant
with Ukraine standards in terms of compressive strength, compaction, density, bitumen
content and water saturation.
The core samples laboratory tests confirmed the Consultant's visual assessment of
materials used for patch repair.
For the inspected sections on the roads H-08 and H-07 all characteristics correspond to
national standards requirements and that the use of the materials was appropriate.
For the inspected section at M-05, the maximum size of the gravel grains was 40mm in
the asphalt mixture used for patch repair. This confirmed Consultant's visual
assessment, that this material was inappropriate, as the layer thickness is 5cm thick and
the maximum gravel size should therefore be 20mm.
3.4. QUANTITY CROSS CHECK OF PERFORMED WORKS
Due to low level of details in the reports on the performed works it was decided to
check two sections with the area of repair and amount of asphalt mixture to provide
high level cross check on the amount of material used and repaired area.
The figures you can see in the table below.
# position units March April May Total
1
Repaired surface on H-07 Kiev-
Sumy-Unakivka
1.1 Potholes asphalt repair m2
33.4 708.33 1122 1863.7
1.2 Asphalt t 3.025 85 134.64 222.67
2
Repaired surface on M-07 Kyiv-
Kovel-Yahotyn
2.1 Potholes asphalt repair m2
63 830 108.33 1001.3
2.2 Asphalt t 7.56 99.68 13 120.24
Table 2: Works performed
Considering average thickness of the patch repair 5cm we can find volume of the
asphalt:
- H-07: 1863.7*0.05=93.187 m3 of compacted asphalt
- M-07: 1001.3*0.05=50.067 m3 of compacted asphalt
Compaction factor will be:
- H-07: 222.67t / 93.187m3 = 2.39 t/m3
- M-07: 120.24t / 50.067m3 = 2.4 t/m3
The Consultant team considers that this is a reasonable compaction factor and that the
volume of material used broadly corresponds to the area of patch repairs, which the
contractor claims to have completed.
3.5. SUMMARY
Through the course of the site investigations, the Consultant team noted that in
general, all roads have very similar problems. Many sections of roads have structural
cracks and rutting which indicate a failure at the foundation of the road and wearing
course is fatigued and in a worn-out state.
In Table 3 you can see description of the problems, its causes and type or repair to be
applied.
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Type of deformation, Possible cause of failure
Best practice repair
solution
Structural cracks Wearing course is worn out/ road
foundation is weak (water ingress
though cracks)
Capital repair including
base course or road
foundation replacement
Rutting Road foundation failure. Overloading
of road (numbers of heavy trucks
exceeding design strength )
Road base course or
foundation repair
Fretting or surface
cracks
Road surface is worn out Surface dressing repair
Surface worn out Surface course life cycle is expired Resurfacing. Preventive
maintenance to be
implemented for longer
life period of the roads
Table 3: Typical road deformations and destructions, causes and solutions
The road maintenance quality study has shown that the majority of the roads
investigated have only received an emergency type of repair such as patch repair or
spray injection repair or crack sealing. The Consultant is aware of the financial
limitations of the highways maintenance budget and that this is a possible reason why
preventative works and capital repairs such as resurfacing or reconstruction of the
carriageway are only being implemented in a few isolated areas.
It should be stated however that the 5cm deep shallow repairs do not address many of
the problems causing the failure of the road such as road base course failure or road
foundation failure. Additionally many of the cracks in the road surface, which should be
sealed with a slurry seal or a resurfacing of the road remain open.
The financial limitations on the road maintenance budget are noted but this should be a
motivation to ensure that all road repairs are undertaken in the most economically and
financially efficient manner.
The inability of the current road maintenance repairs to effectively repair the damaged
road is causing the road to continue to fail. Which in turn will increase the amount of
repairs required and the severity of the failure each passing year.
The diagram below shows how preventative maintenance and correct repair can ensure
that the road has a longer life and requires less sever reconstruction works, which are
more expensive.
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150804 i c_road_maintenance_quality_final report_eng

  • 1. iC consulenten LLC Reytarskaya str., 37, 3rd floor, Kyiv, 04053, Ukraine T: +38 044 38 44 337 www.ic-consulenten.com.ua Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Client NGO “My Road” & Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine Document title Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1
  • 2. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page I Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET PROJECT NUMBER: Project number 52xUA004 PREPARED BY: iC consulenten Ziviltechniker GesmbH Schönbrunner Strasse 297, A-1120 Vienna Tel: +43 1 521 69 0 Fax: +43 1 521 69 180 E-Mail: office@ic-group.org iC consulenten LLC Reytarskaya str, 37, 3rd floor, Kyiv 04050, Ukraine Phone: +38 044 38 44 337 E-Mail: ukraine@ic-group.org PREPARED FOR: NGO “My Road” & Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine Roman Khmil DATE: 04.08.2015 EDITOR: James Mathews;Oleksii Melnyk Date Revision No. Editor Checked by Approved by Signature 24/07/ 2015 Rev. 0 Mathews/ Melnyk Useini Woetzinger 03/08/ 2015 Rev. 1 Mathews/ Melnyk Useini Woetzinger
  • 3. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page II Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine CONTACT SHEET Full legal name of Organisation: iC consulenten Ziviltechniker GesmbH Trading Name (if different from above): --- Country of Registration: Austria Address of registered office: Schönbrunner Strasse 297 1120 Wien Postal address (if different from above): --- Telephone number: +43 1 521 69 – 256 country code city code Number Fax number: +43 1 521 69 – 180 country code city code number Main contact person for this project: Mr James Mathews Main contact person’s position in the Organisation: Project Manager Contact person’s email address: j.mathews@ic-group.org Website of the Organisation: www.ic-group.org Full legal name of Organisation: iC consulenten LLC Trading Name (if different from above): --- Country of Registration: Ukraine Address of registered office: ave. Heorgiya Gongadze 20, 04215 Kyiv, Ukraine Postal address (if different from above): Reytarskaya str., 37, 3rd floor, Kyiv 04053 Telephone number: +38 044 38 44 337 country code city code Number Fax number: country code city code number Main contact person for this project: Elena Rybak Main contact person’s position in the Organisation: Managing Director Contact person’s email address: ukraine@ic-group.org Website of the Organisation: http://ic-consulenten.com.ua/
  • 4. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page III Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine CONTENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................................ 1 1. Introduction..................................................................................................................... 4 1.1. Roles and Responsibilities .......................................................................................................... 5 1.2. Cooperation................................................................................................................................ 5 1.3. Scope of work............................................................................................................................. 6 1.4. Report structure ......................................................................................................................... 7 1.5. Sites visited................................................................................................................................. 7 1.6. Map location............................................................................................................................... 8 1.7. Site visit schedule, roads, contractors, supervisors, description of the road condition. ........... 9 1.8. Information received................................................................................................................ 11 1.9. Meetings held........................................................................................................................... 11 2. Methodology of the study .............................................................................................. 13 2.1. Methodology of the roads selected for Inspections. ............................................................... 13 2.2. Methodology of assessment and inspection............................................................................ 14 2.3. Changes in study methodology and project scope. ................................................................. 15 2.4. List of Ukrainian standards and rules for repair works ............................................................ 15 2.5. Assessment of documents received......................................................................................... 16 2.6. Assessments of the selection procedure and methodology of Repair methods ..................... 18 3. Findings and Results ....................................................................................................... 19 3.1. Quality inspection results summary......................................................................................... 19 3.2. Assessments of the completed repairs .................................................................................... 30 3.3. Сore samples ............................................................................................................................ 33 3.4. Quantity cross check of performed works ............................................................................... 35 3.5. Summary................................................................................................................................... 35 4. Recommendations.......................................................................................................... 40 4.1. Definition of scope and methodology of repair works............................................................. 40 4.2. Procurement of road maintenance.......................................................................................... 44 4.3. High-level economic analyses of Ukrainian road maintenance techniques............................. 45 4.3.1. Economic viability of patch repairs and resurfacing ................................................................ 45 4.3.2. Economic analysis of two maintenance strategies for a sample road kilometre..................... 46 4.3.3. Assumptions ............................................................................................................................. 47 4.3.4. Results and provisional conclusions......................................................................................... 49 5. Methodology for forthcoming road maintenance inspection programme for international Consultants.................................................................................................................... 51 6. Conclusions.................................................................................................................... 52 7. Appendices .................................................................................................................... 54
