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upper air way obstruction


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pediatrics medicine

Published in: Health & Medicine
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upper air way obstruction

  1. 1. WINTERTemplate Acute upper airway obstruction Prepared by : Dr Lulwah AlThumali Pediatric Resident TCH
  2. 2. Upper Airways Lower Airways
  3. 3. Obstruction of the portion of the airways located above the thoracic inlet. • Ranges from nasal obstruction till larynx and upper trachea
  4. 4. Adult’s vs Children’s Airway
  5. 5.  Stridor : ( Inspiratory stridor )  - Harsh sound produced by vibration of upper airway structure - Indicates upper airway obstruction  Hoarseness: Indicates involvement of vocal cords  Respiratory distress / suprasternal retraction
  6. 6. WINTERTemplate Upper airway Anatomy Extrathoracic obstruction Intrathoracic obstruction • Supraglottic area nasopharynx, epiglottis, larynx, aryepiglottic folds, and false vocal cords. • Glottic and subglottic area includes the portion of the trachea that lies within the thoracic cavity, as well as the mainstem bronchi
  7. 7. CROUP ( LARYNGOTRACHEOBRONCHITIS ) •Most patient with croup are between ages of 3 months & 5 years ( peak in 2nd year of life ) •The incidence is higher in boys •Common in late fall & winter  Usually viral in origin - Parainfluenza virus (type 1) - Influenza virus - RSV , adenovirus , measles virus
  8. 8. Clinical Presentation HISTORY : •Rhinorrhea , sore throat , cough • Fever • Hoarseness , barking cough & inspiratory stridor • Respiratory distress Physical Examination : • Hoarse cry • Respiratory distress • Respiratory failure • Suprasternal , intercostal & subcostal retractions • Lethargy , agitation • Hypoxemia , Hypercarbia •Tachypnea , Tachycardia •Dehydration •Cyanosis ( late )
  9. 9. Diagnosis  It is clinically diagnosed  Neck x-ray and CBC all should be done in clinically stable pt . - AP neck film : show a pencil tip or steeple sign of the subglottic trachea
  10. 10. Treatment •Cool mist administration •Corticosteroids : Used in moderate to severe croup A child who needs admission in ICU for croup management needs steroid. Preparations  Dexamethasone  Nebulized Budesonide ○ Not as effective as dexamethasone ○ Much more expensive than dexamethasone •Nebulized racemic epinephrine •Heliox
  11. 11. Epiglottitis Medical emergency (sudden ) Rare Caused by : group A streptococcal or staphylococcus aureus infections sniffing position Thumb sign
  12. 12. Signs and symptoms : • Respiratory distress: stridor, tachypnea, anxiety, refusal to lie down, "sniffing" or "tripod" posture Sore throat, dysphagia, drooling, anterior neck pain (at the level of the hyoid) • Muffled "hot potato" voice • Marked retractions and labored breathing indicate impending respiratory failure Epiglottitis
  13. 13. Consider epiglottitis in ‼ Febrile, toxic-appearing children with rapid onset and progression of dysphagia, drooling, and respiratory distress, especially if unimmunized .
  14. 14. WINTERTemplate Evaluation : •Secure airway •Communicate early with otolaryngologist, anesthesiologist, and intensivist •Keep the patient in a setting where the airway can be rapidly managed if necessary (eg, the emergency department, operating room, or intensive care unit) Findings: •Stridor, drooling •Suprasternal and subcostal retractions •Swollen, erythematous epiglottis, inflammation of the supraglottic structures
  15. 15. Imaging: Soft-tissue radiograph of the lateral neck: Enlarged epiglottis ("thumb" sign) Management : Airway In patients with moderate to severe respiratory distress, secure the airway in the operating room or similarly equipped setting (endotracheal tube or surgically if necessary) with an anesthesiologist and otolaryngologist present If abrupt obstruction: Attempt bag-valve mask ventilation first During laryngoscopy, pressure on the chest by an assistant may produce bubbling and help indicate the location of the glottis Perform needle cricothyrotomy or surgical cricothyrotomy if unable to ventilate or intubate
  16. 16. Laboratory studies: Epiglottal cultures Blood cultures Antimicrobial therapy : Administer empiric antimicrobial therapy: Cefotaxime OR ceftriaxone PLUS If community- or hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus is suspected, add clindamycin OR vancomycin based upon local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns Monitor Monitor patient in the intensive care unit
  17. 17. • Bacterial tracheitis is an invasive exudative bacterial infection of the soft tissues of the trachea Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, gram- negative enteric bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa • Aspiration of bacteria-laden secretions into the trachea during bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract (eg, acute bacterial sinusitis, streptococcal pharyngitis) or after tonsillectomy also may lead to bacterial tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis
