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Ptolemy and the Geocentric Model

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Ptolemy and the Geocentric Model

  1. 1. Early Astronomy
  2. 2. Part: 1 of 2
  3. 3. Ptolemy’sUniverse
  4. 4. Many ancient cultures
  5. 5. Many ancient cultures have taken a keen interest…
  6. 6. …in the changing
  7. 7. …in the changing night sky.
  8. 8. Many artifacts have survived
  9. 9. Many artifacts have survived until the present time…
  10. 10. …which make that fact
  11. 11. …which make that fact more than abundantly clear.
  12. 12. Artifacts
  13. 13. Artifacts from Antiquity
  14. 14. The Quadrant
  15. 15. The Quadrant
  16. 16. The Quadrant
  17. 17. The QuadrantOne of the earliest tools
  18. 18. The QuadrantOne of the earliest tools for astronomical observation…
  19. 19. The Quadrant
  20. 20. The Quadrant …was an instrument
  21. 21. The Quadrant…was an instrument known as the quadrant.
  22. 22. The Quadrant
  23. 23. The QuadrantThe quadrant would divide the sky
  24. 24. The QuadrantThe quadrant would divide the sky into (4) segments of 6-hour arcs
  25. 25. The Quadrant
  26. 26. The QuadrantIt could then calculate a star’s latitude
  27. 27. The QuadrantIt could then calculate a star’s latitude above the Earth’s surface.
  28. 28. The Astrolabe
  29. 29. The Astrolabe
  30. 30. The Astrolabe
  31. 31. The AstrolabeThe ancient Persian Astrolabe
  32. 32. The AstrolabeThe ancient Persian Astrolabe was another useful tool in Astronomy.
  33. 33. The Astrolabe
  34. 34. The AstrolabeThe astrolabe was similar
  35. 35. The AstrolabeThe astrolabe was similar to an early version of a star-chart,...
  36. 36. The Astrolabe
  37. 37. The Astrolabe…and was useful in predicting the positions
  38. 38. The Astrolabe …and was useful in predicting thepositions of the Sun, Moon, planets,
  39. 39. Stonehenge
  40. 40. Stonehenge
  41. 41. Stonehenge
  42. 42. StonehengeOne of the best examples
  43. 43. StonehengeOne of the best examples of an early interest in
  44. 44. Stonehenge
  45. 45. Stonehenge…is found in the ancient stone monolith
  46. 46. Stonehenge…is found in the ancient stone monolith known as “Stone Henge”.
  47. 47. Stonehenge
  48. 48. StonehengeBuilt between 2,000-3,000 B.C.
  49. 49. StonehengeBuilt between 2,000-3,000 B.C. in southern England,
  50. 50. Stonehenge
  51. 51. Stonehenge…Stone Henge still stands today
  52. 52. Stonehenge…Stone Henge still stands today as a popular tourist attraction.
  53. 53. Stonehenge
  54. 54. Stonehenge
  55. 55. Stonehenge
  56. 56. Stonehenge
  57. 57. StonehengeThe positions of the great rocks
  58. 58. StonehengeThe positions of the great rocks of Stone Henge…
  59. 59. Stonehenge
  60. 60. Stonehenge…were used to mark the important events
  61. 61. Stonehenge…were used to mark the important events during the celestial calendar.
  62. 62. Stonehenge
  63. 63. StonehengeThe risings of the Moon and the Sun,
  64. 64. StonehengeThe risings of the Moon and the Sun, for example,…
  65. 65. Stonehenge
  66. 66. Stonehenge…can be seen in the photos above
  67. 67. Stonehenge…can be seen in the photos above during the
  68. 68. Artwork
  69. 69. Artwork
  70. 70. Artwork
  71. 71. Artwork
  72. 72. ArtworkThroughout the history
  73. 73. ArtworkThroughout the history of mankind,…
  74. 74. Artwork
  75. 75. Artwork…Astronomy has played a prominent role
  76. 76. Artwork…Astronomy has played a prominent role in various forms of artwork.