  • 5. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page IV Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 7.1. APPENDIX 1. Register of Documents Received ........................................................................ 54 7.2. APPENDIX 2. Minutes of meetings ........................................................................................... 59 7.3. APPENDIX 3. Example site visit check list................................................................................. 66 7.4. APPENDIX 4. Terms of reference for future road maintenance quality Inspection contracts. 68 7.5. APPENDIX 5. Photos of site inspections ................................................................................... 71 7.6. References and Bibliography.................................................................................................... 97 TABLES Table 1: Site visit schedule, roads, contractors, supervisors, description of the road condition. ........ 10 Table 2: Works performed .................................................................................................................... 35 Table 3: Typical road deformations and destructions, causes and solutions ....................................... 36 Table 4: Standards requirements and road conditions......................................................................... 39 Table 6: Typical economic road user costs vs. road roughness levels. ................................................. 48 Table 7: Cost-Benefit Analysis results: M01 sample section................................................................. 50 FIGURES Figure 1: Map location ............................................................................................................................ 8 Figure 2: Locations of inspected section............................................................................................... 29 Figure 3: Patch repair ............................................................................................................................ 30 Figure 4: Lack of gravel, used for spray injection method .................................................................... 32 Figure 5: Spray injection method.......................................................................................................... 32 Figure 6: Cracks repair with crack master material and covered with stone screening dust ............... 33 Figure 7: Thickness of the patch repair layers....................................................................................... 34 Figure 8: Preventative maintenance and correct repair ....................................................................... 37 Figure 9: Investigation and assessment process................................................................................... 41 Figure 10: Maintenance Treatment Options for Flexible Pavements with Asphalt Base ..................... 42 Figure 11: Patch procedure................................................................................................................... 43
  • 6. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 1 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iC consulenten (the Consultant) was awarded the service contract by the NGO “My Roads” on June 15, 2015 for a one month pilot project in the Kiev region “Assessment of Quality of the Road Maintenance Works” (the Project). The Project commenced on June 22, 2015 as the first documentation was received from Ukravtodor. iC consulenten formed an independent team consisting of an International Expert and a Ukrainian Expert to support the regional road administrations in performing quality /performance inspections for road rehabilitation/maintenance works. During the Project, nine roads of the Kyiv region were inspected, which included 22 spot checks of performed works and two sites with ongoing works. Inspections covered three types of roads: International, National and Regional (Territorial), and included those with larger scope of works, different contractors and all types of repair works performed during the inspected period. During the Project, the co-operation between the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine, Ukravtodor and the Consultant has been very positive and productive. A significant finding during the Project was that the patch repair overall has a good quality. Three, four, five-year-old patches and older are still in place and in relatively good condition. The Consultant team noted that the majority of patch repairs were in good condition and that the ones that had failed had done so because the surrounding road had continued to fail or because the road base layer had failed under the patch repair. However, the spray injection repair was being over-used and/or used in inappropriate applications such as filling deep or large potholes. Also in many cases, stone or gravel was not being added to the repair, which will reduce the expected life of the repair. This type of repair was often starting to fail after just 1 or 2 years. This demonstrates that the construction quality of the asphalt patch repairs is sound and that the repairs are achieving and exceeding their expected design life of 5 years. The problem however is that in many cases the road is simply failing around the patch repair. During site inspections, the core samples were visually evaluated. From a visual assessment of the core samples, it can be seen that asphalt mixtures used for repair works at some sections have small size gravel with particles less than 15mm that correspond to the standard requirements to have thickness of the compacted layer not less than a ratio of 2.5 times the diameters of the largest gravel size. However, in another sections, the used asphalt mixture has particles with diameter around 25mm that does not correspond to either the Ukraine or the international standards. Through the course of the site investigations, the Consultant team noted that in general, all roads have very similar problems. Many sections of roads have structural cracks and rutting which indicate a failure at the foundation of the road and wearing course is fatigued and in a worn-out state. The inability of the current road maintenance repairs to effectively repair the damaged road is causing the road to continue to fail. Which in turn will increase the amount of repairs required and the severity of the failure each passing year.
  • 7. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 2 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine The Consultant team consider that a fundamental problem lies with the prescription and usage of types of repair works, which only offer short-term partial solutions and are not preventing the continued decline of the quality of the road in the medium to long-term. Emergency and ongoing small repair works in many instances should be substituted with Capital repairs. The Consultant suggests that a procedure is established to more accurately detail the scope, quantity and location of maintenance repair works required. It is recommend to further develop the requirements for execution of reports on performed works compiled by the contractors. This will enable Ukravtodor to better inspect the completed works, cross check estimates of material used, check that the specified material and maintenance technique has been implemented in the required location. The Consultant recommends that road condition inspection methods are implemented to develop the scope of repair works required documents. These scope of repair works required documents could then be used to estimate the financial cost of repair works required and accurately specify them. This will also enable Ukravtodor to easier crosscheck and verify the repair works undertaken by the contractors. It is also apparent that the majority of the repairs undertaken in recent months were only shallow repairs of 5-6cm depth. These shallow repairs do not solve the problems with the road’s base course or foundations. Consequently, these shallow repairs will not prevent the road from deteriorating faster than it would do if it were properly maintained. It is the Consultant’s understanding that there is currently no set procedure contained in the Ukrainian standards to define and control how maintenance works are specified and defined. Although the standards contain information on the types of pavement investigation works to be undertaken, there is no guidance on how this survey information is to be interpreted and how the appropriate maintenance solution is to be chosen and specified. It is recommend to implement a defined set of procedures and methodology that will: 1. Provide a maintenance assessment process: Data survey and pavement investigation results to be interpreted and analysed; 2. Decision making during evaluation of road conditions to define type of repair; 3. Pavement treatment design. Selection of the appropriate road maintenance procedure and design of the repair. The Consultant team was made aware of the limited financial budget available for highway maintenance works and that this has directly impacted on the type and scope of the maintenance works being undertaken. The Consultant has considered this contributing factor throughout the study and all of the Consultant’s findings and recommendations were made with this fact in mind. The Consultant has undertaken a high level cost comparison and of different road maintenance scenarios:  a basic analysis of economic viability regarding the share of road surface repaired by annual patching versus resurfacing of larger areas;
  • 8. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 3 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine  a more comprehensive (yet still high-level) economic analysis for two maintenance/reconstruction scenarios for a sample kilometre on the Ukrainian M01 road comparing the respective costs and benefits for a 20 year operation period. Based on the 5 years of useful life typically assumed for patch repairs and the according price data, our findings suggest that patching is preferable as long as the road area being patched within this period does not exceed 54% of the total road surface. Put differently, if each year, the average annual amount of road surface being patched exceeds some 11% in a given section, then it would be more economical to choose resurfacing as the primary method of maintaining the road surface. The Consultant has noted that on many sections of road, more than 11% of the surface is being patched each year. Consideration should be given to assessing the area of road needed to be patched that year and also assessing the likely area of road which will need to be patched the next year, in a given section. Proper planning and coordination of road maintenance could lead to the selection of road maintenance methods, which can deliver a more cost effective solution. Also, that reconstructing certain stretches of the M01 (this road was taken only as an example for the analyses) are economically preferable to continuing the current practice of patching and re-patching.
  • 9. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 4 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 1. INTRODUCTION The Ukraine Government is looking for solutions, which will help to improve the Ukrainian roads conditions. As a part of reforms in the road sector of Ukraine, the Ministry of Infrastructure, NGO “My Road” implemented a Pilot Project to investigate and report on the quality of the road maintenance in the Kiev region. This involved the inspection of rehabilitation works in progress, the retrospective inspection of already implemented works (during March-May 2015), the reporting of findings, analysis and recommendations on the quality of the road maintenance works. If this pilot project is successful then the Ukraine Government has indicated that it intends to expand the investigation of road maintenance quality to include all regions of Ukraine. As this is initially to be considered as a pilot project, consequently the task description and methodology has been adjusted as the project developed in accordance with the initial findings and the availability of information. iC consulenten was awarded the service contract by My Roads on the 15th June 2015 for a 1 month pilot project in the Kiev region. The Project commenced on the 22nd June, 2015 as the first documentation was received from Ukravtodor. iC consulenten formed an independent team of experts consisting of an International expert and a Ukraine Expert to support the regional road administrations in performing quality /performance inspections for road rehabilitation/maintenance works. This report will summarise the findings from the team’s visual inspection of recently completed road maintenance and comment on the quality of the repairs in relation to Ukraine and international standards. This report will also comment on the appropriateness of the type of repair undertaken and suggest possible improvements to the procurement and implementation of road maintenance. Additionally, this report will also provide comment on the cost benefit analysis of a comparison of different road maintenance methods and scenarios. In accordance with the agreed Terms of Reference, the Consultant has not undertaken a financial investigation into the costs of the road maintenance but has instead focused on the quality of the maintenance. The Consultant team was made aware of the limited financial budget available for highway maintenance works and that this has directly impacted on the type and scope of the maintenance works being undertaken. The Consultant has considered this contributing factor throughout the study and all of the Consultant’s findings and recommendations were made with this fact in mind.
