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  1. 1. Information Management SystemsMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  2. 2. Information Technologies (IT) Manual and electronic means for creating and handling intellectual capital and facilitating communication—as they relate to an information system. On June 5, 2000, the Commerce Department said that the information technology industry is the number one driver of the American economy.MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  3. 3. Data Include Such Things As Sales figures Costs Inventory items and quantities Customer Government complaints statisticsMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  4. 4. Seven Characteristics of Useful Information Understandable—presented in a suitable form Reliable—accurate, consistent with fact, and verifiable Relevant—pertains to a manager’s area of responsibility and is essential Complete—contains all the facts that a manager needs to make decisions and solve problems Concise—just enough, omitting material that is not needed Timely—available when needed, in real time when possible Cost-effective—created and disseminated at a reasonable cost MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  5. 5. Top-Level Managers Need Information On Economic Technological conditions innovations Competitor Progress of s operational units Legal and political Customers’ needs for developments and acceptance of the products and services MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  6. 6. Management Information System (MIS) A subsystem within an organization’s IS designed to serve the specific information needs of all decision makers A formal collection of processes provides managers with the quality of information they need to: – Make decisions – Solve problems – Implement change – Create effective and efficient working environments MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  7. 7. Information Provided Through MIS Helps To Plan Organize Staff Control Properly use Lead operations resourcesMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  8. 8. MIS For An Oil CompanyMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  9. 9. Developing an IS and MIS Begins With A task force or committee is formed.An inventory is taken of equipment on hand. Machine capabilities along with those of their support personnel are determined.The organization’s culture and climate must be analyzed.A survey of current information practices is conducted. MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  10. 10. MIS Guidelines Involve users in the system’s design. Establish clear lines of authority and leadership for the IS personnel. Establish clear procedures for gathering, sorting, interpreting, displaying, storing, and distributing data and for interacting with the system. Where technical specialists are used, ensure that both they and the people they support fully understand each specialist’s function and roles. Build an IS and MIS staff. MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  11. 11. Basic CoreEquipment of Any CIS MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  12. 12. The Basic Functions of a CISFunction DescriptionComputer Operations Runs the system; involves starting jobs, mounting the proper input and output volumes, and responding to problem conditionsSystem Programming Installs and maintains the operating system and associated system softwareData Entry Entering data in machine-readable formApplication Program Writing new application systemsDevelopmentApplication Program Correcting and updating existing application systemsMaintenanceData Management Assuring data security, access, integrity, and usabilityCommunications Configuring and maintaining the networkManagementEnd-User Computing Helping and educating users MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  13. 13. End-User Computing, Collateral Problems The first problem concerns control. The first problem concerns control. A second problem concerns possible duplication of A second problem concerns possible duplication of expensive software and hardware. expensive software and hardware. The third problem lies in orderly, authorized access to The third problem lies in orderly, authorized access to both the organization’s systems and to its database. both the organization’s systems and to its database. MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  14. 14. Databases:Organizations’ Most Valuable Assets Loss or impairment May be may shut created down the internally enterprise Accessing outside databases can be useful but expensiveMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  15. 15. Computer Hardware Consists Of CentralInput devices processing unit (CPU) Control unit Storage Output devices devices MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  16. 16. Protocol Rules and standards for transferring information between computers Most common TCP/IP protocols – SMTP for email – NNTP for Usenet news groups – FTP for file transfer – DNS for servers exchanging directions with each other MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  17. 17. Artificial Intelligence (AI)  The capability of computers to – Learn – Sense – Think for themselvesMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  18. 18. Branches of AI Include: • Voice-recognition systems • Speech synthesis programs • Computer vision • Neural networksMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  19. 19. Group Decision Support System Allows a group focusing on a problem to interact with one anotherUsed to exchange information, Used in brainstorming and data, and ideas problem-solving sessions Used to facilitate conferencing of all kindsRequires networking and meetingware or groupware software programsMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  20. 20. EIS Uses Include Performing risk Forecasting and cost-benefit Running business analyses game situationsStrategic planning Linear programming Monitoring Monitoring critical success quality, factors and Socialproductivity, and stakeholder responsibility ethics expectations efforts MultiMedia by 2001 South-
  21. 21. Managing Information Systems Four Basic Challenges  Overcome resistance to the new and different  Enable employees to use the system  Decide what operations to keep and what to outsource  Evaluate the results of the system’s operationsMultiMedia by 2001 South-
  22. 22. Overcoming Resistance,Traditional Functional Organizations Find it difficult to change the ways in which information is gathered and shared Impede the flow Have too many of and access to levels and filters information MultiMedia by 2001 South-