  77. 77. Artwork
  78. 78. ArtworkShown above are several examples
  79. 79. ArtworkShown above are several examples of paintings featuring Astronomy
  80. 80. Artwork
  81. 81. ArtworkVan Gogh’s famous “Starry Night”
  82. 82. ArtworkVan Gogh’s famous “Starry Night” is the painting shown on
  83. 83. Artwork Starry NightVan Gogh’s famous “Starry Night” is the painting shown on
  84. 84. Artwork Starry NightVan Gogh’s famous “Starry Night” is the painting shown on
  85. 85. The Pyramids
  86. 86. The Pyramids
  87. 87. The Pyramids
  88. 88. The PyramidsThe pyramids of the Sun and the Moon
  89. 89. The PyramidsThe pyramids of the Sun and the Mooncan be found near Mexico City, Mexico.
  90. 90. The Pyramids
  91. 91. The PyramidsBuilt by the ancient Aztec civilization
  92. 92. The PyramidsBuilt by the ancient Aztec civilization around 100 A.D.,…
  93. 93. The Pyramids
  94. 94. The Pyramids…they are still a popular tourist attraction
  95. 95. The Pyramids…they are still a popular tourist attraction even 2,000 years later.
  96. 96. …and there are many, more examples
  97. 97. …and there are many, more examplesof the ancients’ interest in Astronomy
  98. 98. …and there are many, more examplesof the ancients’ interest in Astronomy from the periods of antiquity.
  99. 99. But unlike today,
  100. 100. But unlike today, the need to understand Astronomy
  101. 101. But unlike today, theneed to understand Astronomy was neither scientific nor religious.
  102. 102. The ancients instead
  103. 103. The ancients instead had more practical reasons
  104. 104. The ancients instead had more practical reasons to study the Heavens.
  105. 105. Navigation
  106. 106. Navigation
  107. 107. Navigation
  108. 108. NavigationThe ancient seafarers,
  109. 109. NavigationThe ancient seafarers, for example,…
  110. 110. Navigation
  111. 111. Navigation…needed to understand the stars
  112. 112. Navigation…needed to understand the stars in order to navigate their vessels by
  113. 113. Farming
  114. 114. Farming
  115. 115. Farming
  116. 116. FarmingAdditionally, farmers needed to know
  117. 117. FarmingAdditionally, farmers needed to know how to predict the seasons…
  118. 118. Farming
  119. 119. Farming…in order to know on which dates
  120. 120. Farming…in order to know on which dates to plant and to harvest their crops.
  121. 121. Cosmetology
  122. 122. Cosmetology VS
  123. 123. Cosmetology VS Cosmology
  124. 124. Cosmetology
  125. 125. CosmetologyIf you wanted to study
  126. 126. Cosmetology If you wanted to studythe field of cosmetology,…
  127. 127. Cosmetology
  128. 128. Cosmetology …then one day
  129. 129. Cosmetology…then one day you might want to work here.
  130. 130. Cosmetology…then one day you might want to work here.
  131. 131. Cosmology
  132. 132. CosmologyHowever, if you would rather study
  133. 133. CosmologyHowever, if you would rather study the field of cosmology,…
  134. 134. Cosmology
  135. 135. Cosmology…then you might prefer to work
  136. 136. Cosmology…then you might prefer to work in an observatory like this
  137. 137. Cosmology…then you might prefer to work in an observatory like this
  138. 138. Cosmology…then you might prefer to work in an observatory like this
  139. 139. Cosmology
  140. 140. Cosmology –
  141. 141. Cosmology – The scientific study
  142. 142. Cosmology – The scientific study of the structure and evolution
  143. 143. Cosmology – The scientific studyof the structure and evolution of the Universe.
  144. 144. The Sun
  145. 145. The Sun
  146. 146. The Sun The Planets
  147. 147. The Sun The Planets
  148. 148. The Sun The Planets The Earth
  149. 149. The Sun The Planets The Earth
  150. 150. The MoonThe Sun The Planets The Earth
  151. 151. The Moon The Sun The Planets The EarthThe Universe,
  152. 152. The Moon The Sun The Planets The EarthThe Universe, to the ancient Greeks,…
  153. 153. The MoonThe Sun The Planets The Earth
  154. 154. The MoonThe Sun The Planets The Earth …was basically
  155. 155. The Moon The Sun The Planets The Earth…was basically just the Solar System.