  • 10. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 5 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 1.1. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The table below identifies the Ministry of Infrastructure representatives, the Consultants Key Experts and the Ukravtodor’s staff members who have been involved in this study. Company Name Function Ministry of Infrastructure Roman Khmil Client Ministry of Infrastructure Oleksii Zaryckyi Ministry representative iC consulenten Mr. James Mathews International Highway Engineer iC consulenten Mr. Oleksiy Melnyk Ukraine Highway Engineer iC consulenten Ms. Elena Rybak Principal client contact/ Director iC Ukraine iC consulenten Ms. Galina Teriohina Project Assistant iC consulenten Ms. Irina Omelianenko Translator / Project administrator Ukravtodor Oleg Fedorenko Head of Ukravtodor road service and safety Ukravtodor Oleg Slobodyan (OS), Deputy of the head of Road Service department in Kyiv region Ukravtodor Volodymyr Sarancha First Deputy to the Head of Road Service in Kiev region Ukravtodor Sergey Oshkalo Head of the Quality assurance, technical control and new technologies department in Kyiv region Ukravtodor Anatoliy Zynka Head of Ukravtodor innovation development and costing department Ukravtodor Maxim Pogrebniak Head of economic monitoring of financial and economic department Ukravtodor Vitaliy Stiozhka Deputy Director, State enterprice “Center for scientific and technical support of road works and certification of road products (SE DorCentr) Ukravtodor Manitskyy Eugene Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management M01 Ukravtodor Manitskyy Eugene Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management N 07 Ukravtodor Gaydamaka Maxim Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management M 03 Ukravtodor Gaydamaka Maxim Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management T10-18 Ukravtodor Peristyy Alexander Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management N 01 Ukravtodor Gaydamaka Maxim Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management N 08 Ukravtodor Anatoly Kirichenko Supervisor for production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management M 07 1.2. COOPERATION The Consultant would like to mention that the co-operation between the Ministry of Infrastructure, Ukravtodor and the Consultant has been very good throughout the project with all meetings being very productive. All of the representatives of the Ministry and Ukravtodor have endeavoured to provide us with the information we requested in a reasonable time frame. Representatives of the Ukravtodor have escorted
  • 11. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 6 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine us on site visits to personally provide additional technical information on the roads and the road maintenance. 1.3. SCOPE OF WORK The Consultant`s assessment of the quality of road maintenance works in the Kiev region included the following activities: Visual inspection of completed repairs, which were undertaken in the period March - May and are within the contractor’s 1-year warrantee period. The following tasks were undertaken:  Visual evaluation of the suitability of the construction materials used for patch hole fill works.  Visual assessment of the quality of the repair and the methodology undertaken.  Visual assessment of the suitability/ appropriateness of the repair works undertaken.  Visual evaluation of the amount of repairs undertaken on the specified section of road.  Selection of a small number of repairs to be core drilled and analysed in a laboratory. Core drilling and laboratory to be organised by a third party.  Cross check of amounts and type of work undertaken against the Reports on Performed Tasks for the corresponding section of road.  Assessment of how the repairs of pot holes comply with relevant EU standards and Ukraine standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and repairing of Public Roads, Types of repairs and Lists of Works. Spot check inspection of ongoing repair works. The following tasks were planned to be undertaken:  Assessment of methodology and equipment used.  The Contractor will be required to reopen a completed repair to allow the Consultant to inspect the quality of the repair.  Assessment of how the Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and Repairing of Public Roads - SOU 42.1-37641918-105:2013 Repairing of Public Roads, Types of Repairing and List of Works - GBN G-1.218-182:2011 repairs comply with relevant EU standards and Ukrainian standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and repairing of Public Roads, Types of repairs and Lists of Works.  Visual assessment of the suitability/ appropriateness of the repair works undertaken.  Visual evaluation of the amount of repairs undertaken on the specified section of road.  Visual evaluation of the suitability of the construction materials used for patch hole fill works.
  • 12. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 7 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 1.4. REPORT STRUCTURE The Consultant has prepared this report to present on the findings, assessment and recommendations following the inspection works undertaken. For each site inspection that was performed, a brief inspection report was prepared. This report includes the following information for the Kiev region:  A description of the section of roads inspected and corresponding dates along with the details of the sub-contractor who undertook the repairs for the section.  A summary of the findings from each section of the roads inspected  The Consultant’s assessments based on the visual inspections, which will include comment on; methodology, materials, quantity of repairs and compliance with EU and Ukraine standards.  A selective assessment of the key materials used based on the material certificates (passports) provided by the contractor. Material certificates are to be supplied to the Consultant prior to the commencement of the Consultant’s works.  The Engineer’s assessment of the core samples and the laboratory analysis. This will comment on the material used, method and quality of the repair.  Assessment of how the repairs of pot holes comply with relevant EU standards and Ukraine standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and repairing of Public Roads, Types of repairs and Lists of Works.  Based on the results of the visual inspection, the core samples, observing on going repairs, this report comments on the compliance of the repairs of pot holes with EU and Ukraine standards such as Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and Repairing of Public Roads - SOU 42.1-37641918-105:2013 Repairing of Public Roads, Types of Repairing and List of Works - GBN G-1.218-182:2011. this report will also report on the results of a cross check against the Contractor’s Report on Performed Works and this will assess descriptions of the repair works undertaken.  This report comments on the general effectiveness of the repairs undertaken on each section of road. The Consultant will make recommendations and suggested alternative methods of repair, which may be more appropriate and fit for purpose.  This report outlines a suggested method statement, which will set out, based on the Consultant’s experience during this pilot project, the scope of works and methodology for the forthcoming road maintenance inspection programme to be undertaken by international Consultants. 1.5. SITES VISITED As the methodology and programme for the site visits was developed, a site visit schedule was created, that includes different locations, categories of the roads, different contractors, and different types of repair works. The Consultant team visited three classes of the road – international, national, and territorial, class 1, 2 and 3 roads, different locations and distance form Kyiv, different directions – North, South, East, West, and checked 6 different contractors. Table 1 below shows details of site visit schedule, road names, contractors, supervisors and general description of the road condition.
  • 13. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 8 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 1.6. MAP LOCATION Figure 1: Map location Legend: Day 1. 2015/06/24 Day 2. 2015/06/25 Day 3. 2015/06/25 Day 4. 2015/06/29 Day 5. 2015/06/30 Day 6. 2015/06/01
  • 14. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 9 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 1.7. SITE VISIT SCHEDULE, ROADS, CONTRACTORS, SUPERVISORS, DESCRIPTION OF THE ROAD CONDITION. № Date Road Name Road Category Contractors names Supervisor Road description 1 24.06.2015 М-01 1 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Brovary Road maintenance Department" Manitskiy Eugen Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many small shallow holes. Road is not rutting and is relatively even which suggests that the road foundation is not overloaded. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course, which is being accelerated by water ingress. 2 24.06.2015 Н-07 (N-07) 2 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Brovary Road maintenance Department" Manitskiy Eugen Road is cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow potholes. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Approx. 40% of the road surface in this section has been patched over the last few months 3 25.06.2014 М-03, 1 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Kiev Road maintenance Department" Gaydamaka Maksym Road was repaired with surface dressing in 2001 in this section. In general uneven. At the connection point with Northbound P03 large area (3026,36 m2) have been repaired in April, 2015. Sections of the resurfaced carriageway are already rutting, suggesting a problem with the base course layers. At the tight radius turnaround areas structure of new (2015) repaired patches is already cracking and rutting. 4 25.06.2015 Т 10-18 3 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Zgurovsky Regional road department" Gaydamaka Maksym Road is cracked along both sides and across the road. Cracks are unevenly distributed on the sections - some areas with high density, some areas has no cracks. Cracks extend out from potholes. Asphalt patch in a small areas along cracked sections. In newly repaired areas cracked asphalt is still unrepaired. Road is rutting along cracked areas. 5 26.06.2015 Н-01 (N-01) 2 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Concha-Zaspivsk Road maintenance Department" Peristyi Olexandr Road is cracked, surface course is fretting. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Old and new patches cover the road. Road in the past have been treated with slurry mixture. In some areas big spaces (over 20m2) recently been repaired.
