Anais Nin: a French-Cuban author, based at first in France and later in the United States, who published her journals, which span more than 60 years, beginning when she was 11 years old and ending shortly before her death, her erotic literature, and short stories. A great deal of her work, including Delta of Venus and Little Birds, was published posthumously.
Organizational Behavior Case Study
Organizational BehaviorChapter 3: Perception and Learning inOrganization
Table of Content1. Case Summary2. Question3. Introduction4. Body I. Check the perception II. Awareness of Perception Biases III. Self-awareness IV. Interaction and Communication5. Conclusion6. References
Case SummarySalmah, an 3 years employee in ABS Corp. A careful,hardworking, disciplined, ideas contributor employee in thecompany. She expected good pay, feedback and nextpromotion from her top management. However, the one whoget promoted is Ahmad who is being a good friend to herboss. She believed Ahmad‟s promotion is not based on hisperformance and skill as Salmah believes that his skill andperformance is not as high as hers. Salmah makes aperception where her boss being discriminate her based onsexism by letting Ahmad get promoted. Salmah began tochange from positive to negative attitude as her perceptiontowards Ahmad and her boss becomes negative.
Question With reference to the case,Salmah may have made wrongperception towards her boss‟sdecision. Discuss the possible decision that Salmah could take in order to provide herwith more accurate perception.
Introduction “We don‟t see things as they are; we see things as we are.” Anais Nin Starting with a simple different process of perception. (Carley, C.)
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Definition of Perception.Perception can be defined as a process ofreceiving information about and making sense ofthe world around us. (McShane). It came from aLatin word, percepio, defined as an organizationor interpretation of the information received tounderstand the environment.(Schacter).
From the definition, it clearly stated thatperception is a process of making astatement or perception based on theinformation received. Most of the time,perception could be far away than perfectbecause it is processed throughinformation received which some of themis not a fact.
The information is received by the 5human senses from the environment andresult in perception and behavior towardsthe condition. The Model of PerceptualProcess shows clearly how theinformation received can result inperception, behavior and attitude towardsparticular condition and situation.
Model of the Perceptual Process Environmental StimuliFeeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting Selective attention and emotional marker response Perceptual organization and enterpretation Attitude and behavior.
The 5 elements plays an important role toresult in perception made by someone. In thiscase, Salmah:1. Feel that her boss do not want any woman to be top in the company.2. Hear that promotion she believed she deserve being given to someone else.3. See that Ahmad is always with her boss even during weekend.
So, with the elements, it has influencedSalmah to create a negative perceptiontoward her boss‟s decision in promotingAhmad instead of her. The perceptionthat created by Salmah may be wrongand to increase the accuracy of Salmah‟sperception, the method is:
I. Check the perceptionII. Awareness of Perception BiasesIII. Improving Self-awarenessIV. Interaction and Communication
Check the Perception Made.Checking the perception made is animportant method in increasing the accuracyof the perception made. (Carly,C.) It includesthe checking the information received thatled to the making od the perception. Analyzecan be defined as a study or determinesomething in detail and interpret it. (OxfordDictionary). As example, the information thatis received from the stimulus being checkedto avoid wrong result in perception, attitudeand behavior.
By checking the early information received, it couldincrease the accuracy of perception towards someoneor something. In Salmah‟s case, what she „believed‟ ismore than what she really „know‟. She believed thather skill and performance is higher than Ahmad‟s skilland performance. This situation could led to negativeperception towards her boss‟s decision as sheregarded herself is more valuable than Ahmad.Checking the information on Ahmad‟s skill andperformance could increase the accuracy of herperception towards her boss‟s decision.
Awareness perceptual biasesPerceptual biases occur when perceiver‟sbeliefs influenced their evaluation. Suchexample, if an employer has a beliefs thatman employee can perform well thanwoman employee, a perceptual biases hasoccur. By acknowledge this biases occur,the perceiver‟s need to minimize the errorsof perceiving. There are 6 types ofperceptual errors.
Attribution Error. Two types of attribution error:Fundamental • Occurs when the perceiver sees the person rather than the situation that result in that person‟s behavior • It occurs when the perceiver can not see clearly the external Attribution factor or causes that led to that person‟s behavior. • Example: A employer belief that Q is a hardworking employee, Errors suddenly, the employees performance decrease. • The tendency to credit our success to our internal factor andSelf-serving our failure to the external factors. • Example: An employer take credit for the successful in getting bias a tender for himself or blaming his employee in failure of getting the tender.
Self-fulfilling prophecies.A strong influence situation based on how weview and label things and consistent with theperceptions. Self-fulfilling prophecies has thestrong effect in influencing the perception fromthe reality. It affect stronger in the beginning ofrelationship, when people has the sameexpectation and with people who has low pastachievement. The are 4 steps in completing thiserror.
Make a prediction Act as if thePrediction is prediction is confirmed true. Because you act as if true, it becomes true.
Other Errors: Halo-effect Occurs when one trait of a person forms a general impression towards that person. Such example, an employer perception changed because for only one thing done by an employer. Primary effect Occurs when first impression based on the first information the perceiver‟s received about that person. Example, negative impression occur when an employer heard about an employee who always comes late to office.