  156. 156. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  157. 157. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  158. 158. Perseus Galaxy ClusterToday’s view of the Universe, however,
  159. 159. Perseus Galaxy ClusterToday’s view of the Universe, however, is quite a bit different.
  160. 160. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  161. 161. Perseus Galaxy ClusterCosmology entails looking at the Universe
  162. 162. Perseus Galaxy ClusterCosmology entails looking at the Universe on scales so large today…
  163. 163. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  164. 164. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…that even entire galaxies only appear
  165. 165. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…that even entire galaxies only appear as mere pinpoints of light in
  166. 166. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  167. 167. Perseus Galaxy ClusterShown above is the Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  168. 168. Perseus Galaxy ClusterShown above is the Perseus Galaxy Cluster located 300 million LYs away from Earth.
  169. 169. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  170. 170. Perseus Galaxy Cluster And each pinpoint of light
  171. 171. Perseus Galaxy ClusterAnd each pinpoint of light is a galaxy,…
  172. 172. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  173. 173. Perseus Galaxy Cluster …representing 100 billion
  174. 174. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  175. 175. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  176. 176. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  177. 177. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  178. 178. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  179. 179. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  180. 180. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  181. 181. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  182. 182. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  183. 183. Perseus Galaxy Cluster…representing 100 billion or more stars.
  184. 184. Perseus Galaxy Cluster
  185. 185. Perseus Galaxy Cluster Imagine the total number of planets
  186. 186. Perseus Galaxy ClusterImagine the total number of planets contained in all of these galaxies.
  187. 187. Ptolemy and the
  188. 188. Ptolemy and theGeocentric Model
  189. 189. Claudius Ptolemy
  190. 190. Claudius Ptolemy 83 A.D. – 165 A.D.
  191. 191. Claudius Ptolemy
  192. 192. Claudius PtolemyThe ancient Greek astronomer,
  193. 193. Claudius PtolemyThe ancient Greek astronomer, Claudius Ptolemy,…
  194. 194. Claudius Ptolemy
  195. 195. Claudius Ptolemy…devised the Geocentric Model
  196. 196. Claudius Ptolemy…devised the Geocentric Model of the Universe.
  197. 197. The Geocentric Model
  198. 198. The Geocentric Model In the geocentric model
  199. 199. The Geocentric ModelIn the geocentric model of the Universe,…
  200. 200. The Geocentric Model
  201. 201. The Geocentric Model …the Earth lay at the center
  202. 202. The Geocentric Model…the Earth lay at the center of all creation.
  203. 203. The Geocentric Model
  204. 204. The Geocentric Model Everything else in the Heavens
  205. 205. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  206. 206. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  207. 207. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  208. 208. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  209. 209. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  210. 210. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  211. 211. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  212. 212. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  213. 213. The Geocentric ModelEverything else in the Heavens then orbited the stationary Earth.
  214. 214. The Geocentric Model
  215. 215. The Geocentric Model But unlike
  216. 216. The Geocentric ModelBut unlike the Sun, Moon, and stars,…
  217. 217. The Geocentric Model
  218. 218. The Geocentric Model…the ancients noticed that the planets
  219. 219. The Geocentric Model…the ancients noticed that the planets would wander across the night sky.
  220. 220. Prograde Motion
  221. 221. If you watch the motions of the planets
  222. 222. If you watch the motions of the planets over many months,…
  223. 223. …you’ll notice that they drift eastward
  224. 224. …you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  225. 225. March …you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  226. 226. April…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  227. 227. May…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  228. 228. June…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  229. 229. July…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  230. 230. Aug…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  231. 231. Sept…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  232. 232. Oct…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  233. 233. Nov…you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  234. 234. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  235. 235. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  236. 236. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  237. 237. ar d Nov e as t w Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …you’ll notice that they drift eastward across the night sky.