  • 15. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 10 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Table 1: Site visit schedule, roads, contractors, supervisors, description of the road condition. № Date Road Name Road Category Contractors names Supervisor Road description 6 29.06.2015 М-05 1 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Bila Tserkva Road maintenance Department" n/a Road is cracked, uneven, surface course is worn out, fretting, rutting. Potholes are developing at the wheel tracks and surface is rutting where more cracks to be beginning to appear. 7 30.06.2015 Н-08 (N-08) 2 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Kiev Road maintenance Department" Gaydamaka Maksym Patch repair completed in March, 2015.Spray injection method used in previous 1-2 years is failing. Road surface is cracked, Cross cracks have symmetric location – looks like concrete slabs underneath. One lineal crack goes directly at the middle of the road. Spray injection works completed in previous years are starting to fail. 8 01.07.2015 М-07 2 Subsidiary production unit "Kyiv Regional Road Management (publicly-traded corporation, public corporation)" "Roads of Ukraine" affiliated organization "Kyiv-Svyatoshin Road maintenance Department." Limited Liability Company "Dorstroy installation" Kyrychenko Anatolii Road surface is even. Net of cracks and small size potholes. Patch repair performed with spray injection method. On the surface of repair small size gravel poured. Works completed in May, 2015 Some of the cracks repaired with mastic and some areas repaired with spray injection method.
  • 16. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 11 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 1.8. INFORMATION RECEIVED For each inspected road section, the following documentation was supplied to the Consultant team by Ukravtodor and was considered as input data: - Reports on performed works. - Defect acts (if present) - Material certificates and passports; - Core samples laboratory results (if present); - List of roads sections and scope of works, performed by contractors during last 3 month; - List of contractors, which performed the works; - Comments from the Supervisors, who are responsible for inspected roads; - Map of Kyiv region road network - Rejection delivery of works, performed by Contractor (for road N-08); Appendix 1 contains a detailed list of all documents received. 1.9. MEETINGS HELD A number of meetings have been held during project implementation. Set out below is a brief summary of the key meetings. Initial meeting. Ministry of Infrastructure, Ukravtodor, Kyiv, Ukraine. This meeting was held on 25th of May, 2015 to discuss the Terms of Reference and Contract details. During meeting the Project objectives, location, scope, approach and methodology was agreed in principle. In addition, the current situation with the roads in Ukraine, existing procedures for works supervision, list of information and documentation required for the Project was discussed. Please see full version of this minutes of meeting in Appendix 2. Introduction meeting with Motorway service department in Kyiv region, Kyiv, Ukraine. This meeting have been held in Kyiv on 22nd of June, 2015, after contract signature. Communication procedures, documents transferring and site visit schedule were discussed. During the meeting, MSDKR stated that due to that fact that medium maintenance works are not ongoing, detailed defect lists are not provided to the Contractor – only approximate scope of works and sections are defined (e. g. how many m2 to be repaired in the section X-X). Currently there are no detailed description of works to be performed, methods to be applied are contractor’s decision. Also, it was agreed that Motorway Servicer Department in Kyiv region will provide laboratory core samples analysis at the locations which are to defined by the Consultant experts. Please see full version of this minutes of meeting in Appendix 2. Meetings with local experts: Oleg Ostroverhyi. NGO “My road” expert. In the meeting, the current situation and condition of the roads were discussed. Types of repair works, methodology used by Ukravtodor. Existing standards and norms in road
  • 17. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 12 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine design, construction and maintenance. Organization structure of Ukravtodor’s quality control system. Sergey Kuzmenko. NGO “My road”. Road traffic and roads current condition were discussed. Interim meeting with Ministry of Infrastructure, Roman Khmil. Kyiv, Ukraine. 02, July, 2015. Project findings to date and status update. Next steps to be taken by team to undertake the study in the most efficient way. It was agreed that investigation works will be to discontinue with further inspections of completed works and instead to focus on looking into the methodology of prescribing repair works and the definition of the repair works, which are contracted. Laboratory core samples and terms for Project Report and final presentation were also agreed. Please see full version of this minutes of meeting in Appendix 2. Meetings during site visits with Supervisors on quality of repair works During all site visits, The Consultant team were accompanied by the Road Supervisors, responsible for the road maintenance works quality control from Kyiv regional road service department for the relevant road. During these meetings, the current situation of the inspected roads was discussed and additional information received from the road supervisors including: - location of repaired sections were specified; - year of construction or capital repair (if available); - maintenance works from previous periods – type of repair, methodology; - how repaired sections were defined, which parts to be repaired; - methods, used for recent repair works; - how supervision of works performs and how the scope of work is checked.
  • 18. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 13 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 2. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 2.1. METHODOLOGY OF THE ROADS SELECTED FOR INSPECTIONS. Based on the initial information received from the ministry and Ukravtodor, the following methodology was developed in order to define the roads, locations and sections to be inspected by the Consultant expert team. 1. Information was supplied by the Ministry, which contained details of the extent and locations of the road maintenance repairs from March until June. 2. These initial documents, issued by the Ministry to the experts, included: a. Road Defect act sheets; b. Reports on the performed works for the last three months; c. Repair works schedule; d. Road map of Kiev region; e. Materials certificates and passports, used by Contractor to perform repair works; f. List of Contractors, which performed the works. 3. The following types of the road were considered: a. Class 1: M – International road (5% of all roads of Ukraine); b. Class 2: H - national road (3% of all roads of Ukraine); c. Class 3: T – territorial roads (18% of all roads of Ukraine). 4. Scope of works, performed by Contractors on the defined sections of the road a. The scope of the repair works and the amount of repair works were considered. 5. Road direction: North, West, South, East and distance from Kiev. 6. Type and methods of repair: asphalt patch, cracks repair, spray injection method, resurfacing. After analysis of the received information, it was decided that the inspection sites should include: - Four directions: East, South, West, North. This criteria will allow the inclusion of different types of topography and traffic conditions at different quarters of the region; - Three types of roads: International, National and Regional (Territorial). This criteria will allow the inspection of the road maintenance quality of different road construction thicknesses and traffic levels; - Sections of roads where a larger scope of works was performed during last three month. This criteria allows the inspection of larger sections during limited time of the Project; - The different types of repair works. It is important to evaluate methods, approach and quality of all types of repair – to see the difference between them and to find out what type of repair are efficient, and what may be improved. As a result of the above criteria, the following list of roads was draw up: - M-01 – International road in North direction, 1st category, amount of repair works 5460m2; - N-07 (H-07) - national road in North - East direction, 2nd category, amount of repair works 2360m2;
  • 19. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 14 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine - M-03 – international road in East direction, 1st category, amount of repair works 756m2; - T-10-18 – local road in East direction, 3rd category, amount of repair works 467m2; - N-08 (H-08) – national road in East- South direction, 2nd category, amount of repair works 3639m2; - N-01 (H-01) – national road in South - East direction, 2nd category, amount of repair works 7125,2m2; - M-05 – international road in South direction, 1st category, amount of repair works 10350,4m2; - M-07 – international road in West direction, 2nd category, amount of repair works 703m2. 2.2. METHODOLOGY OF ASSESSMENT AND INSPECTION The received documentary information was analysed and the following methodology was implemented by the Consultant team: - Assessment of standards and rules for repair works. Consultants analysed existing Ukrainian standards for repair works. The document, described type and methods of repair works is P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and maintenance works. Based on this document a comparison of the actual road condition in relation to the road condition required by the standards and a comparison of methods used for repair works and methods described in standard have been performed. - An assessment of the road maintenance repair in relation to international standards. Specifically the UK standards the Design manual for Roads and Bridges document HD 31/94. - Assessment of received documentation to confirm that: o The scope of works and methods for road repair were defined in an appropriate way; o The materials used for works correspond to national standards (based on material certificates); o The previously performed laboratory tests correspond to national standards. During the site inspection of completed maintenance works, the following inspection methodology was implemented by the Consultant team: - Visual inspection of recently repaired sections. For this purpose special form of Site visit check list was developed (see Appendix 3), in which the following information was recorded: o Date, time, location, class of the road; o Condition of the road – description of general conditions of the road/ section, how it visually looks, quality of the road, repairs (recently performed and from previous periods), potholes on the section. All details of visual inspection written and photos prepared; o Possible cause of road failure – visually to evaluate possible cause of road problems: cracks, potholes, rutting, etc. Based on expert assumptions and table 2.4 of VBN V.2.3-218-186:2004 Roads
  • 20. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 15 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Bituminous pavement cause of road failure specified. Further laboratory tests would be required to have clear understanding of the failure; o Type of repair, methodology and materials used; o Appropriateness of repair – recently performed works as well as repairs, performed in previous years; o Visual assessment of methodology to check compliance with local and international standards; o Description of repair quality, both the recent repairs and the repairs from previous years; o Notes and necessity to perform core samples for laboratory tests; - Photo report of the inspected sections. 2.3. CHANGES IN STUDY METHODOLOGY AND PROJECT SCOPE. During the course of the initial phases of the study and after meetings with the Ministry and Ukravtodor and following receipt of the requested information, the Consultant team decided that it will be necessary to adjust the methodology of the study. For site visits, the following changes were implemented: - Cross check of defect lists against visual inspection of road. The Consultant discovered that the defect list is exactly the same as the act of performed works record. There was no proper description of the state of the road to be repaired or a definition of the scope of works before execution. Thus, it was not possible to check how the scope of repair works is defined in defect acts; - Area of repair section it was not possible to quantify the amount of repairs, as acts of performed works records were organized without details on the location of the individual repairs and lacked sufficient detail. Also the sections of road repair are so long that it would not be feasible to undertake a re-measure of the areas of patch repairs; - Difference between report on performed works and site inspection – reports on performed works do not have sufficient details on the precise location of individual repairs, thus no possibility to track differences. 2.4. LIST OF UKRAINIAN STANDARDS AND RULES FOR REPAIR WORKS The following standards are in use for repair and maintenance works and were considering during assessment of works methodology, materials used and type or repair: 1. DBN B.2.3.-4-2007 Transport facilities. Roads and Motorways. Part 1. Design. Part 2. Construction. This standard describes the methodology and design parameters for the public roads and motorways construction, capital reconstruction and repair works. 2. DSTU 3587-97 Road traffic safety. Automobile roads, streets and railway crossings. The requirements to operation condition. This standard sets the requirements to road operating condition. Consultant’s assessment of roads condition and comparability to national standards was undertaken with reference this document.