  18. 18. Occurs during the first six years of life Common in the fall and winter, coinciding with the typical seasonal epidemics of parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and seasonal influenza
  19. 19. Symptoms and signs : ●Fever ●Stridor (inspiratory or expiratory) ●Cough (not painful; membranous exudates may be expectorated) ●Respiratory distress ●Drooling is uncommon, but may be present
  20. 20. Radiographic features — Lateral neck or anteroposterior radiographs typically show narrowing (steeple sign )
  21. 21. • Laboratory features • Neither a complete blood count (CBC) with differential nor inflammatory markers are helpful in confirming or excluding the diagnosis of bacterial tracheitis. • The white blood cell (WBC) count is highly variable. Mild leukopenia is as common as leukocytosis. Increased proportion of bands and/or absolute band counts are common • White blood cell count does not correlate with severity of illness or ultimate length of hospitalization • In the only series that evaluated inflammatory markers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein were elevated in 26 of 38 patients (68 percent) but these markers are nonspecific. • Gram stain of exudates typically shows neutrophils and may show one or more bacterial morphologies • . Blood cultures are rarely positive
  22. 22. DIAGNOSIS Definitive diagnosis of bacterial tracheitis requires direct visualization of an inflamed, exudate-covered trachea TREATMENT : AIRWAY MANAGEMENT •Supplemental oxygen •Artificial airway •Bronchodilators •Glucocorticoids •FLUID MANAGEMENT •ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY
  23. 23. PREVENTION : Vaccination against pneumococci and viruses (eg, measles, influenza) that may predispose children to bacterial tracheitis and other secondary bacterial infections of the respiratory tract is the primary means of prevention.
  24. 24. • infectious disease caused by the gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. • The word diphtheria comes from the Greek word for leather, which refers to the tough pharyngeal membrane that is the clinical hallmark of infection. • There is : Respiratory diphtheria Systemic manifestations Cutaneous diphtheria Diphtheria
  25. 25. WINTERTemplate DIAGNOSIS •clinical manifestations : •Sore throat, malaise, cervical lymphadenopathy, and low-grade fever •Mild pharyngeal erythema typically progresses to areas of white exudate; these coalesce to form an adherent gray pseudomembrane that bleeds with scraping Definitive diagnosis of diphtheria requires culture of C. diphtheriae from respiratory tract secretions or cutaneous lesions and a positive toxin assay Routine laboratory results are usually nonspecific and may include a moderately elevated white blood cell count and proteinuria.
  26. 26. TREATMENT Antitoxin Diphtheria antitoxin is a hyperimmune antiserum produced in horses that binds to and inactivates the diphtheria toxin Antibiotics The antibiotics of choice are erythromycin (500 mg four times daily for 14 days) or procaine penicillin G (300,000 units every 12 hours for patients ≤10 kg and 600,000 units every 12 hours for patients >10 kg intramuscularly) until the patient can take oral medicine, followed by oral penicillin V (250 mg four times daily) for a total treatment course of 14 days .
  27. 27. Airway Foreign Bodies • Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a potentially life-threatening event, • It can block respiration by obstructing the airway, thereby impairing oxygenation and ventilation •Approximately 80 % of pediatric FBA episodes occur in children younger than three years, with the peak incidence between one and two years of age .
  28. 28. • The majority of aspirated FBs in children are located in the bronchi . Laryngeal and tracheal FBs are less common. In a review of 1160 suspected FBA aspirations in children, a FB was successfully removed in 1068 children (92 percent) . The sites of the FB were as follows: ●Larynx – 3 % ●Trachea/carina – 13 % ●Right lung – 60 % ●Left lung – 23 % (18 percent in the main bronchus and 5 percent in the lower bronchus) ●Bilateral – 2 %
  29. 29. RADIOLOGIC EVALUATION • Plain radiographic evaluation of the chest may or may not be helpful • Depending upon whether the object is radioopaque, and whether and to what degree airway obstruction is present. • Most objects aspirated by children are radiolucent (eg, nuts, food particles) , and are not detected with standard radiographs unless aspiration is accompanied by airway obstruction or other complications . • Normal findings on radiography do not rule out FBA, and the clinical history is the main determinant of whether to perform a bronchoscopy . .
  30. 30. WINTERTemplate References Essential Nelson 6th Edition Nelson text book 20th Edition UpToDate