  238. 238. ar d Nov e as t w Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  239. 239. ar d Nov e as t w Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch This forward and eastward drift
  240. 240. ar d Nov e as t w Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchThis forward and eastward drift is called “prograde
  241. 241. ar d Nov e as t w Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchThis forward and eastward drift is called “prograde
  242. 242. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchThis forward and eastward drift is called “prograde
  243. 243. t i on mo Nov a de pr ogr Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchThis forward and eastward drift is called “prograde
  244. 244. t i on mo Nov a de pr ogr Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  245. 245. t i on mo Nov a de pr ogr Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …and prograde motion is caused
  246. 246. t i on mo Nov a de pr ogr Oct Sept Aug July June May April March…and prograde motion is caused by the planets’ orbits around the
  247. 247. Retrograde Motion
  248. 248. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  249. 249. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch If you watch a planet’s motion
  250. 250. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchIf you watch a planet’s motion more closely, however,…
  251. 251. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  252. 252. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …you’ll notice that the planet
  253. 253. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April March…you’ll notice that the planet does something interesting over time.
  254. 254. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  255. 255. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch After the planet moves forward
  256. 256. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchAfter the planet moves forward in the eastward direction for a while,…
  257. 257. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchAfter the planet moves forward in the eastward direction for a while,…
  258. 258. Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchAfter the planet moves forward in the eastward direction for a while,…
  259. 259. d t war eas Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchAfter the planet moves forward in the eastward direction for a while,…
  260. 260. d t war eas Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  261. 261. d t war eas Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …it then stops,
  262. 262. d t war eas Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …it then stops, backs up,
  263. 263. d t war eas Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …it then stops, backs up, and goes westward for a while.
  264. 264. d t war eas Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …it then stops, backs up, and goes westward for a while.
  265. 265. ard ard eastw westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch …it then stops, backs up, and goes westward for a while.
  266. 266. ard ard eastw westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  267. 267. ard ard eastw westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch But then it stops,
  268. 268. ard ard eastw westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch But then it stops, turns around,
  269. 269. ard ard eastw westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April March But then it stops, turns around,and moves in the eastward direction again.
  270. 270. ard ard eastw westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April March But then it stops, turns around,and moves in the eastward direction again.
  271. 271. ard ard ard tw stw eas we eastw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April March But then it stops, turns around,and moves in the eastward direction again.
  272. 272. ard ard ard tw stw eas we eastw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  273. 273. ard ard ard tw stw eas we eastw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarchWhile the forward and eastward motion
  274. 274. ard ard ard tw stw eas we eastw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchWhile the forward and eastward motion was called “prograde
  275. 275. ard ard ard tw stw eas we eastw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchWhile the forward and eastward motion was called “prograde
  276. 276. ard westw Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchWhile the forward and eastward motion was called “prograde
  277. 277. otion rd otion m a a de stw em pr ogr we grad Nov pro Oct Sept Aug July June May April MarchWhile the forward and eastward motion was called “prograde
  278. 278. otion rd otion m a a de stw em pr ogr we grad Nov pro Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch
  279. 279. otion rd otion m a a de stw em pr ogr we grad Nov pro Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch…this backward and westward motion
  280. 280. otion rd otion m a a de stw em pr ogr we grad Nov pro Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch…this backward and westward motion is called “retrograde
  281. 281. otion rd otion m a a de stw em pr ogr we grad Nov pro Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch…this backward and westward motion is called “retrograde
  282. 282. tion tion e mo mo grad rad e pro pro g Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch…this backward and westward motion is called “retrograde
  283. 283. ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g Nov Oct Sept Aug July June May AprilMarch…this backward and westward motion is called “retrograde
  284. 284. Now watch the planet Mars
  285. 285. Now watch the planet Mars as it demonstrates this motion.