  • 21. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 16 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 3. DSTU B V.2.7-127:2006 Building materials. Stone mastic road concrete mix and stone mastic asphalt. Specifications. Using this standard, the Consultants checked the materials certificates, passports and tickets on the correspondence to national standards. 4. DSTU B V.2.7-119:2003 Building materials. Asphaltic concrete mixtures, road and aerodromes asphaltic concrete. Specification. Using this standard, the Consultants checked materials certificate, passports and tickets on the correspondence to national standards. 5. SOU 42.1-37641918-105:2013 Classification of Works for Service of Public Roads and Repairing of Public Roads. This standard contains a list of activities and types of emergency works applied on the roads. 6. GBN G-1.218-182:2011 Repairing of Public Roads, Types of Repairing and List of Works. In this standard is a description of repair works types: capital, ongoing small, ongoing medium and list of works for each type of repair. 7. VBN G.1-218-050-2001 Repair interval for road coatings and surface for the roads of public use. Standard describes intervals for repair and maintenance works after capital and medium repair works. 8. VBN V.2.3-218-532:2007 Thin surfacing on the roads of nationwide scale In this standard usage of thin surfacing application and methods described type of materials and thickness allowed. 9. VBN V.2.3-218-186:2004 Roads Bituminous pavement. Standard describe requirements to the design and condition evaluation of road surface. 10. P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and maintenance works. Technical rules. In this standard requirements to the road condition for comfortable, safe, continuous movement. Rules set requirements for road surface condition, type and methods of repair works and maintenance of the road. 2.5. ASSESSMENT OF DOCUMENTS RECEIVED. Defect acts. The Consultant was provided with the defect acts by Ukravtodor for the sections of road to be inspected. The defect acts received by the Consultant team, were simply copies of the acts of performed works records but the costs removed. The Consultant team was also informed by Ukravtodor that for the repair works, the scope and a description of works and defect acts are provided upon completion of the works at the section by the contractor. Such an approach didn’t allow the Consultant team to provide an comparison or cross check of the amount of repairs undertaken at the section in relation to the defect acts and reports on performed works.
  • 22. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 17 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine The Consultant team had expected to be provided with a report on the condition of the road section selected for repair, which contained a description of the road failure and a specification of the types of repair to be implemented at specific locations along the road along with approximate measurements of the repair work required. Reports on performed acts. The Consultant was provided with the reports on the performed acts by Ukravtodor for the sections of road to be inspected. The reports were executed in KB-2 form according to the requirements for State owned companies. A report on the performed acts consists of information on the road name, section, Contractor assigned to, type and scope of repair works undertaken, materials used, unit rates and cost of works. The reports are compiled on a monthly basis and contain information on the works undertaken in the month on the specific road. Each report is prepared for the whole section of the road, which is in the responsibility of the contractor and there were locations of the repaired sections/ potholes defined. Few sites contained drawings and list of patch repairs, where location and amount of performed works described. Due to the extremely long sections of road repaired and the lack of properly defined repair locations, it was not possible to provide cross check of amounts and type of work undertaken against the Reports on performed works for the corresponding section of the road. This problem was further compounded by the fact that the same lengths of roads had been repaired on separate occasions on different months and it was there for impossible to distinguish between a repair undertaken in May from a repair undertaken in March and compare the repair to the appropriate report on the act of performed works. The Consultant undertook a cross check of the methods of repair works as described on the act of performed works reports. The methods are clearly described and are in full compliance with Ukraine standards (P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and maintenance works) Materials certificates and tickets (passports) Each act of performance report contains Materials certificates and tickets of the mixtures, bitumen, and gravel used by the contractor during maintenance work execution. The Consultant team under took a cross check of the materials used as described on the material passports against the Ukraine standards. The recommendation on the type of materials to use for the repair works can be found in P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and maintenance works and DSTU B V.2.7-127:2006 Construction materials. Asphalt cement and asphalt concrete mixtures. Technical requirements. Based on the analysis of received documentation – material certificates, tickets – all materials, used for repair works correspond to national standards. The Consultant noted that there are often several different types of material used on each section of road but the reports do not specify which material was used in which location and for what type of repair.
  • 23. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 18 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Laboratory analysis On the M03 a capital repair resurfacing work had been undertaken and as part of these works core samples had been taken by Ukravtodor and laboratory analysis executed. The Consultant team were provided with copies of the laboratory test results and the Consultants undertook a check against compliance with standards requirements (DSTU B V.2.7-127:2006 Construction materials. Asphalt cement and asphalt concrete mixtures. Technical requirements) – no deviations were found, all characteristics of laboratory test fully comply with the existing standards in Ukraine. 2.6. ASSESSMENTS OF THE SELECTION PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY OF REPAIR METHODS Methodology of repair works described in Ukraine Standards (5, 6, 7, 10). Standards describe: - types of repair works: capital repair, ongoing medium and small, emergency repair works; - intervals for repair works; - list and type of methods for repair works; - maintenance activities; - criteria to evaluate road condition; Standards do not have: - identification of possible maintenance schemes; - decision making guidance during evaluation of road condition to define type of repair; - selection procedure of most suitable repair method to be applied; - repair design requirements; - requirements to consider economic implications of selection of maintenance procedure. Actual process of repair works include: - procurement of a service contract with contractor for a period of one year. In contract sections and roads to be maintained and budget defined; - contractor is instructed to provide repair works in the defined sections; - road supervisor provide assessment on the scope of works in cooperation with contractor; - depending on financing available, section supervisor and contractor define most urgent area for repair and type of repair works; - supervisor not always present at the ongoing works; - scope of works inspected by supervisor considering information of materials used for repair works.
  • 24. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 19 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 3. FINDINGS AND RESULTS 3.1. QUALITY INSPECTION RESULTS SUMMARY During the quality inspection of the completed road maintenance repairs for each road section, a “Site visit check list” was completed. An example site visit check list is contained in Appendix 3 Set out below is a summary of the findings from each section and road inspection, type of repair used, quality, appropriateness and effectiveness of repair works, road failure and the possible cause of the road failures. A Map of the inspected locations is included as Fig. 2. Day 1. 2015/06/24 Road M-01. International road, class 1. Section KM 18+730-20 North Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many small shallow holes. Road is not rutting and is relatively even which suggests that the road foundation is stable. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course. Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection and asphalt patch using asphalt or asphalt emulsion Repair quality. Repairs have been carried out on top of previous pothole repairs. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. The spray injection repairs are already being worn away. No evidence of stone or gravel being applied with spray injection. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches and spray repairs have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Areas of densely packed patch and spray repairs. Consideration should be given to a resurfacing or reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Section KM 25-27-31 North Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many small shallow holes. Road is not rutting and is relatively even which suggests that the road foundation is stable. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course.
