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  1. 1. Team Management and ConflictMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  2. 2. Teams Defined•• A group of two or more people A group of two or more people•• Interact regularly and coordinate their work to accomplish Interact regularly and coordinate their work to accomplish a common objective a common objective MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  3. 3. Three Points Characterize a Team First, at least two people must be involved. Second, the members must interact regularly and coordinate their work. Third, members of a team must share a common objective.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  4. 4. Characteristics of Effective Teams Team members are committed. All team members feel free to express themselves and participate in discussions and decisions. Members trust each other. When needs for leadership arise, any member feels free to volunteer. Decisions are made by consensus. As problems occur, the team focuses on causes, not symptoms. Team members are flexible in terms of work processes and problem solving. Team members change and grow. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  5. 5. Two Types of Teams Vertical Team – sometimes called a command team or a functional team.  Composed of a manager and his or her subordinates.  May include as many as three or four levels of management. Horizontal Team – made up of members drawn from different departments in an organization.  In most cases such a team is created to address a specific task or objective.  May disband after the objective is achieved.  Three common kinds of horizontal teams: – Task forces – Cross-functional teams – Committees MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  6. 6. Potential Uses For Teams Product Development ? Teams Project Teams Teams ? Team Team Quality Teams Options Options Teams ? Process Teams Teams Work TeamsMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  7. 7. Virtual Teams Defining Characteristics Members are distributed across multiple locations. Membership can be extremely diverse in skills and culture. Team members can join or depart the team in midstream. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  8. 8. Teams with Moderate Independence Project Cross-functional Product developmentMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  9. 9. Independent Work Teams Self-managed Self-directed Work teams Executive teamsMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  10. 10. Steps in the Process of Team BuildingStep 1: Assessing feasibility.Step 1: Assessing feasibility.Step 2: Identifying priorities.Step 2: Identifying priorities.Step 3: Defining mission and objectives.Step 3: Defining mission and objectives.Step 4: Uncovering and eliminating barriers to team building.Step 4: Uncovering and eliminating barriers to team building.Step 5: Starting with small teams.Step 5: Starting with small teams.Step 6: Planning for training needs.Step 6: Planning for training needs.Step 7: Planning to empower.Step 7: Planning to empower.Step 8: Planning for feedback and development time.Step 8: Planning for feedback and development time. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  11. 11. Prince (1989), Parker (1990) Reported that the Typical Team Includes Roles For Task specialists Social specialistsMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  12. 12. Roles for Task Specialists Include The contributor, a data-driven person who supplies needed information and pushes for high team performance standards. The challenger, a team player who constantly questions the goals, methods, and even the ethics of the team. The initiator, the person who proposes new solutions, new methods, and new systems for team problems. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  13. 13. Roles for the Social Specialists Include The collaborator, the “big picture” person who urges the team to stay with its vision and to achieve it. The communicator, the person who listens well, facilitates well, and humanizes the work of the team. The cheerleader, the person on the team who encourages and praises individual and team efforts. The compromiser, the team member who will shift opinions to maintain harmony. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  14. 14. Team Leaders Require a Special Set of Skills Oriented toward Create a noncompetitive Renew trustteamwork and cooperation atmosphere Encourage Share Think members to leadership reasonably assume as much responsibility Keep their Positively as they can teams focused reinforce handle MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  15. 15. Stages of Team DevelopmentForming Storming Norming Performing MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  16. 16. Forming Stage Members become aquatinted Members test behaviors Marked by a high degree of uncertaintyMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  17. 17. Storming Stage Disagreement and conflict occur. Disagreement and conflict occur. Personalities emerge. Personalities emerge. Members assert their opinions. Members assert their opinions. Disagreements may arise. Disagreements may arise. Coalitions or subgroups may emerge. Coalitions or subgroups may emerge. The team is not yet unified. The team is not yet unified.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  18. 18. Norming StageTeam comes together Disagreements and conflicts resolvedTeams achieves unity;consensus about who Now focused holds the power It has oneness A sense of team cohesionMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  19. 19. Performing Stage Begins to function and moves toward accomplishing its objectives. Team members interact well with each other. Deal with problems. Coordinate work. Confront each other if necessary.MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  20. 20. Determinants and Results of Team Cohesiveness High Morale Small Size Frequent Interaction High Clear Objectives Cohesiveness Success Objective Achievement Degree of Team Factors Cohesiveness Results Low Morale Large Size Infrequent Interaction Low Unclear Objectives Cohesiveness Failure Failure to Achieve Objectives MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  21. 21. Effects of Cohesiveness and Performance Norms on Productivity High B A Team Performance Norms Moderate Productivity High Productivity C D Low-to-Moderate Low Productivity Productivity Low Low Team Cohesiveness HighMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  22. 22. Costs of Teams Power-realignment Training expenses Lost productivity Loss of productive Free-riding workersMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  23. 23. Philosophical Approaches to Conflict Beliefs Reactions TRADITIONAL VIEW• Conflict is unnecessary. • Immediately stop conflict.• Conflict is to be feared. • Remove all evidence of conflict, including people.• Conflict is harmful.• Conflict is a personal failure. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  24. 24. Philosophical Approaches to Conflict Beliefs Reactions BEHAVIORAL VIEW• Conflict occurs frequently in • Immediately move to resolve or organizations. eliminate conflict.• Conflict is to be expected.• Conflict can be positive but, more likely, it is harmful. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  25. 25. Philosophical Approaches to Conflict Beliefs Reactions INTERACTIONIST VIEW• Conflict is inevitable in • Manage conflict to maximize organizations. the positive.• Conflict is necessary for • Manage conflict to minimize organizational health. the negative.• Conflict is neither inherently good nor bad. MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  26. 26. Sources of ConflictDifferences in Values and objectives perceptions Disagreements about role requirementsWork activities Individual approaches Breakdowns in communicationMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  27. 27. Analyze a Conflict Situation, Three Key Questions Who is in conflict? What is the source of conflict? What is the level of conflict?MultiMedia by 2002 South-
  28. 28. Conflict Situation Strategy  Avoidance  Smoothing  Compromise  Collaboration  Confrontation  Appeals to subordinate objectives  Decisions by a third partyMultiMedia by 2002 South-
  29. 29. Circumstances in Which Managers Stimulate Conflict When team When people appear members exhibit to be afraid to do and accept minimal anything other than performance. the norm. When team members passively accept events or behavior that should motivate action.MultiMedia by 2002 South-