  286. 286. As the planet moves eastward,
  287. 287. As the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  288. 288. prograde motionAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  289. 289. prograde motion MarchAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  290. 290. prograde motion AprilAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  291. 291. prograde motion MayAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  292. 292. prograde motion JuneAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  293. 293. prograde motion JulyAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  294. 294. prograde motion AugAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  295. 295. prograde motion AugAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  296. 296. prograde motion tion e mo grad pro AugAs the planet moves eastward, it demonstrates the prograde
  297. 297. tion e mo gradpro Aug
  298. 298. tion e mo grad pro AugBut then it stops,
  299. 299. tion e mo grad pro AugBut then it stops, turns around,
  300. 300. tion e mo grad pro Aug But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  301. 301. retrograde motion tion e mo grad pro Aug But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  302. 302. retrograde motion tion e mo grad pro Sept But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  303. 303. retrograde motion tion e mo grad pro Oct But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  304. 304. retrograde motion tion e mo grad pro Nov But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  305. 305. retrograde motion tion e mo grad pro Nov But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  306. 306. retrograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog Nov But then it stops, turns around,and shows westward retrograde motion.
  307. 307. t ion tion mo e mo r ade radprog retrog Nov
  308. 308. t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog NovAnd finally it stops,
  309. 309. t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog NovAnd finally it stops, turns around again,
  310. 310. t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog NovAnd finally it stops, turns around again,and shows the prograde motion again.
  311. 311. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog Nov And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  312. 312. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog Dec And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  313. 313. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog Jan And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  314. 314. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog Feb And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  315. 315. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog March And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  316. 316. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog April And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  317. 317. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog May And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  318. 318. prograde motion t ion tion mo e mo r ade rad prog retrog May And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  319. 319. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g May And finally it stops, turns around again, and shows the prograde motion again.
  320. 320. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g May
  321. 321. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g MayWhile it requires many months of observation,
  322. 322. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g MayWhile it requires many months of observation, to witness the retrograde motion of Mars,
  323. 323. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g May
  324. 324. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g May …it was nevertheless a phenomenon
  325. 325. prograde motion ot ion tion tion m mo o a de r ade em ogr rog rad pr ret pro g May…it was nevertheless a phenomenon the ancients did not fail to notice.
  326. 326. The entire retrograde motion sequence
  327. 327. The entire retrograde motion sequence can be seen in this photo collage.
  328. 328. Can you explain why
  329. 329. Can you explain why this phenomenon is happening?
  330. 330. This slide shows an animation
  331. 331. This slide shows an animation of the retrograde
  332. 332. This slide shows an animation of the retrograde
  333. 333. Ptolemy Explains
  334. 334. Ptolemy ExplainsRetrograde Motion
  335. 335. The Geocentric Model
  336. 336. The Geocentric ModelIn the Geocentric Model
  337. 337. The Geocentric ModelIn the Geocentric Model of the Universe,…
  338. 338. The Geocentric Model
  339. 339. The Geocentric Model…Ptolemy had to explain this phenomenon
  340. 340. The Geocentric Model…Ptolemy had to explain this phenomenon of the retrograde motion of the planets.
  341. 341. The Geocentric Model
  342. 342. The Geocentric Model
  343. 343. The Geocentric ModelPtolemy explained that when Mars
  344. 344. The Geocentric ModelPtolemy explained that when Mars orbited the Earth,…
  345. 345. The Geocentric Model
  346. 346. The Geocentric Model …that it did so
  347. 347. The Geocentric Model…that it did so using (2) pivot arms.
  348. 348. The Geocentric Model…that it did so using (2) pivot arms.
  349. 349. The Geocentric Model…that it did so using (2) pivot arms.
  350. 350. The Geocentric Model…that it did so using (2) pivot arms.
  351. 351. The Geocentric Model
  352. 352. The Geocentric Model The larger of the (2) arms
  353. 353. The Geocentric ModelThe larger of the (2) arms makes a loop called a “deferent”,…
  354. 354. The Geocentric ModelThe larger of the (2) arms makes a loop called a “deferent”,…
  355. 355. The Geocentric ModelThe larger of the (2) arms makes a loop called a “deferent”,…
  356. 356. The Geocentric Model deferentThe larger of the (2) arms makes a loop called a “deferent”,…
  357. 357. The Geocentric Modeldeferent
  358. 358. The Geocentric Modeldeferent…while the smaller of the (2) arms
  359. 359. The Geocentric Model deferent…while the smaller of the (2) arms makes a loop called an “epicycle”.