  • 25. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 20 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection and asphalt patch. From visual inspection only, Asphalt or Asphalt emulsion. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges. Spray injection repairs do not have cut edges. Repair quality. Repairs have been carried out on top of previous pothole repairs. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. The spray injection repairs from previous years are already being worn away. No evidence of stone or gravel being applied with spray injection. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches and spray repairs have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Areas of densely packed patch and spray repairs. Consideration should be given to a resurfacing or reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Section KM 29 South Road condition. Road is badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow holes. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Road section is completely covered in patch repairs. The sections of road which are not patched are badly cracked. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only, Asphalt and Bitumen emulsion. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges. Spray injection repairs have no cut edges. Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Many patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. Some patches from previous years have failed. Spray injection repairs from previous years have started to fail. The repairs do not cover all of the cracks and holes. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Road section is completely covered in patch repairs. Patch repairs are on top of patch repairs from previous years. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Summary for the road M-01. Road surface is worn out. In some areas - weak foundation layers should be considered to be repaired. In general the whole section sections of the surface course and most likely also the base course and possibly the road foundation need to be replaced. The amount of work needed to properly repair the road can only be determined by a series of road investigation tests. Day 1. 2015/06/24 Road H-07. National road, class 2. Section KM 32+300 East
  • 26. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 21 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many small shallow holes. Evidence of standing water. Road is undulating which suggests problems with road foundation layers. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is undulating which suggests problems with road foundation layers. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only, asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges. Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. One patch repair from three years previous has failed. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Areas of densely packed patch repairs. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Section KM35+000 Road condition. Road is very badly cracked, surface course is fretting and has many small shallow holes. Evidence of standing water. Road is undulating which suggests problems with road foundation layers Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is undulating which suggests problems with road foundation layers. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only, asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges. Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Areas of densely packed patch repairs. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Section KM 43, West Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow holes. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Approx. 40% of the road surface in this section has been patched over the last few months. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only, Asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt patches have straight cut edges.
  • 27. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 22 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Repair quality. Patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. Older patch repairs from previous years are still in good condition. This suggests a good quality patch repair. Some patches are over 10m2. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Approx. 40% of the road surface in this section has been patched over the last few months. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Summary for the road H-07. Road surface is worn out. Foundation of the road is weak. The whole section requires capital repair. Day 2. 2015/06/25 Road M-03. International road. Class 1 Section 19+800 – 20 East, built in 2004 Road condition. Road is in a good condition, no systematic cracks, no potholes, no rutting. Existing cracks are filled with bitumen. In some areas two-three year old asphalt patch repair is performing well and in a good condition – no cracks or fretting. Cause of road failure. Failure on this section could be caused by heavy truck on first two lanes, as on the 3rd and 4th lanes there are almost no cracks. Depth of cracks is unclear Type of repair, materials and method used. Cracks filling with bitumen. Spray Injection, Asphalt patch, Asphalt (for 2012-2013 repair), Bitumen spray. Old asphalt patches have straight cut edges, no cracks appeared. Cracks filled with bitumen in a proper way and no gaps. Repair quality. Cracks repair is even and looks tight. Spray injection repairs are failing on the surfaces and already squeezed out. This may be due to the repair being too deep for this method. Appropriateness of repair. Asphalt patch and cracks repair is appropriate for road condition. Spray injection method better to be replaced on asphalt patch. No evidence of stone or gravel being applied with spray injection. Section 41+300 – 45, East Road condition. Road was repaired with surface dressing in 2001 in this section (micro surfacing with 20 mm thickness). In general uneven. At the connection point with Northbound P03 large area (3026,36 m2 according to acts of performed works) have been repaired in April, 2015. Sections of the resurfaced carriageway are already rutting, suggesting a problem with the base course layers. At the tight radius turnaround areas structure of new (2015) repaired patches is already cracking and rutting. Cause of road failure. Base course layer has not been replaced in the last capital repair and may be damaged, possibly by heavy truck traffic. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt inlay 6cm thick. Asphalt. Cutting old material and edges. Asphalt inlay machine laid. Repair quality. Asphalt patch looks performed in a proper way – cut edges and primed Appropriateness of repair. New inlay has signs of rutting, a deeper repair and also repair of road foundation may have also been required. At the turn around area, new asphalt has cracks due to heavy tracks and lateral forces of turning trucks. Stronger material could have been applied in this area.
  • 28. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 23 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Summary for the road M-03. Section 18-35 is in a good condition. Cost benefit analysis for preventive maintenance recommended for this section – using of surfacing will allow increase life cycle of the section. For the section 41+300-45+000 is recommended capital repair works as heavy traffic transit damages newly rolled asphalt. Use of stronger material recommended in the section, where turnabout is located. Day 2. 2015/06/25 Road T-10-18. Local road, class 3. Section 55+000 – 70, East Road condition. Road is cracked along both sides and across the road. Cracks are unevenly distributed on the sections - some areas with high density, some areas has no cracks. Cracks lead to potholes. Asphalt patch in a small areas along cracked straps. In newly repaired areas cracked asphalt create new potholes. Road is rutting along cracked areas. Cause of road failure. Old road – surface is worn out. Failure could be causing by rutting and cracks to be appear. Cracks leads to water ingress and following destroy of surface course. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch, performed in local small patches. Asphalt. Cutting old material and edges. Throw and roll asphalt. Repair quality. Asphalt patch looks performed in a proper way – cut edges and primed, in some areas edges are uneven and new asphalt overlap old in unappropriated way. Appropriateness of repair. In general whole section require capital repair due to amount of cracks. Cracks near new patches asphalt allows water to go under, there is a risk of damage of patches in a season, and new potholes to be appear. Optionally – all cracks to be repaired. Not all of the heavily cracked and damaged sections of road have been repaired by the patches. Summary for the road T-10-18. Section 55+000-70 requires capital repair work including foundation repair. Day 3. 2015.06.26 Road H-01. National road. Class 2. Section South KM 34+800 – 45 Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is fretting. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Old and new patches cover the road. Road in the past have been treated with slurry mixture. In some areas big spaces (over 20m2) recently been repaired. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Road is even which suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. Asphalt. Repair quality. In general patches are level and even and appear to be in good condition. In some patches new layer is lower than old one - this suggest that besecourse (or roadbase) to be weak. Old patches looks in a good condition – no cracks. This suggests a good quality patch repair. Some patches are over 5m2.
  • 29. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 24 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. Consideration should be given to reconstruction of asphalt layers in this section and revision of basecourse and roadbase. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy Section South KM 53+000 – 61+300 Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is worn out and fretting. On the downhills and uphill undulation appeared. Rolls of asphalt along the right sides of the road. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. It looks like during hot period heavy trucks roll out asphalt, creating rutting and roll asphalt out. Also, roadbase is weak to carry the upper layers with loadings. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. Cold Asphalt. Asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges Repair quality. In this section cold asphalt have been poured during the cold season. Material is looks solid after several month on the road. Also, old patches carry the heavy loads and in a good condition Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all rutting along the road. Section requires capital repair of the roadbase and asphalt. Section South KM 81+000 – 82+300 Road condition. Road is badly cracked, surface course is worn out and fretting. Cracks created along wheelspan. Section has new patch repair. Also patches of 2, 3, 4 years old on the section. Rutting and cracks are appear at the new patched areas. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. As road is even the cause of failure could be very old asphalt. New rutting gives an idea that roadbase to be inspected. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection only – asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges. Repair quality. Patches has straight edges and signs of bituminous at the edges. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Cracks not repaired, that will lead to new potholes after water ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months. Patch repair will not solve the problems of the section and resurfacing or capital repair is advised. Section North KM 64+000 – 66+000 Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is worn out and fretting. Big areas (over 20%) are patched on the section. Potholes appear at the wheelspan and rutting. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Road is uneven. New rutting gives an idea that roadbase to be inspected. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection, asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges. Repair quality. Patches has straight edges and signs of bituminous at the edges. Patches are level and even. In general, patch repair has good quality. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Roadbase to be proper inspected and capitally repaired if necessary. Cracks repair in such amount and condition is considered as not cost effective method. It is reasonable to resurface asphalt or reconstruct the road.
