Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Lifespan Development Lesson 2: Developmental Theories

30,755 views

Published on

CC-BY-SA Lesson 2 Slides on Developmental Theories from Laura Overstreet's Lifespan Psychology course from Open Course Learning: https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B0b0olJJwIXAcXpiX0N3U0ZfczA&usp=sharing&tid=0B9nrmpuRmC4ENjVGdVo3dVh6NzQ

Published in: Education
  • Follow the link, new dating source: ❤❤❤ http://bit.ly/39sFWPG ❤❤❤
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dating direct: ❤❤❤ http://bit.ly/39sFWPG ❤❤❤
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thank you for sharing the slides. Made my load lighter.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Lifespan Development Lesson 2: Developmental Theories

  1. 1. Developmental Theories
  2. 2. The Relationship between and Research  What is a theory? An explanation Suggests what, how, or why In development, it explains change in us over time A guideline for research Helps us understand research  It is not a fact.
  3. 3. Theories of Motivation Psychodynamic Theories
  4. 4. Freud’s Psychosexual Theory: Background  Freud: (b.1856- d.1939)  Hysteria  “talking cure”  early childhood  Mental illness and reality
  5. 5. Defense Mechanisms  Repression  Regression  Rationalization  Denial  Sublimation  Displacement  Projection  Reaction Formation
  6. 6. Freud’s Parts of the Self  Id  Ego  Superego
  7. 7. Psychosexual Development  Oral Stage  Anal Stage  Phallic Stage  Latency Stage  Genital Stage
  8. 8. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory  Student of Freud’s  Emphasized the Ego  Father of Developmental Psychology
  9. 9. Erikson’s First Four Stages  Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy)  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (toddlers)  Initiative vs. Guilt (early childhood)  Industry vs. Inferiority (middle childhood)
  10. 10. Erikson’s Last Four Stages  Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens)  Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)  Generativity vs. Stagnation (midlife adults)  Integrity vs. Despair (late adults)
  11. 11. Test Yourself  Who is the father of developmental psychology?  According to Freud, which part of the self are we born with?  At what age do we establish a basic sense of trust, per Erikson?  Name and describe one defense mechanism.  When does the ego develop?  How would you test Freudian concepts?
  12. 12. Learning Theories Focus on how we learn and emphasizes behaviors that can be seen rather than internal motivation
  13. 13. Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov  Learning through association  Feelings or emotions  Gut level reactions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
  14. 14. Pavlov’s Dogs One of Pavlov’s Dogs (Robert K. Lawton)
  15. 15. Classical Conditioning Terms  Before conditioning  Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned response  After conditioning  Conditioned stimulus  Conditioned response
  16. 16. WHO CARES ABOUT PAVLOV’S DOGS?
  17. 17. Watson and Behaviorism  Watson built on Pavlov’s work  Parenting expert in the 1920s  Kids can be taught to love or hate anything!  Little Albert
  18. 18. Who Else Cares? ADVERTIZERS
  19. 19. Operant Conditioning  Why repeat actions?  Law of Effect  Reinforcement not criticism
  20. 20. Reinforcers  Reinforcer defined  Intrinsic or primary reinforcers  Extrinsic or secondary reinforcers
  21. 21. Primary or Secondary? Food College Degree Money Big House Hug Car Job Compliment Award
  22. 22. Positive Reinforcers  Adding  An example?  How do you positively reinforce others?
  23. 23. Negative Reinforcers  Subtraction  An example?  How do you negatively reinforce others?
  24. 24. Punishment  Stopping behavior  Less effective than reinforcers.  Suppresses rather than stops  Doesn’t indicate desired behavior.  Leads to a focus on mistakes.
  25. 25. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
  26. 26. Social Learning Theory  Learn from others without conditioning  Modeling  Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiment on Aggression
  27. 27. How did you learn?  To kiss?  To drive?  To be afraid of the dark?  To do your job?
  28. 28. Cognitive Theories How thinking changes over time
  29. 29. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development  “father of cognitive psychology”  how children think and reason  Maturation
  30. 30. Piaget’s Principles: Equilibrium Cognitive Equilibrium: A balance between what we see and what we know
  31. 31. Piaget’s Principles: Schema Schema: Mental box containing a concept
  32. 32. Piaget’s Principles: Assimilation Assimilation: Similarity between what we see and what we already know
  33. 33. Piaget’s Principles: Accommodation Accommodation: Changing our mind to adjust to new people, objects, experiences, etc.
  34. 34. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor (birth to 2)  Preoperational (early childhood)  Concrete operational (middle childhood)  Formal Operational (adolescence or adulthood)
  35. 35. Sociocultural Theory: Vygotsky  Cognitive abilities change with guidance  Scaffolding  Zone of Proximal Development: potential
  36. 36. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Model A focus on context
  37. 37. The Ecological Systems Model  Microsystems  Mesosystems  Exosystems  Macrosystems  Chronosystems

×