  360. 360. The Geocentric Model deferent…while the smaller of the (2) arms makes a loop called an “epicycle”.
  361. 361. The Geocentric Model deferent…while the smaller of the (2) arms makes a loop called an “epicycle”.
  362. 362. The Geocentric Model epicycle deferent…while the smaller of the (2) arms makes a loop called an “epicycle”.
  363. 363. The Geocentric Model
  364. 364. The Geocentric Model When both of the pivot arms
  365. 365. The Geocentric ModelWhen both of the pivot arms are moving in circles,…
  366. 366. The Geocentric Model
  367. 367. The Geocentric Model…then the planet exhibits prograde motion
  368. 368. The Geocentric Model…then the planet exhibits prograde motion throughout most of its orbit.
  369. 369. The Geocentric Model
  370. 370. The Geocentric ModelBut sometimes, however,
  371. 371. The Geocentric ModelBut sometimes, however, Mars also appears to
  372. 372. The Geocentric Model
  373. 373. The Geocentric Model…and when this happens,
  374. 374. The Geocentric Model…and when this happens, the planet exhibits retorgrade
  375. 375. The Geocentric Model
  376. 376. The Geocentric Model Like this…
  377. 377. The Geocentric Model Like this…
  378. 378. The Geocentric Model
  379. 379. The Geocentric Model
  380. 380. The Geocentric Model
  381. 381. The Geocentric ModelWhile Ptolemy did not correctly explain
  382. 382. The Geocentric ModelWhile Ptolemy did not correctly explain the retrograde motion of
  383. 383. The Geocentric Model
  384. 384. The Geocentric Model …his explanation nevertheless sounded
  385. 385. The Geocentric Model …his explanation neverthelesssounded both credible and plausible.
  386. 386. The Geocentric Model
  387. 387. The Geocentric Model But Ptolemy’s explanation
  388. 388. The Geocentric ModelBut Ptolemy’s explanation for the retrograde motion of Mars,…
  389. 389. The Geocentric Model
  390. 390. The Geocentric Model …did not alone prove
  391. 391. The Geocentric Model…did not alone prove that the Geocentric Model was correct.
  392. 392. The Geocentric Model
  393. 393. The Geocentric Model The ancients also offered
  394. 394. The Geocentric ModelThe ancients also offered (4) other arguments,…
  395. 395. The Geocentric Model
  396. 396. The Geocentric Model…in defense of the Earth’s position
  397. 397. The Geocentric Model…in defense of the Earth’s position at the center of the Universe.
  398. 398. 4 Arguments for the
  399. 399. 4 Arguments for the Geocentric Model
  400. 400. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  401. 401. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s MotionThe first argument given,
  402. 402. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s MotionThe first argument given, to support the Geocentric Model,…
  403. 403. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  404. 404. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion…was that if the Earth revolved the Sun,
  405. 405. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion…was that if the Earth revolved the Sun, then we would feel the Earth’s motion.
  406. 406. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  407. 407. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s MotionBut since the Earth’s motion,
  408. 408. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s MotionBut since the Earth’s motion, could not be detected,…
  409. 409. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  410. 410. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion…then the Earth, they thought,
  411. 411. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion…then the Earth, they thought, could not possibly be moving.
  412. 412. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  413. 413. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion But there are actually (5) ways
  414. 414. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s MotionBut there are actually (5) ways in which the Earth does in fact move.
  415. 415. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  416. 416. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  417. 417. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 1)
  418. 418. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 1) The Earth is rotating
  419. 419. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 1) The Earth is rotating on its imaginary axis.
  420. 420. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  421. 421. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  422. 422. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 2)
  423. 423. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 2) The Earth is revolving
  424. 424. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 2) The Earth is revolving around the Sun.
  425. 425. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  426. 426. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  427. 427. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 3)
  428. 428. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 3) The Earth is “precessing”,
  429. 429. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 3) The Earth is “precessing”, or wobbling, on its axis.