  • 30. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 25 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Summary for the road H-01. All inspected sections of the road requires capital repair works including foundation repair. Day 4. 2015/06/29 M-05. International road. Class 1 Section South KM 101+650 – 102+000 Road condition. Road is cracked, uneven, surface course is worn out, fretting, rutting. Potholes appear at the wheel tracks and rutting where more cracks to be appear. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Cracks allows water ingress and by causing freeze thaw action destroy surface course. New rutting gives an idea that road base needs to be inspected. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection, asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges. Repair quality. Patch has straight edges. Patch is level and even. In general, patch repair has good quality. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. At the surface of repaired patch new wheels tracks to appear. It looks like repair of wearing course is not effective at this section. Section South KM 107+500 – 108+000 Road condition. Road is cracked, uneven, rutting. Areas covered in previous patch repair with new patches around. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out, old. Cracks allows water ingress and by causing freeze thaw action destroy surface course. Also, as cause could be heavy traffic. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection, asphalt. Throw and roll asphalt, cutting edges. Repair quality. Patch has straight edges. Patch is level and even. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. At the surface of repaired patch new wheel tracks to appear. Section North KM 90+500 – 92+000 Road condition. Road is cracked. Areas covered in patch repair of previous years. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out, old. Cracks allows water ingress and by causing freeze thaw action destroy surface course. Heavy traffic could be as a cause. Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. Bitumen and stones. Spray injection of bitumen and stone. Repair quality. Bitumen with gravel have been injected at the cracks (small potholes (diam. less than 50cm)). Not all area of cracks repaired. Appropriateness of repair. Repair works will not influence at the whole situation at the road with many cracks around. In a period of 2-3 month after works completion, repaired surface is worn out. Summary for the road M-05. Road requires capital repair, some section need road foundation repair. Day 5. 2015/06/30
  • 31. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 26 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Road H-08. National road, class 2. Section South East KM 1+900 – 2+000 Road condition. Road in cracks. Section supervisor did not accept Works as wrong materials used. Cause of road failure. Road surface and is worn out. It looks like cause of the problem is road base. Type of repair, materials and method used. Cracks repair. Bitumen. Filling cracks with liquid bitumen. Repair quality. Material, used for repair has low quality. Appropriateness of repair. Method, used for repair works is an unappropriated. Material is leaking from cracks at the hot temperature. Section South East KM 8+000 – 9+000 Road condition. Road is cracked, even. Cross cracks have symmetric location – looks like concrete slabs underneath. One lineal crack goes directly at the middle of the road. Spray injection works completed in previous years does not look good. Cause of road failure. Road surface is old. Could be the cause of weak roadbase. Type of repair, materials and method used. Crack filling with mastic and small size (3- 5mm) gravel on top. Mastic and stones. Blow of hot air in the crack for cleaning and drying. Cracks filled with mastic and covered with gravel of 3-5mm size. Crackmaster material used. Spray injection method of previous years. Repair quality. In a three month period since works completed quality of repair works is good. Appropriateness of repair. Method, used for crack repair is appropriate. Section South East KM 32+900 – 33+000 Road condition. Patch repair completed in March, 2015.Spray injection method used in previous 1-2 years is crippled. Many cracks on the road and small size potholes and pitting. Rutting. Cause of road failure. Road surface and is worn out. It looks like roadbase need repaired. Type of repair, materials and method used. Patch repair. From visual inspection – Asphalt. Cutting and cleaning of potholes. Cutting edges. Lay and roll asphalt. Repair quality. Repaired areas has straight edges and well compacted. Appropriateness of repair. Patch repair, performed this year is sinking. This repair works will not solve the problem with layers underneath. Rutting is suggest that problem in the roadbase. Cracks around repaired areas will let water ingress and continue to destroy wearing course. Summary for the road H-08. Some sections of the road requires surface treatment and some capital repair including foundation repair. Day 6. 2015/07/01 Road M-07. International road, class 2. Section West KM 24+000 – 25+000 Road condition. Road surface is even. Net of cracks and small size potholes. Some of the cracks repaired with mastic and some areas repaired with spray injection method.
  • 32. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 27 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Cause of road failure. Structural cracking possibly caused by road design traffic being exceeded or possibly thermal cracking. Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. Cracks repair. From visual inspection – Mastic and gravel for cracks and bitumen emulsion with gravel for spray injection method. Cutting (width and depth - 12-15mm) and cleaning of cracks with filling of mastic (200C) and pouring of small size gravel. Spray injection. Repair quality. Repaired cracks in a month after repair looks good and no damages appear. Appropriateness of repair. Cracks repair is appropriate. Section West KM 66+300 Road condition. Road surface is even. Net of cracks and small size potholes. Patch repair performed with spray injection method. On the surface of repair small size gravel poured. Works completed in May, 2015. Cause of road failure. Probably road base is weak or failure in the wearing course. Structural cracking possibly caused by road design traffic being exceeded or possibly thermal cracking. Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. From visual inspection – bitumen emulsion and gravel. Spray injection of bitumen emulsion and gravel. Repair quality. In this location, sprayed emulsion covered with gravel, which will protect emulsion in the future. Appropriateness of repair. Local repair does not cover all cracks around and water will continue to ingress and destroy wearing course with freeze thaw action. The remaining cracks should be sealed or the wearing course replaced. Section West KM 74+900 Road condition. Road is even and no rutting. Road has small cracks, small size shallow potholes, Patch repair works completed in May, 2015. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Type of repair, materials and method used. Patch repair. From visual inspection – asphalt. Cutting asphalt, edges. Lay and roll asphalt. Repair quality. In a month since works completed patches looks good- no cracks or holes. Appropriateness of repair. Local repair does not cover all cracks around and water will continue to ingress and destroy wearing course with freeze thaw action Around recently repaired patches new potholes appear as old asphalt is continue to destroy. The remaining cracks should be sealed or the wearing course replaced. Summary for the road M-07. Some sections at the road requires re-surfacing, some sections to be repaired including foundation of the road. Day 7. 2015/07/21 Road H-07. National road, class 2. Section Westbound KM 50 Road condition. Road is cracked, surface course is fretting and has some shallow holes. Road is even and not undulating or rutting. Road surface in this section has been patched over the last few years.
  • 33. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 28 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Fatigue cracking may indicate structural failure of base course. Type of repair, materials and method used. Asphalt patch. From visual inspection – asphalt. Cutting potholes, cutting edges and debris removal. Cleaning with compressed air. Grounding with bitumen. Throw and roll asphalt. Repair quality. Asphalt mixture has temperature lower, that in material ticket. Equipment used for repair works is old and has low quality for cutting and rolling. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Patches have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy. Day 8. 2015/07/23 Road T1027. National road, class 1. Section Westbound KM 50 Road condition. Rutting on the road. Road is cracked. Road surface in this section has been patched over the last few years and has been repaired on the surface of 70-80%. Cause of road failure. Road surface is worn out. Failure could be caused by very old asphalt surface becoming brittle. Water ingress from standing water through cracks could be causing freeze thaw action to destroy surface course. Road is even which suggests that the road foundation is satisfactory. Type of repair, materials and method used. Spray injection. From visual inspection only, gravel 5-8mm, bitumen emulsion. Cleaning of the cracks with compressed air, Blowing emulsion, blowing mixture of gravel and emulsion, blowing of gravel on top to protect. Appropriateness of repair. The road surface is worn out. Spray injections have not covered all of the cracks and small holes. Water will still ingress and freeze thaw action in the winter months will further damage this aged and brittle road pavement. This is not considered to be a cost effective maintenance strategy.
  • 34. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 29 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Location data list 2015/06/24 M-01 - 1 2015/06/24 M-01 - 2 2015/06/24 M-01 - 3 2015/06/24 H-07 - 1 2015/06/24 H-07 - 2 2015/06/24 H-07 - 3 2015/06/24 M-01 - 4 2015/06/25 M-03 - 1 2015/06/25 M-03 - 2 2015/06/25 T-10-18 - 1 2015/06/26 H-01 - 1 2015/06/26 H-01 - 2 2015/06/26 H-01 - 3 2015/06/26 H-01 - 4 2015/06/29 M-05 - 1 2015/06/29 M-05 - 2 2015/06/29 M-05 - 3 2015/06/30 H-08 - 1 2015/06/30 H-08 - 2 2015/06/30 H-08 - 3 2015/07/01 M-07 - 1 2015/07/01 M-07 - 2 2015/07/01 M-07 - 3 Figure 2: Locations of inspected section
  • 35. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 30 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine 3.2. ASSESSMENTS OF THE COMPLETED REPAIRS Set out below are the Consultant’s general comments on the quality of the types of highway maintenance which were in evidence at the site of the site visits. The Following types of repair works were inspected. 1. Patch repair. From the Consultants inspections and assessment of the act of performed works records, it would appear that the methods used on the inspected sections are in compliance with the requirements of national and international standards, in particular with P-G.1-218-113:2009 Public roads repair and maintenance works (section 4.7). All potholes cut with straight edges and signs of bitumen (as primer) are presented, Due to that fact, that works completed it is hard to prove whether surface was cleaned, dried and primed with bitumen properly. Considering that patch repair from previous years in good condition, which gives an idea of good quality of hidden works during patch repair. At some sections, the patch repair implemented was smaller than it should be according to standards. As shown at the Figure 1 patched area will not solve the problem and cracks around repaired area will allow water to ingress and continue to destroy wearing course. According to Standard (10 section 4.7.7.) repaired area should be wider that area of cracks. Although the Consultant only undertook a visual inspection, the Ukravtodor representative clarified that the patch repairs are usually only a maximum 5cm deep irrespective of the type and cause of the road failure. In many instances the design life of a shallow repair will be limited as the road failure may be due to problems with the road foundation or base course. A 5cm deep repair will not resolve these problems and will therefore be only a short term solution. The Consultants were informed that due to limited financing, such works are not undertaken strict accordance with the standards. Figure 3: Patch repair
  • 36. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 31 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine The Consultant observed on going patch repair works and noted that the methodology used by the contractor was in line with both Ukraine and International standards. During visit of ongoing patch repair works it was noted that: - Area of repair is not cover all problem areas at the section - cracks and small size pothole still will be around repaired area. This will lead to further destruction of road surface with “thaw-freeze” process and necessity to make new patch repair at the same section next season; - Equipment used – cut machine does not provide required quality of cutting – this leads to increase in additional workforce and lower quality of adhesion; - Asphalt mixture – truck, delivered mixture was not covered, that led to decrease of mixture temperature; - Grounding – has to be improved, as at the moment worker pour the liquid bitumen with law efficiency; - Roller – 1,5t roller is very old and have very low compaction efficiency. Please see the quality inspection reports summary section of this report, for a more detailed report of ongoing works site visit. A complete set of photographs showing the methodology are contained in Appendix 5 of this report. 2. Spray injection. The Consultant noted that this is a widely used method due to its speed of application and lower cost. Liquid bitumen emulsion with small size gravel (2- 5mm) injected into the destroyed areas, in shallow potholes only and where area is less than 0.5 m2 . This method requires cleaning and drying of the patch surface, but no cutting of the edges. In most of the repaired areas – only bitumen is visible. The standards state that after pothole filling with bitumen and protection layer of gravel has to be applied on top. The Consultant noted that in the majority of roads there was no gravel or stone in the bitumen and only 1 road had been repaired with a spray injection mixture containing gravel or stone. Injected mixture of bitumen emulsion should be carefully designed to achieve the correct density. The Consultant noted that in many places the spray injection repair was beginning to fail after 1 or 2 years. Also that the spray injection repair was being over used in inappropriate applications such as crack sealing or filling deep or large pot holes. The Consultants inspected one site with ongoing spray injection works. The observed method includes the following procedures: - Cleaning with compressed air. While visually inspected cracks and small size potholes, where cleaning works performed with compressed air in cracks with above 20mm width still has signs of dust and debris inside; - Injection of bitumen emulsion. Injection of bitumen emulsion allows to penetrate deeply and provide efficient cohesion with asphalt; - Injection of gravel and emulsion mixture. This process fill cracks and potholes with mixture that will carry the traffic; - Injection of gravel protection layer. Very importance process in this method, that protects newly repaired area from emulsion removal. Also, as no any compaction process applied, gravel has to be on top considering following compaction with traffic passing by. In the inspected section it was plan to repair cracks with width over 20mm as gravel size used for repair was 5-8mm.
