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  1. 1. A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e Chapter 11Notebooks, Tablet PCs, and PDAs
  2. 2. Objectives• Learn how to select, support, and add peripheral devices to notebooks• Learn how to replace and upgrade internal notebook components• Learn how to troubleshoot notebooks• Learn about technologies relating to tablet PCs• Learn about personal digital assistants (PDAs)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 2
  3. 3. Introduction• Notebook use is growing – Over half of the PCs purchased today are notebooks – 30 percent of PCs in use today are notebooks• Topics to cover – Supporting and upgrading notebooks – Troubleshooting notebooks – Tablet PCs – Personal digital assistants (PDAs)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 3
  4. 4. Supporting Notebooks• Notebook (laptop): a portable computer• Comparing notebooks to full-sized computers – Same internal technology, but built as a single system – Notebooks are smaller and portable – Notebooks use less power• Topics to cover: – Selecting and purchasing a notebook – Special considerations for servicing notebooks – Caring for notebooks – Connecting peripheral equipment to notebooksA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 4
  5. 5. Tips for Buying a Notebook• Consider a notebook if portability is important – Desktops are faster, cheaper, and easier to upgrade• Do not buy extra features unless they are needed – Extra features are costly and add to notebook weight• Purchase an extended warranty• Select a well regarded brand• Some guidelines for notebook components: – Choose an active matrix LCD panel (over dual scan) – Buy as much memory as you plan to use later – The best type of battery to buy is a lithium battery A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 5
  6. 6. Special Considerations When Servicing Notebooks• Warranty concerns – Be careful not to void the warranty – Information needed before contacting technical support • Notebook model and serial number • Name, phone number, and address of the purchaser• Service manuals and other sources of information – Enable you to safely disassemble a notebook – Where to find the necessary documentation • Physical manual provided by the manufacturer • On the Internet; e.g., the manufacturer’s Web siteA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 6
  7. 7. Figure 11-2 The model and serial number stamped on the bottom of a notebook are used to identify the notebook to service desk personnelA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 7
  8. 8. Figure 11-3 A notebook service manual tells you how to use diagnostic tools, troubleshoot a notebook, and replace componentsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 8
  9. 9. Special Considerations When Servicing Notebooks (continued)• Diagnostic tools provided by manufacturers – Used to pinpoint a problem component – Sources: setup CD or manufacturer’s Web site – Example: PC-Doctor• The OEM operating system build – Notebooks are sold with the OS preinstalled – OEM: original equipment manufacturer – OS build: customized operating system build – Diagnostic software is customized to the notebookA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 9
  10. 10. Special Considerations When Servicing Notebooks (continued)• Windows notebook features – Channel aggregation: allows two modem connections – Power management features – Support for PC cards – Windows 9x/Me Briefcase – Windows 2000/XP Offline Files and Folders – Folder redirection under Windows 2000/XP – Hardware profiles under Windows 2000/XP• Sources for backup OS: recovery CD or partitionA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 10
  11. 11. Figure 11-6 This notebook hard drive has a recovery partition that can be used to recover the systemA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 11
  12. 12. Special Considerations When Servicing Notebooks (continued)• Upgrade the operating system only if necessary• Tips for upgrading a notebook operating system – Upgrade the OS using an OS build from the OEM – Ensure that supporting device drivers are included – Follow OEM’s specific instructions for the installation• Advice for upgrading with an off-the-shelf of the OS – Determine if system components are compatible – Ensure that all device drivers are stored on hard drive – If recommended, flash the BIOS before the upgrade A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 12
  13. 13. Caring for Notebooks• A few general guidelines: – Do not touch the LCD panel with sharp objects – Use battery packs recommended by the OEM – Keep your notebook at a controlled temperature – Avoid direct sunlight for an extended period of time – Do not touch notebook until you are grounded• A few cleaning tips: – Clean the LCD panel with a soft dry cloth – If keys stick, spray under keys with compressed air – Clean the battery connections with a contact cleanerA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 13
