Trademark Training

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Trademark Training

  1. 1. TRADEMARK PROTECTION AND ENFORCEMENT 24/25 April, 2008 Kosovo Judicial Institute Luljeta Plakolli-Kasumi, LL.M.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>♦ Purpose of the training Seminar </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Learning Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Course Learning Objectives </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction: Course Learning Objectives <ul><li>♦ Define and apply basic principles of Trademarks and explain why they are necessary for economic growth; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Interpret the purpose and scope of the Kosovo Law on Trademarks; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Determine what marks can and cannot be granted protection pursuant to the Trademark Law; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ List the trademark registration steps at both national and international level; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction: Course Learning Objectives (Continues) <ul><li>♦ Take steps to enforce a Trademark; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Employ available remedies for protection and enforcement of Trademark rights; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Distinguish between Collective and Certification marks; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Comprehend the notion of domain names and cybersquatting in applying for trademarks . </li></ul>
  5. 5. MODULE 1: Foundations and Purposes of Trademark Law <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Place Trademarks into a larger system of Intellectual Property; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain Historical Background of Trademarks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Describe the Need for Trademarks in a Market Economy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. MODULE 1: Intellectual Property and Trademarks: A brief history INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Industrial Property Patents; Trademarks ; Industrial Designs etc . Copyright Literary and Artistic Works i.e. Novels, Poems and Plays, Films, Musicals and Others
  7. 8. MODULE 1: Intellectual Property and Trademarks: A Brief History (continues) <ul><li>♦ TRADEMARKS THROUGHOUT THE HISTORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Ancient times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Medieval era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Industrial era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Today </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. MODULE 1:The Impact of Trademarks on Economic Growth <ul><li>♦ Reduce search costs; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Promote competition; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Enhance sales and create goodwill; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Promote export; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Serve as valuable assets to companies/businesses. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Module 1: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Place Trademarks into a larger system of Intellectual Property; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain Historical Background of Trademarks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Describe the Need for Trademarks in a Market Economy </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. MODULE 2: KOSOVO LAW ON TRADEMARKS <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Comprehend the notion of TM and list types of marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Interpret main TM-related international and EU instrument; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Compare the Kosovo Law on TM with these instruments. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Module 2: Definition of Trademarks <ul><li>♦ TM- A sign that identifies the source of a product </li></ul>
  12. 13. Module 2: TM-related Int’l and EU instruments <ul><li>♦ Paris Convention </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Madrid Agreement & Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>♦ TRIPS Agreement; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ First Council Directive </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Council Reg. on Community TM </li></ul>
  13. 14. Module 2: Purpose and Scope of Kosovo Law on TM <ul><li>♦ TM law protects: </li></ul><ul><li> ♦ rights in TM/SM; </li></ul><ul><li> ♦ commercial designations; </li></ul><ul><li> ♦ collective & certification marks </li></ul>
  14. 15. Module 2: Purpose and Scope of Kosovo Law on TM (continues) <ul><li>♦ Two basic protection requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Must be distinctive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Must be capable of being represented graphically </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Module 2: Purpose and Scope of Kosovo Law on TM (continues) <ul><li>♦ TM rights can be acquired through : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Registration; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Use (if they have acquired a secondary meaning); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Under the Paris Convention (Well-Known marks). </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Module 2: Purpose and Scope of Kosovo Law on TM (Cont.) <ul><li>♦ WIPO Joint Recommend. On Well-Known Marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Degree of knowledge or recognition of the mark in the relevant sector of the public; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Duration, extent and geographical area of use of the mark; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Duration, extent and geographical area of promotion of the mark; </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Module 2: Purpose and Scope of Kosovo Law on TM (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>♦ Duration and geographical area of any registration and/or application for registration; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Record of successful enforcement of rights in the mark; the extent to which the mark was recognized by public authorities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Value associated with the mark. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Module 2: Purpose and Scope of Kosovo Law on TM (Cont.) <ul><li>♦ Other fundamental concepts contained in the Law on Trademarks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Priority and Seniority; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Earlier trademarks and other earlier rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Exhaustion of rights. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Module 2: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Comprehend the notion of TM and list types of marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Interpret main TM-related international and EU instrument; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Compare the Kosovo Law on TM with these instruments. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. MODULE 3: Prerequisites and Limitations to Trademarks <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦Compare various scales of strengths of marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain the doctrine of functionality of marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List and apply limitations to trademarks. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Module 3: Prerequisites to Protection of Trademarks
