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Beginnings 
Heredity, Prenatal 
Development, and Birth
HEREDITY AND 
ENVIRONMENT
What makes us who we are? 
Photo Courtesy Overstreet
The Epigenetic Framework 
The interplay between nature 
and nurture
Many Factors 
 Polygenic 
 Multifactorial or complex 
 Examples: Diabetes, heart disease
Chromosomes and Genes 
 Chromosomes 
 Humans 46 
 Genes 
 30,000 in humans 
 The Human 
Genome Project 
 Ethical 
co...
Conception
Gametes 
 Reproductive cells 
 Sperm 
 ova 
 23 chromosomes 
 Spermatogenesis 
 Oogenesis
The Zygote 
 Fertilized egg 
 Fertilization in fallopian tube 
 Meoisis: Genetic material combines 
 Doubling then dif...
Determining the Sex of the 
Child 
 22 chromosomes 
from each parent are 
similar in length 
 23rd is either an X or 
Y ...
Monozygotic and Dizygotic 
Twins 
 Monozygotic 
twins :single 
fertilized egg 
 Genetically 
identical 
 Less common 
...
Degrees of Separation and Types of Twin 
Variations (Kevin Dufendach)
Genotype and Phenotype 
 What you get genetically is not 
always what you see 
 Genotype: genetic potential 
 Phenotype...
What Determines the 
Expression of Genes? 
 Additive Pattern: average of genes 
(height; skin tone) 
 Dominant/Recessive...
Chromosomal 
Abnormalities 
 Age of mother 
 Down syndrome (20 yr old woman 
has 1 in 800 chance; 44yr old 1 in 
16 chan...
Trisomy 21 
 Most common 
chromosomal 
abnormality 
 Intellectual 
developmental 
delay, distinct 
physical features
Sex Linked Chromosomal 
Abnormalities 
 Abnormal number 
of chromosomes 
on 23rd pair 
 Numerous sex-linked 
disorders 
...
Turner’s Syndrome
Genetic Disorders 
 Are attributed to specific genes 
 Dominant gene linked disorders 
(Huntington’s Disease) 
 Recessi...
Prenatal Development 
The Germinal Period 
The Embryonic Period 
The Fetal Period
The Germinal Period 
 First 14 days 
 Cells differentiate 
 60% fail (70% in-vitro)
The Embryonic Period 
 3rd through the 8th 
week 
 Major structures 
begin to form 
 Proximodistal & 
cephalocaudal 
 ...
The Fetal Period 
 9th week until birth 
 12th week genitals form 
 Development continues 
 End of 3rd month, all the ...
Teratology 
The study of factors 
contributing to birth defects
Risks During Prenatal 
Development 
 Timing of 
exposure 
 Amount of 
exposure 
 Genetics 
 Gender
Critical Periods of Development
Alcohol 
 Most common teratogen 
 Vulnerability during the 2nd month of 
development 
 Moderate to heavy drinking or a ...
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum 
Disorder
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum 
Disorders 
 Learning 
difficulties 
 Impaired motor 
skills 
 Flattened nose 
 Widely spaced 
...
Tobacco Use 
 Fetal growth 
restriction 
 Low birth weight 
 Placenta previa 
 SIDS 
 Neurological 
problems 
 (ADHD...
Other Teratogens 
 Heroin 
 Cocaine 
 Marijuana 
 Pollutants 
 HIV 
 Maternal Disease
Pregnancy and Childbirth 
A look at complications of 
pregnancy and methods of 
childbirth
Minor Complications of 
Pregnancy 
 Nausea, heartburn, gas 
 Hemorrhoids, backache, leg 
cramps 
 Insomnia, constipatio...
Major Complications 
 Severe vomiting 
 Threatened abortion 
 Preelampsia/Toxemia 
 Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy 
 Mater...
Problems of Newborn 
 LBW <5.8 pounds (8% U.S.) 
 Tobacco, alcohol, use; poor nutrition; 
 Preterm early < 37 weeks (13...
Approaches to 
CHILDBIRTH
Dick-Read Method 
 Dick-Read: “Childbirth Without 
Fear: The Principles and Practice of 
Natural Childbirth” 
 Pain come...
The Lamaze Method 
 From Russia to 
the US in the 
1950s 
 French 
obstetrician 
Fernand Lamaze 
 Teach control 
 Brea...
Other Methods 
 LeBoyer: gentle birthing 
 Out of hospital births (1 percent of 
births) 
 2/3rds are Home births 
 1/...
Stages of Delivery 
 First Stage 
 Longest Stage 
 Uterus contracts 
 Cervix dilates 
 Discharge of blood or amniotic...
Stage of Delivery 
 Second Stage 
 Baby through birth canal 
 10-40 minutes 
 Head normally delivered first 
 Mother ...
Stages of Delivery 
 Third Stage 
 Placenta or afterbirth is delivered 
 Episiotomy sutured 
 Relatively painless
Assessing the Newborn 
 The APGAR 
 Heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex 
response, and color 
 Score 0-2 on ea...
The Neonatal Behavioral 
Assessment Scale 
Tests neurological 
condition/behavior in four areas: 
 Motor development 
 I...
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Lifespan Development Module 1 Lesson 3 Slides: Newborn and Prenatal Development

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Slides from the Open Course Library's Psych 200 Lifespan Development Class: http://opencourselibrary.org/econ-201/.