  • 37. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 32 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Important note! In many visited areas, the Consultant noted, that only bitumen emulsion is visible and lack of gravel leads to a reduction of the life of the repaired area. This has to be taking into consideration by Ukravtodor and the quality of this type of works should be improved. Figure 4: Lack of gravel, used for spray injection method Please, see Appendix 3 for detailed report of ongoing works site visit Figure 5: Spray injection method 3. Crack repair. This type of repair use different methods: with cutting of the crack or without cutting. Also, method use different type of materials: mastic, bitumen emulsion, poured with stone screening dust. Usually at the areas, where cracks have width and length less than 15mm cutting performed and special heated bitumen poured in the crack and stone screening dust on the top applied. The Consultant team noted that the crack sealing had in some areas been undertaken using in appropriate materials. This repair work had been failed by Ukravtodor as being substandard in quality.
  • 38. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 33 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Figure 6: Cracks repair with crack master material and covered with stone screening dust 3.3. СORE SAMPLES With the support of Ukravtodor and Road Maintenance Service Department in Kyiv region, it became possible to take core samples of the recently competed repairs. During site inspection the core samples were visually evaluated: - Thickness of patch repair; - Quality of adhesion with old layer; - Visual evaluation on the quality of mixture. Further laboratory tests will provide information on: - Correspondence of material used to national standards; - Correspondence of material used to the material tickets (certificates); - Correspondence of material used to international standards. During site inspection three characteristic sections were defined, where core sampling has to be performed. Following sections of the roads were included: - Road H-07, section 43km; - Road M-05, section 101km; - Road H-08, section 32km. In general, following number of core samples were taken: - H-07: 5 drilled core samples; - M-05: 10 drilled core samples; - H-08: 4 drilled core samples.
  • 39. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 34 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Visual inspection showed that thickness of the patch repair layers is following: - H-07: 5-5.5cm - M-05: 5cm - H-08: 6-7cm Figure 7: Thickness of the patch repair layers From a visual assessment of the core samples, it can be seen that asphalt mixtures used for repair works at H-07 and H-08 have small size gravel with particles less than 15mm that correspond to the standard requirements (4, art. 4.3.3) to have thickness of the compacted layer not less than a ratio of 2.5 times the diameters of the largest gravel size. While the asphalt mixture, used at M-05 has particles with diameter around 25mm, that does not correspond to either the Ukraine or international standards.
  • 40. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 35 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine The results of the laboratory tests confirmed that all of the core samples are compliant with Ukraine standards in terms of compressive strength, compaction, density, bitumen content and water saturation. The core samples laboratory tests confirmed the Consultant's visual assessment of materials used for patch repair. For the inspected sections on the roads H-08 and H-07 all characteristics correspond to national standards requirements and that the use of the materials was appropriate. For the inspected section at M-05, the maximum size of the gravel grains was 40mm in the asphalt mixture used for patch repair. This confirmed Consultant's visual assessment, that this material was inappropriate, as the layer thickness is 5cm thick and the maximum gravel size should therefore be 20mm. 3.4. QUANTITY CROSS CHECK OF PERFORMED WORKS Due to low level of details in the reports on the performed works it was decided to check two sections with the area of repair and amount of asphalt mixture to provide high level cross check on the amount of material used and repaired area. The figures you can see in the table below. # position units March April May Total 1 Repaired surface on H-07 Kiev- Sumy-Unakivka 1.1 Potholes asphalt repair m2 33.4 708.33 1122 1863.7 1.2 Asphalt t 3.025 85 134.64 222.67 2 Repaired surface on M-07 Kyiv- Kovel-Yahotyn 2.1 Potholes asphalt repair m2 63 830 108.33 1001.3 2.2 Asphalt t 7.56 99.68 13 120.24 Table 2: Works performed Considering average thickness of the patch repair 5cm we can find volume of the asphalt: - H-07: 1863.7*0.05=93.187 m3 of compacted asphalt - M-07: 1001.3*0.05=50.067 m3 of compacted asphalt Compaction factor will be: - H-07: 222.67t / 93.187m3 = 2.39 t/m3 - M-07: 120.24t / 50.067m3 = 2.4 t/m3 The Consultant team considers that this is a reasonable compaction factor and that the volume of material used broadly corresponds to the area of patch repairs, which the contractor claims to have completed. 3.5. SUMMARY Through the course of the site investigations, the Consultant team noted that in general, all roads have very similar problems. Many sections of roads have structural cracks and rutting which indicate a failure at the foundation of the road and wearing course is fatigued and in a worn-out state. In Table 3 you can see description of the problems, its causes and type or repair to be applied.
  • 41. iC consulenten Road Maintenance Quality in Kiev Region: Final Report 04.08.2015 Revision: 1 Page 36 Assessment of Quality of Road Maintenance Works in Ukraine Type of deformation, Possible cause of failure Best practice repair solution Structural cracks Wearing course is worn out/ road foundation is weak (water ingress though cracks) Capital repair including base course or road foundation replacement Rutting Road foundation failure. Overloading of road (numbers of heavy trucks exceeding design strength ) Road base course or foundation repair Fretting or surface cracks Road surface is worn out Surface dressing repair Surface worn out Surface course life cycle is expired Resurfacing. Preventive maintenance to be implemented for longer life period of the roads Table 3: Typical road deformations and destructions, causes and solutions The road maintenance quality study has shown that the majority of the roads investigated have only received an emergency type of repair such as patch repair or spray injection repair or crack sealing. The Consultant is aware of the financial limitations of the highways maintenance budget and that this is a possible reason why preventative works and capital repairs such as resurfacing or reconstruction of the carriageway are only being implemented in a few isolated areas. It should be stated however that the 5cm deep shallow repairs do not address many of the problems causing the failure of the road such as road base course failure or road foundation failure. Additionally many of the cracks in the road surface, which should be sealed with a slurry seal or a resurfacing of the road remain open. The financial limitations on the road maintenance budget are noted but this should be a motivation to ensure that all road repairs are undertaken in the most economically and financially efficient manner. The inability of the current road maintenance repairs to effectively repair the damaged road is causing the road to continue to fail. Which in turn will increase the amount of repairs required and the severity of the failure each passing year. The diagram below shows how preventative maintenance and correct repair can ensure that the road has a longer life and requires less sever reconstruction works, which are more expensive.