  14. 14. Caring for Notebooks (Continued)• Securing a notebook – When leaving work, lock notebook in a secure place – Use a notebook cable lock to secure it to your desk – Use a theft-prevention plate (with an identifying label)• Types of passwords – Supervisor, user (power-on), and hard drive – Check CMOS setup to see if passwords are supported• Data backups – Always back up critical data – Use an online backup service (good when traveling)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 14
  15. 15. Figure 11-8 Use a cable lock system to secure a notebook computer to a desk to help prevent it from being stolenA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 15
  16. 16. Figure 11-9 CMOS setup main menu shows support for four power-on passwordsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 16
  17. 17. Caring for Notebooks (Continued)• Two power sources: AC adapter and DC adapter• Types of batteries: – Ni-Cad (nickel-cadmium) – NiMH (nickel-metal-hydride) – Lithium Ion – Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC): experimental• A few tips for managing power: – Check the manual for battery recharging instructions – Use power-management features of your OS – Use standby or hibernate mode when notebook is idleA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 17
  18. 18. Caring for Notebooks (Continued)• Power Options Properties dialog box – Used to modify multiple power management schemes – Example: cause notebook to hibernate after set time• The battery meter can be added to the taskbar• Port replicator: interface to AC outlet and peripherals• Docking station: port replicator + secondary storage• Hardware profiles – Enable you to store various hardware configurations – Example: set up one profile to use a docking stationA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 18
  19. 19. Figure 11-13 The Power Options Properties dialog box of Windows 2000/XP allows you to create and manage multiple power schemesA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 19
  20. 20. Figure 11-19 Windows XP allows you to set a hardware profile for different hardware configurationsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 20
  21. 21. Connecting Peripheral Devices to Notebooks• A few ports, switches and slots: – PC Card/CardBus slot with lock switch and eject button – ExpressCard slot with slot protective cover – USB and FireWire ports – Wireless antenna on/off switch – Power jack for DC or AC power adapter• PC Card slots and USB ports are standard equipment• Examples of PC cards – Modems, network cards, sound cards, TV tuners A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 21
  22. 22. Figure 11-20 Ports on the back of a notebookA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 22
  23. 23. Figure 11-22 Many peripheral devices are added to a notebook using a PC Card slot; here, a modem PC Card is inserted in a PC Card slotA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 23
  24. 24. Connecting Peripheral Devices to Notebooks (continued)• PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) – Develops standards for PC card slots• PCMCIA standards related to size: Type I to Type III• PC cards may also provide proprietary ports/adapters• PC card slot technologies: 16-bit ISA and 32-bit PCI• Two new PCMCIA standards: – CardBus: increases bus width to 32 bits – ExpressCard: matches PCI Express and USB 2.0 A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 24
  25. 25. Figure 11-27 Dimensions of CardBus and ExpressCard cardsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 25
  26. 26. Connecting Peripheral Devices to Notebooks (continued)• Socket service: connects or disconnects a PC card• Card service: provides driver after socket created• Removing a card from a PC card or ExpressCard slot – Click the Unplug or Eject Hardware icon in system tray – Click Stop to open Stop a Hardware device dialog box – Click OK and the proceed to eject the card• A few tips for helping a notebook recognize a card – Make sure the system is on when inserting the card – Try installing drivers before you insert the card A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 26
  27. 27. Figure 11-32 Safely Remove Hardware dialog boxA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 27
  28. 28. Connecting Peripheral Devices to Notebooks (continued)• WiFi review: – Two connection modes: ad hoc and via access point – Change wireless settings in Network Connections – To make a connection, turn on wireless switch – You can choose from a list of wireless networks• Bluetooth review: – Used for short-range wireless; e.g., optical mouse• Some special considerations for Bluetooth: – Read documentation for configuration guidelines – If device does not function, reinstall the device driver A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 28
  29. 29. Figure 11-38 Select a wireless network from those in rangeA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 29
  30. 30. Replacing and Upgrading Internal Parts• Three common maintenance tasks: – Upgrading memory – Exchanging a hard drive – Replacing a broken component; e.g., the LCD panelA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 30