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Lifespan Development Module 1 Lesson 3 Slides: Newborn and Prenatal Development

  1. 1. Beginnings Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
  2. 2. HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT
  3. 3. What makes us who we are? Photo Courtesy Overstreet
  4. 4. The Epigenetic Framework The interplay between nature and nurture
  5. 5. Many Factors  Polygenic  Multifactorial or complex  Examples: Diabetes, heart disease
  6. 6. Chromosomes and Genes  Chromosomes  Humans 46  Genes  30,000 in humans  The Human Genome Project  Ethical considerations
  7. 7. Conception
  8. 8. Gametes  Reproductive cells  Sperm  ova  23 chromosomes  Spermatogenesis  Oogenesis
  9. 9. The Zygote  Fertilized egg  Fertilization in fallopian tube  Meoisis: Genetic material combines  Doubling then differentiation
  10. 10. Determining the Sex of the Child  22 chromosomes from each parent are similar in length  23rd is either an X or Y  Half of sperm contain a Y  All of ova contain X  XX female; XY male  Microsort?
  11. 11. Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins  Monozygotic twins :single fertilized egg  Genetically identical  Less common  Dizygotic twins: two eggs and two sperm  Non-identical  Most common and increasing (2/3rds)
  12. 12. Degrees of Separation and Types of Twin Variations (Kevin Dufendach)
  13. 13. Genotype and Phenotype  What you get genetically is not always what you see  Genotype: genetic potential  Phenotype: actual physical traits
  14. 14. What Determines the Expression of Genes?  Additive Pattern: average of genes (height; skin tone)  Dominant/Recessive Pattern  Curly hair  Red hair  Partial dominance or codominance  Environmental factors (oxygen deprivation, exertion, etc.)
  15. 15. Chromosomal Abnormalities  Age of mother  Down syndrome (20 yr old woman has 1 in 800 chance; 44yr old 1 in 16 chance)  1/2 zygotes have abnormal number of chromosomes  If occurs anywhere but on 21st or 23rd position, organism usually dies
  16. 16. Trisomy 21  Most common chromosomal abnormality  Intellectual developmental delay, distinct physical features
  17. 17. Sex Linked Chromosomal Abnormalities  Abnormal number of chromosomes on 23rd pair  Numerous sex-linked disorders  XXX, XXY, XO, etc.  Usually sterility and learning difficulties
  18. 18. Turner’s Syndrome
  19. 19. Genetic Disorders  Are attributed to specific genes  Dominant gene linked disorders (Huntington’s Disease)  Recessive gene linked disorders (Sickle-Cell Anemia, Cystic Fibrosis)
  20. 20. Prenatal Development The Germinal Period The Embryonic Period The Fetal Period
  21. 21. The Germinal Period  First 14 days  Cells differentiate  60% fail (70% in-vitro)
  22. 22. The Embryonic Period  3rd through the 8th week  Major structures begin to form  Proximodistal & cephalocaudal  20 percent fail  Human appearance Photo Courtesy Lunar Caustic
  23. 23. The Fetal Period  9th week until birth  12th week genitals form  Development continues  End of 3rd month, all the parts are present  4-6th month  Age of viability (24 weeks)  7-9th month gain 5 lb, 7 inches  5 percent fail
  24. 24. Teratology The study of factors contributing to birth defects
  25. 25. Risks During Prenatal Development  Timing of exposure  Amount of exposure  Genetics  Gender
  26. 26. Critical Periods of Development
  27. 27. Alcohol  Most common teratogen  Vulnerability during the 2nd month of development  Moderate to heavy drinking or a single binge (varies)
  28. 28. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
  29. 29. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders  Learning difficulties  Impaired motor skills  Flattened nose  Widely spaced eyes  Small heads  Long term psychosocial problems  ARND and ARBD  Neurological damage  Kidney, bone, heart problems
  30. 30. Tobacco Use  Fetal growth restriction  Low birth weight  Placenta previa  SIDS  Neurological problems  (ADHD)
  31. 31. Other Teratogens  Heroin  Cocaine  Marijuana  Pollutants  HIV  Maternal Disease
  32. 32. Pregnancy and Childbirth A look at complications of pregnancy and methods of childbirth
  33. 33. Minor Complications of Pregnancy  Nausea, heartburn, gas  Hemorrhoids, backache, leg cramps  Insomnia, constipation  Shortness of breath  Varicose veins  Cure? Delivery!!!!
  34. 34. Major Complications  Severe vomiting  Threatened abortion  Preelampsia/Toxemia  Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy  Maternal mortality  Infection  Excessive bleeding
  35. 35. Problems of Newborn  LBW <5.8 pounds (8% U.S.)  Tobacco, alcohol, use; poor nutrition;  Preterm early < 37 weeks (13%)  Fetal Anoxia
  36. 36. Approaches to CHILDBIRTH
  37. 37. Dick-Read Method  Dick-Read: “Childbirth Without Fear: The Principles and Practice of Natural Childbirth”  Pain comes from fear  Education reduces fear  Pregnancy Today - Childbirth Without Fear: The Teachings of Grantly Dick-Read
  38. 38. The Lamaze Method  From Russia to the US in the 1950s  French obstetrician Fernand Lamaze  Teach control  Breathing, relaxation and focal point  Have a coach  Manage rather than eliminate pain
  39. 39. Other Methods  LeBoyer: gentle birthing  Out of hospital births (1 percent of births)  2/3rds are Home births  1/3rd occur in birthing centers
  40. 40. Stages of Delivery  First Stage  Longest Stage  Uterus contracts  Cervix dilates  Discharge of blood or amniotic fluid
  41. 41. Stage of Delivery  Second Stage  Baby through birth canal  10-40 minutes  Head normally delivered first  Mother pushes and relaxes  Episiotomy
  42. 42. Stages of Delivery  Third Stage  Placenta or afterbirth is delivered  Episiotomy sutured  Relatively painless
  43. 43. Assessing the Newborn  The APGAR  Heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex response, and color  Score 0-2 on each  (<5 cause for concern)
  44. 44. The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale Tests neurological condition/behavior in four areas:  Motor development  Interactive behavior  Response to stress  Physiological control

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