  22. 24. SONY ERICSSON WALKMAN DIGITAL
  23. 25. Module 3: Functionality of Marks <ul><li>♦ Kellog Co. v. National Biscuits Co. (1938)- “ TM law cannot be used to extend monopoly over a light bulb shape after the expiration of patent for that shape” </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Koninklijke Philips Electronics </li></ul><ul><li>NV. v. Remington Consumer Products Ltd.(C-299/99)- “the distinctiveness of marks composed of shapes which are functional cannot be established through use”. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Module 3: Limitations to TM protection <ul><li>♦ Deceptive marks; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Armorial bearing, state or flags/emblems of int’l.org; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Marks which cannot be represented graphical; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Marks against moral and public order. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Module 3: Limitations to TM protection <ul><li>♦ LEATHER SHOES for shoes not made of </li></ul><ul><li>Leather-deceptive mark </li></ul><ul><li>♦ RED CROSS – international organization; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ SCENT-mark which cannot be rep.graphically </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Religious signs with respect to immoral </li></ul><ul><li>goods/services- mark against moral </li></ul>
  26. 28. Module 3: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦Compare various scales of strengths of marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain the doctrine of functionality of marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List and apply limitations to trademarks. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. MODULE 4: TRADEMARK REGISTRATION <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List steps for national registration of TM; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identify the classification of goods and services according to the NICE classification Agreement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Differentiate between Int’l registration and European Registration of TM. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Module 4: TM registration at the KPTO <ul><li>♦ Trademark search; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Filing of TM registration application; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Application Examination Process; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Publication and opposition; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Trademark registration. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Module 4: NICE Classification Agreement <ul><li>NICE Diplomatic Conference – 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ goods and services are organized into classes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ each class represented by a heading; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ 9 th Edition applies: 34 classes of goods (1-34) and 11 classes of services (35-45) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Module 4: Int’l. TM registration: Madrid System <ul><li>♦ Madrid System: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Madrid Agreement (1891) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Protocol relating to the Madrid Agreement (1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♦ Substantive requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Be a national of a MS, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Have a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment/ domicile in a MS </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Module 4: Int’l. TM registration: Madrid System (Cont.) <ul><li>♦ Three types of applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ MM1- governed exclusively by the Madrid Agreement ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ MM2- governed exclusively by the Protocol; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ MM3- governed by both the Agreement and the Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♦ Based on national registration in the “Country of Origin” </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Based either on a national </li></ul><ul><li>registration or an application </li></ul><ul><li>for registration </li></ul>
  32. 34. Module 4: Int’l. TM registration: Madrid System (Cont.) <ul><li>♦ Registration steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Filing the application; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Registration, Notification and Publication; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Examination of Application by the National Offices of Designated Contracting States; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Period of Validity of international registration of trademark. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Module 4: Community Trademark Registration (CTM) <ul><li>♦ Registration Steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Filing the application; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Examination; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Publication and Opposition; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Registration. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Module 4: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List steps for national registration of TM; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identify the classification of goods and services according to the NICE classification Agreement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Differentiate between Int’l registration and European Registration of TM. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. MODULE 5: ENFORCEMENT OF TM RIGHTS <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Analyze rights conferred by TM registration and property nature of TM rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Enforce TM rights through the licensing agreements; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Apply the concept of consumer confusion to TM infringement cases; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identify cases of loss of trademark registration. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Module 5: Rights Conferred by TM registration: Property Nature of TM <ul><li>♦ The right to use the TM; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ The right to authorize another to use the TM; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ The right to consent to the use of the TM; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ The right to obtain judicial remedy for a violation of the trademark </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul><ul><li>Sign ® can be used with respect to registered trademarks/service marks </li></ul><ul><li>Signs ™ or SM may be used to give notice of use absent registration </li></ul>