  430. 430. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  431. 431. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  432. 432. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4)
  433. 433. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is revolving
  434. 434. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  435. 435. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  436. 436. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  437. 437. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  438. 438. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  439. 439. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  440. 440. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  441. 441. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  442. 442. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 4) The Sun is around the center of the Milky Way. revolving
  443. 443. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  444. 444. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  445. 445. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 5)
  446. 446. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 5) The galaxies are moving apart,
  447. 447. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 5) The galaxies are moving apart, as a result of the Big Bang.
  448. 448. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 5) The galaxies are moving apart, as a result of the Big Bang.
  449. 449. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion 5) The galaxies are moving apart, as a result of the Big Bang.
  450. 450. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating 5) The galaxies are moving apart, as a result of the Big Bang.
  451. 451. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  452. 452. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  453. 453. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  454. 454. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  455. 455. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion
  456. 456. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  457. 457. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating But none of these motions
  458. 458. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separatingBut none of these motions could be felt by the ancients.
  459. 459. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  460. 460. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating And since none of these motions
  461. 461. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separatingAnd since none of these motions were detectable,…
  462. 462. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  463. 463. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…then the ancients incorrectly concluded
  464. 464. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…then the ancients incorrectly concluded that the Earth could not
  465. 465. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…then the ancients incorrectly concluded that the Earth could not
  466. 466. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…then the ancients incorrectly concluded that the Earth could not
  467. 467. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  468. 468. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating Of course, the real reason
  469. 469. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separatingOf course, the real reason why the Earth’s motion was not
  470. 470. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  471. 471. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating …is because motion is relative
  472. 472. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…is because motion is relative and cannot be detected.
  473. 473. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  474. 474. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separatingBut until Albert Einstein came along,
  475. 475. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separatingBut until Albert Einstein came along, 19 centuries later,…
  476. 476. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating
  477. 477. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating …the dynamics of relative motion
  478. 478. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…the dynamics of relative motion would not be fully understood.
  479. 479. 1) We Can’t Detect Earth’s Motion separating…the dynamics of relative motion would not be fully understood.
  480. 480. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax
  481. 481. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax A second argument given
  482. 482. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxA second argument given in support of the Geocentric Model,
  483. 483. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax
  484. 484. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax …had to do with the failure of the ancients
  485. 485. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax…had to do with the failure of the ancients to observe parallax among the stars.
  486. 486. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax
  487. 487. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxIf the Earth were truly in motion,
  488. 488. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxIf the Earth were truly in motion, the thinking went,…
  489. 489. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax
  490. 490. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax…then a star would appear to shift positions
  491. 491. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax…then a star would appear to shift positions as the Earth orbited the Sun.
  492. 492. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax
  493. 493. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxA star would appear in one position,
  494. 494. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  495. 495. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  496. 496. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar ParallaxA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  497. 497. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax JuneA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  498. 498. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax JuneA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  499. 499. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax JuneA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  500. 500. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax JuneA star would appear in one position, in June for example,…
  501. 501. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June
  502. 502. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June …and then appear in different position
  503. 503. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  504. 504. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  505. 505. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  506. 506. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  507. 507. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  508. 508. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  509. 509. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December …and then appear in different position (6) months later.
  510. 510. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December
  511. 511. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December And as the Earth
  512. 512. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June DecemberAnd as the Earth revolved around the Sun,…
  513. 513. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December
  514. 514. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate
  515. 515. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  516. 516. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  517. 517. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  518. 518. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  519. 519. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  520. 520. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  521. 521. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  522. 522. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  523. 523. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax parallactic shift June December…the star would then seem to demonstrate a certain amount of parallactic shift.
  524. 524. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax parallactic shift June December
  525. 525. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax parallactic shift June December But since stellar parallax
  526. 526. 2) We Don’t Observe Stellar Parallax parallactic shift June DecemberBut since stellar parallax was not observed by the ancients,