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Infancy 
Infants and Toddlers
Physical Growth 
 Weight (Average 7.5 lbs) 
 Doubles by 4 months 
 Triples by 12 months 
 Length 
 20 inches at birth 
 32-36 inches by age 2 
 Body proportions
The Brain 
 Size increase 
(25% to 75%) 
 Growth of 
connectors 
 Loss of 
connectors 
 Myelination 
 Variation in 
maturation
Motor Development 
 Newborn reflexes 
 Automatic 
responses to 
stimuli 
 Include 
sucking, 
rooting, palmer 
grasp, etc.
Motor Development 
 Gross motor skills 
 Large movements
Motor Development 
 Fine motor skills 
 Precise movements of hand and 
fingers 
 Eye-hand coordination 
 Manipulating small objects 
 Take longer to acquire
Sensory Development 
 Vision-least developed sense at 
birth 
 Newborn focus 8-16 inches away 
 Problems scanning/tracking 
 Binocular vision at 14 weeks 
 Color vision poor 
 Hearing-most developed sense at 
birth
Nutrition: Ideal Diet 
 Breast milk 
 Pros of breastfeeding 
 When to avoid breastfeeding 
 Wetnursing Today? 
 Find out more at http://www.prolacta.com/
Malnutrition 
 In developing 
countries: 
 Infantile 
marasmus 
 Kwashiorkor 
 In United States: 
 Milk-anemia 
Photo Courtesy CDC
Cognitive Development 
Language and Thought
Jean Piaget 
SENSORIMOTOR 
INTELLIGENCE
Substages 
Of Sensorimotor Intelligence
Stage One 
 Birth to 1 month 
 Reflexive actions 
 Few schema
Stage Two 
 1-4 months 
 1st adaptations to the environment 
 More schema
Stage Three 
 4-8 months 
 Repeating actions 
 Starts to realize that he or she can 
have an impact on the world
Stage Four 
 8-12 months 
 New adaptations and anticipation 
 Look forward to upcoming events 
 Object permanence achieved 
 Was Piaget wrong?
Stage Five 
 12-18 months 
 Experimentation of little scientists 
 Discovering features such as 
gravity, simple cause and effect 
 Trial and error learning
Stage Six 
 18-24 months 
 Mental combinations 
 Child begins to “think” in order to 
solve problems 
 Less reliance on trial and error 
learning 
 Deferred imitation
Steps in Language Development 
COMMUNICATION
Newborn Communication 
 No language, but effective communication 
 Use cries 
 Facial expressions 
 Body posture
2-5 Months 
 Cooing begins 
 Squealing 
 Laughing 
 Taking turns in communication 
 Deaf babies also vocalize 
 Pointing and gesturing at 5 months
6 Months 
 Babbling 
 Make the sounds required for any 
language 
 Gradually, will only continue making 
sounds that are part of one’s own 
language (at 1 year) 
 Deaf babies babble with rudiments of 
signs if used
10 Months 
Understanding comes before 
speaking
12-13 Months 
 First spoken words 
 Holophrasic speech 
 Underextension 
 Overextension 
 Vocabulary of about 50 words 
 Deaf babies vocalizations disappear by 
age 2
18-24 Months 
 Vocabulary growth spurt at 18 months 
 Two word sentences at 21 months 
 3-5 word telegraphic (or “text 
message”) speech at 24 months
Helping Children Learn to 
Speak 
Why baby talk? 
(child-directed speech)
Theories of Language 
Development 
 Infants teach themselves (Chomsky’s 
L.A.D.) 
 (but must be in person) 
 Infants are taught (Skinner) 
 Infants learn in order to communicate 
(Social-pragmatics) 
 For all 3 reasons
Psychosocial Development 
in Infancy 
A Look At Early Social 
Relationships and Emotions
Emotions 
 Attraction and withdrawal 
 Social smiling (2 months) 
 Laughter (3-5 months) 
 Fear, sadness, anger (6-8 months) 
 Jealousy? (6 months) 
 Stranger wariness, separation anxiety
Emotions 
 Self-Awareness (15 months) 
 The Rouge Test 
 Guilt 
 Shame 
 Embarrassment
Early Relationships 
ATTACHMENT STYLES
Secure Attachments 
 Child receives care, concern and 
affection 
 Leads to a sense of trust and curiosity 
 Signaled by separation anxiety and 
stranger wariness
Insecure-Resistant 
 Needs not consistently met 
 Insecurity and fear of being alone 
 Fussy, clingy, hard to satisfy
Insecure-Avoidant 
 No attachment; needs not met 
 Child does not seek comfort from 
caregiver 
 Child is neither curious nor clingy
Disorganized 
 Neither plays nor responds 
 Actions of mother 
 Cry, freeze, hit, retreat, etc.
Attachment Styles 
Also vary by culture: Germany 
(insecure-avoidant); Japan 
(insecure-resistant)
Temperament 
 Inborn behavioral tendencies 
 A way of relating to people, places and things 
 Not due to parenting 
 Shaped into personality
New York Longitudinal Study 
 Activity 
 Rhythmicity 
 Approach/Withdrawal 
 Adaptability
New York Longitudinal Study 
 Intensity 
 Mood 
 Persistence and attention span 
 Distractibility 
 Sensory threshold
Temperament Types 
 Easy or flexible (40% of those 
categorized) 
 Difficult, active, or feisty (10%) 
 Slow to warm up/cautious (15%) 
 35 percent are a combination 
 Goodness of fit
Trust Vs Mistrust 
 Problems in developing trust 
 Parents who don’t show affection 
toward child 
 Tension, irritability in the household 
(Stress and neurological development)
Erikson’s Trust Vs Mistrust 
 Requirements for developing trust 
 Regular, adequate care 
 Sufficient sucking 
 Cuddling and physical contact 
 Overall message that they are loved
Erikson’s Autonomy Vs Shame 
and Doubt 
 Found in 1-2 year old children 
 Toddlers want independence or 
autonomy 
 Should be allowed to be independent 
within safe limits 
 Pride requires self-evaluation

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Lifespan Psychology Module 4 slide on infancy

  • 2. Physical Growth  Weight (Average 7.5 lbs)  Doubles by 4 months  Triples by 12 months  Length  20 inches at birth  32-36 inches by age 2  Body proportions
  • 3. The Brain  Size increase (25% to 75%)  Growth of connectors  Loss of connectors  Myelination  Variation in maturation
  • 4. Motor Development  Newborn reflexes  Automatic responses to stimuli  Include sucking, rooting, palmer grasp, etc.