  37. 39. Module 5: Licensing of Registered Trademarks <ul><li>Types of TM Licenses: </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Depending for which goods/services and which locality issued: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Limited license; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ General license. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♦ Depending if licensed to only one person or more than one persons at the same time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Exclusive license; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Non-exclusive license </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Module 5: Violation of Trademarks Consumer Confusion <ul><li>♦ Confusion can arise with respect to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identical or similar marks, and/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identical or similar goods and services </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. Module 5: Violation of Trademarks Consumer Confusion (Cont.) <ul><li>♦ ECJ factors/likelihood of confusion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ In assessing the similarity of goods/services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Nature of goods and services; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>♦ The perception of the average consumer; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>♦ If the two undertakings are in direct competition or are economically linked to each other; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Module 5: Violation of Trademarks Consumer Confusion (Cont.) <ul><li>♦ In assessing the similarity of marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ The degree of visual similarity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ The degree of aural similarity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ The degree of conceptual similarity. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Module 5: Loss of Trademark <ul><li>♦ If the registered TM is not used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Within 5 years from the date of publication in the OG/ no excuse for non use (Article 47.1 (a)); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ For an uninterrupted period of 5 years/ no excuse for non use (Article 47.1 (b)). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♦ What constitutes “use”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Use of registered TM by its licensee; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Used in different form which does not alter the distinctive character of the TM in its registered form; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Affixed to goods in Kosovo solely for export purposes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Advertising (including Internet) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>♦ If the registered TM is not used properly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ If it has become a common name in the trade (generic) as a result of inactivity by the TM proprietor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XEROX for photocopying products and services: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper use : I use Xerox for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photocopying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper use : I have to Xerox a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>document </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. Module 5: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Analyze rights conferred by TM registration and property nature of TM rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Enforce TM rights through the licensing agreements; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Apply the concept of consumer confusion to TM infringement cases; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identify cases of loss of trademark registration. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. MODULE 6: REMEDIES TO TM INFRINGEMENT <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List available remedies for violation of a trademark; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain the role of customs in combating counterfeiting and enforcing TM rights </li></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Module 6: National Remedies for TM Infringement <ul><li>♦ Cease and Desist Letter- attempt for an out-of-court settlement; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Civil Remedies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Ask for an Court order; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Claim material and non-material damages; </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Module 6: National Remedies for TM Infringement (continues) <ul><ul><li>♦ Criminal Remedies for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Unauthorized use of a trade name, TM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> or design with the intent to deceive consumers (Article 245 CC); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Manufacturing and use of false marks, measures and weights with the intent to use them as genuine in the course of trade (Article 245 CC). </li></ul></ul>
  46. 49. Module 6: National Remedies for TM Infringement (continues) <ul><li>♦ Administrative Remedies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ No central administrative authority; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ There is a need for an inter-institutional cooperation and coordination. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 50. Module 6: The Role of Customs in combating counterfeiting: examples from other countries <ul><li>♦ Counterfeiting- intentional TM infringement (average loss of tax revenues in the EU, € 12,866 million); </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Customs Watch Application- Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Kosovo Customs Code- detection of “imminent infringement” (not provided by the Law on Trademarks ) </li></ul>