Other Errors: Recency-effect Occurs when the latest information about a person overlooked our overall perception towards that person. Such example, an employer is pleased when he heard that his new employee is a successful worker in the past companies. False-consensus effect Occurs when the perceiver overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own. Such example, when an employee do not like his boss, he believe that large percentage of workers inside the organization has the same thought as his.
Based on the case, Salmah may has the wrong perceptionstoward her boss‟s decision in promoting Ahmad instead ofher. It can relate to the error of halo-effect in makingperception towards Ahmad. Ahmad‟s one trait that his skilland performance is regarded as lower than her makesSalmah think negatively about her boss letting Ahmad beingpromoted. The one trait that form a general conclusion thatled to negative perception of Salmah towards her boss‟sdecision. In increasing the accuracy of Salmah‟s perception,Salmah has to change the perception that influence by herbeliefs in resulting negative perception towards her boss‟sdecision and change the beliefs that Ahmad is not entitledfrom being promoted based on his skill.
Improve Self-AwarenessMore powerful to improve and increase accuracy ofperception is by self-awareness. It help people tobecome more aware in detecting the biases in heperception made. Most of the wrong perception isinfluenced by the mindset, own beliefs andenvironmental factors. In order to reduce the error,the perceiver must aware of the factor contributedto the wrong perception. Generally, getting knowourselves is the way to reduce the wrongperception and unknowingly increase the accuracyof the perception made towards others.
In 1955, Johari Window model developed by Joseph Luftand Harrington Ingham in the United states. (Luft, J. &Ingham, H.) It often used to understand the relationship withself and others and helps to improve the mutualunderstanding between co-workers. Has 4 segments or„window‟ which called as blind, open, hidden and unknown.Each segment shows how our personalities known by othersand ourselves. Its include the information about a personthat is known by that person or others or both or it iscompletely hidden by both the person and others. Thefollowing diagram shows how the Johari Window works inunderstanding self and others.
FEEDBACK Known to Self Unknown to Self KnownDISCLOSURE to Others Open Area Blind Area Ex: Hardworking Ex: Negative traits Hidden Area Unknown Area Unknown to Others Ex: Secret Ex: ??
Based on the case, Salmah regarded Ahmad‟s skill andperformance are lower than hers that make her thinksnegatively about her boss‟s decision. However, she donot really know her actual performance and skills thatregarded higher than Ahmad‟s. To increase the accuracythat led to creation of negative perception towards herboss‟s decision, Salmah should get to know herself bygetting feedback from friends or colleagues beforemaking a conclusion of something. By applying JohariWindow model could make Salmah better know aboutherself and others and avoid creating wrong perception.
Interaction and communicationThe last method to improve as well as increase theaccuracy of the perception made, interaction orcommunication between the perceiver and other is a must.Feedback is one of the example of communication andinteraction as it gives effect in someone‟s values andperformance as well as it can interact as a medium ofcommunication between people. By interacting andcommunicating, perception biases can be reduced and itcan increase the accuracy of the perception. However, itapplies the „contact hypothesis‟ where the effect is strongerwhen people has close relationship and frequent interactwith each other to work on and achieve the same goal.
How do you think about You’re doing just well, justmy performance? add a little improvements and you’ll be success. This is an example of feedback which could be a motivation or demotivation to an employee as well as knowing our traits.
Based on the case, Salmah did not interact or communicatewith Ahmad. She did communicate and interact with her bossbut she received a little feedback from her boss. Nointeraction or communication with Ahmad makes Salmahcreates a wrong perception on how Ahmad perform in theorganization. This led to perceptual biases where sheregarded that Ahmad‟s performance is lower than her.Furthermore, she perceived that Ahmad is being her boss‟sbest friend and that is the reason why Ahmad get thepromotion instead of her. Salmah should interact andcommunicate with Ahmad to know Ahmad better rather thanmaking a general assumption about Ahmad and her boss.This will result in accurate perception made towards Ahmad
ConclusionIn conclusion, in order to increase the accuracy of theperception that Salmah‟s made towards her boss‟sdecision, she should check the perception, aware of theperceptual biases, improving self-awareness andcommunicate and interact with others. Changing themisperception made towards her boss and Ahmad couldchange her attitude that has changed to the negative asshe start to come late for works, stop contributing ideasand take unwarranted sick leaves. She should avoid themisperception and maintain her role as the employeeand continuously contribute to the organization.
Reference Smith , A. E., Jussim, L., Eccles, J., VanNoy, M., Madon, S., & Palumbo, P. (1998). Self-fulfilling Prophecies, Perceptual Biases, Accuracy at the individual and Group Level. Experimental Social Psychology, 531-533. Perception. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perception Interaction. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interaction Chapter 3: Perception and Learning Organization. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from salisbury.edu: faculty.salisbury.edu/~whdecker/.../Chap003.ppt
McShane, & Glinow, V. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Emerging knowledge and practice for the real world (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Carley, C. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2012, from Southwestern Oklahoma State University: faculty.swosu.edu/.../PowerPoints.../Unit06_Perception_2_ 2_03.ppt Schacter, Daniel. (2011). Psychology. Worth Publishers Luft, J.; Ingham, H. (1950). "The Johari window, a graphic model of interpersonal awareness". Proceedings of the western training laboratory in group development (Los Angeles: UCLA).
Perception QuestionAre the letters straight or tilted?