  • 5. Motor Development  Gross motor skills  Large movements
  • 6. Motor Development  Fine motor skills  Precise movements of hand and fingers  Eye-hand coordination  Manipulating small objects  Take longer to acquire
  • 7. Sensory Development  Vision-least developed sense at birth  Newborn focus 8-16 inches away  Problems scanning/tracking  Binocular vision at 14 weeks  Color vision poor  Hearing-most developed sense at birth
  • 8. Nutrition: Ideal Diet  Breast milk  Pros of breastfeeding  When to avoid breastfeeding  Wetnursing Today?  Find out more at http://www.prolacta.com/
  • 9. Malnutrition  In developing countries:  Infantile marasmus  Kwashiorkor  In United States:  Milk-anemia Photo Courtesy CDC
  • 11. Jean Piaget SENSORIMOTOR INTELLIGENCE
  • 13. Stage One  Birth to 1 month  Reflexive actions  Few schema
  • 14. Stage Two  1-4 months  1st adaptations to the environment  More schema
  • 15. Stage Three  4-8 months  Repeating actions  Starts to realize that he or she can have an impact on the world
  • 16. Stage Four  8-12 months  New adaptations and anticipation  Look forward to upcoming events  Object permanence achieved  Was Piaget wrong?
  • 17. Stage Five  12-18 months  Experimentation of little scientists  Discovering features such as gravity, simple cause and effect  Trial and error learning
  • 18. Stage Six  18-24 months  Mental combinations  Child begins to “think” in order to solve problems  Less reliance on trial and error learning  Deferred imitation
  • 19. Steps in Language Development COMMUNICATION
  • 20. Newborn Communication  No language, but effective communication  Use cries  Facial expressions  Body posture
  • 21. 2-5 Months  Cooing begins  Squealing  Laughing  Taking turns in communication  Deaf babies also vocalize  Pointing and gesturing at 5 months
  • 22. 6 Months  Babbling  Make the sounds required for any language  Gradually, will only continue making sounds that are part of one’s own language (at 1 year)  Deaf babies babble with rudiments of signs if used
  • 23. 10 Months Understanding comes before speaking
  • 24. 12-13 Months  First spoken words  Holophrasic speech  Underextension  Overextension  Vocabulary of about 50 words  Deaf babies vocalizations disappear by age 2
  • 25. 18-24 Months  Vocabulary growth spurt at 18 months  Two word sentences at 21 months  3-5 word telegraphic (or “text message”) speech at 24 months
  • 26. Helping Children Learn to Speak Why baby talk? (child-directed speech)
  • 27. Theories of Language Development  Infants teach themselves (Chomsky’s L.A.D.)  (but must be in person)  Infants are taught (Skinner)  Infants learn in order to communicate (Social-pragmatics)  For all 3 reasons
  • 28. Psychosocial Development in Infancy A Look At Early Social Relationships and Emotions
  • 29. Emotions  Attraction and withdrawal  Social smiling (2 months)  Laughter (3-5 months)  Fear, sadness, anger (6-8 months)  Jealousy? (6 months)  Stranger wariness, separation anxiety
  • 30. Emotions  Self-Awareness (15 months)  The Rouge Test  Guilt  Shame  Embarrassment
  • 32. Secure Attachments  Child receives care, concern and affection  Leads to a sense of trust and curiosity  Signaled by separation anxiety and stranger wariness
  • 33. Insecure-Resistant  Needs not consistently met  Insecurity and fear of being alone  Fussy, clingy, hard to satisfy
  • 34. Insecure-Avoidant  No attachment; needs not met  Child does not seek comfort from caregiver  Child is neither curious nor clingy
  • 35. Disorganized  Neither plays nor responds  Actions of mother  Cry, freeze, hit, retreat, etc.
  • 36. Attachment Styles Also vary by culture: Germany (insecure-avoidant); Japan (insecure-resistant)
  • 37. Temperament  Inborn behavioral tendencies  A way of relating to people, places and things  Not due to parenting  Shaped into personality
  • 38. New York Longitudinal Study  Activity  Rhythmicity  Approach/Withdrawal  Adaptability
  • 39. New York Longitudinal Study  Intensity  Mood  Persistence and attention span  Distractibility  Sensory threshold
  • 40. Temperament Types  Easy or flexible (40% of those categorized)  Difficult, active, or feisty (10%)  Slow to warm up/cautious (15%)  35 percent are a combination  Goodness of fit
  • 41. Trust Vs Mistrust  Problems in developing trust  Parents who don’t show affection toward child  Tension, irritability in the household (Stress and neurological development)
  • 42. Erikson’s Trust Vs Mistrust  Requirements for developing trust  Regular, adequate care  Sufficient sucking  Cuddling and physical contact  Overall message that they are loved
  • 43. Erikson’s Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt  Found in 1-2 year old children  Toddlers want independence or autonomy  Should be allowed to be independent within safe limits  Pride requires self-evaluation