  48. 52. Module 6: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List available remedies for violation of a trademark; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain the role of customs in combating counterfeiting and enforcing TM rights. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 53. MODULE 7: COLLECTIVE AND CERTIFICATION MARKS <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identify collective and certification marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain the nature of collective and certification marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Analyze the acquisition of rights from collective and certification marks. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 54. Module 7: Collective Marks <ul><li>♦ </li></ul><ul><li>A collective mark- is used by members of association to indicate that their goods/services are of the quality, geographical origin, or contain characteristics which are set by respective association. </li></ul><ul><li>♦“ Association”- trader’s and/or manufacturer’s associations, not government departments; </li></ul><ul><li>♦ A sign which cannot function as a regular TM, may function as a collective mark (see Article A-3.1 and Article 9.1 item b) </li></ul><ul><li>♦ Terms governing the use of CM (must be provided by the owner association when applying for registration of a CM); </li></ul><ul><li>♦ A CM will not be registered if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ The Terms are contrary to the public policy or principles of morality (Article A-4.1); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Public will be likely mislead as to the character or significance of the mark…(Article 6-1 item b) </li></ul></ul>
  51. 55. Module 7: Certification Marks <ul><li>♦ Difference between Certification marks and </li></ul><ul><li>Collective marks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Collective marks- used only by a specific group of people who belong to owner association; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Certification mars- can be used by anyone who complies with certification standards defined by the owner </li></ul></ul>
  52. 56. SAINT-HUBERT 41
  53. 57. Module 7: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Identify collective and certification marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Explain the nature of collective and certification marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Analyze the acquisition of rights from collective and certification marks. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 58. MODULE 8: DOMAIN NAMES AND CYBERSQUATTING <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Establish a link between Trademarks and Domain Names; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Define the notion of Cybersquatting; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Use available remedies against cybersquatting. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 59. Module 8: Domain Names and Trademarks <ul><li>♦ Domain name: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.bbc.co.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwideweb.bbc.gTLD.ccTLD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.ks.gov.net instead of www.gov.net.ks </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. Module 8: Domain Names and Trademarks (continues) <ul><ul><li>WIPO Recommend. On Protection of TM on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ No TM infringement if the user: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Enjoys rights over that sign in another country; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ The use was not done in bad faith; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Provides sufficient information to the consumers regarding the sign in order to avoid confusion. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 61. Module 8: Cybersquatting and available remedies <ul><li>♦ Cybersquatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration of a TM as a domain name with the intent of profiting from it, by selling it to the TM owner. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 62. Module 8: Cybersquatting and available remedies (Continues) <ul><li>♦ Available remedies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Legal remedies available under national laws (not effective when it comes to establishing personal jurisdiction, and can be too lengthy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) and Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (Rules of Procedure), introduced by ICANN </li></ul></ul>
  59. 63. Module 8: Cybersquatting and available remedies (Continues) <ul><li>♦ Under UDRP the TM proprietor must prove that : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ the domain name is identical or confusingly similar to a TM or SM in which he/she has rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ the registrant of the domain name at issue has no rights or legitimate interest in the domain name; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ the registrant registered and used the domain name at issue in bad faith. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 64. <ul><li>Clubcoralia.com </li></ul>CORALIA
  61. 65. Module 8: SUMMARY <ul><li>♦ Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Establish a link between Trademarks and Domain Names; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Define the notion of Cybersquatting; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Use available remedies against cybersquatting. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 66. SUMMARY <ul><li>Course Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Define and apply basic principles of Trademarks and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explain why they are necessary for economic growth; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Interpret the purpose and scope of the Kosovo Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on Trademarks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Determine what marks can and cannot be granted protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pursuant to the Trademark Law; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ List the trademark registration steps at both national and international level; </li></ul></ul>
  63. 67. SUMMARY (Continues) <ul><ul><li>♦ Take steps to enforce a Trademark; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Employ available remedies for protection and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enforcement of Trademark rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Distinguish between Collective and Certification marks; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>♦ Comprehend the notion of domain names and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cybersquatting in applying for trademarks. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 68. Questions and Answers
  65. 69. Thank you for your attention! Luljeta Plakolli-Kasumi 044 147 825 [email_address]

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