  31. 31. Three Approaches to Dealing with a Broken Internal Device• Factors to consider before starting a repair project: – Whether the warranty covers the problem – Whether the warranty will be voided by your action – How much time the repair will take• Alternatives to fixing (or upgrading) it yourself: – Return notebook to the OEM or other service center – Substitute an external component for internal device• Guidelines to follow if you choose to replace device: – Obtain instructions for replacing an internal device – Back up important data and take safety precautionsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 31
  32. 32. Upgrading Memory• General considerations: – Add memory to improve performance – Additional memory needed for video-editing software – Types of video memory: dedicated and shared• Types of memory modules used in notebooks: – SO-DIMMs (small outline DIMMs) – SO-RIMMs (small outline RIMMs) – Credit card memory – Proprietary memory modules – MicroDIMMsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 32
  33. 33. Figure 11-41 Older notebooks used credit card memory and proprietary memory modules, both larger than the current SO-DIMM modulesA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 33
  34. 34. Upgrading Memory (continued)• Preparing for the upgrade – Make sure you are not voiding your warranty – Search for best buy on a suitable and authorized part• Upgrade process is similar to that for desktops• General instructions for accessing memory: – Turn the notebook upside down – Remove the screws and the panel cover – Locate the memory modules in expansion slots• Advice: check user guide for specific instructionsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 34
  35. 35. Figure 11-43 To access memory modules, remove a panel cover on the bottom of the notebookA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 35
  36. 36. Replacing a Hard Drive• General guidelines – Check with OEM for drive sizes and connector types – Be aware or voiding manufacturer’s warranty – A notebook drive is 2.5 inches wide• Other issues: – If old drive crashed, obtain recovery and driver CDs – When moving data, you may need USB-IDE converter• General instructions for replacing the hard drive – Open the case, pull old drive out of bay, and replace – Boot the system from a recovery CD (if drive is new)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 36
  37. 37. Figure 11-49 First remove the floppy drive to reveal the hard drive cavityA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 37
  38. 38. Replacing the LCD Panel• Diagnosing a problem when panel is dim or black: – Connect an external monitor to the video port – If external monitor works, LCD panel is likely broken• Causes of a malfunctioning LCD panel – Video inverter card is not working (relatively minor) – Faulty LCD panel assembly (major)• A few tips for successful a disassembly – Take safety precautions – Assemble the appropriate set of tools – Keep parts and screws organizedA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 38
  39. 39. Figure 11-52 Tools for disassembling a notebook computerA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 39
  40. 40. Figure 11-54 Using a notepad can help you organize screws so you know which screw goes where when reassemblingA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 40
  41. 41. Replacing the LCD Panel (continued)• How to replace an LCD panel assembly – Remove the battery pack – Remove the keyboard (if necessary) – Remove screws in the back of the notebook – Remove the hinge covers – Lift the cover off the notebook case – Carefully disconnect wires or cables – Remove screws holding the top cover and LCD panel – Carefully remove the cable systemA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 41
  42. 42. Figure 11-59 Remove the top LCD cover by first removing hinge screws and disconnecting the hinges; then lift off the coverA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 42
  43. 43. Replacing a Mini PCI Card• Mini PCI specifications – Define the form factor for notebook expansion cards – Three types: Type I, II, and III (differ by connectors)• Steps for removing a Mini PCI wireless network card – Remove the hinged cover and the keyboard – Disconnect the cable to the wireless antenna – Pull outward on the securing tabs – After the card pops, lift it out of the cavity• Replacing the Mini PCI wireless network card – Insert card, reconnect antenna, add keyboard and cover A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 43
  44. 44. Figure 11-62 Remove a Mini PCI cardA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 44
  45. 45. Other Field Replaceable Units• A number of field replaceable units (FRUs) – The motherboard and CPU – The keyboard – The PC Card socket assembly – The optical drive (CD or DVD drive) – The floppy drive – A sound card – A pointing device – AC adapter, the battery pack and the DC controller• OEM must approve or make replacement partsA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 45
  46. 46. Troubleshooting Notebooks• Software and hardware problems are covered• Actions that apply to all computer troubleshooting – Interview the user – Back up any important data – Document each stepA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 46
  47. 47. Problems with the Power System• A few troubleshooting guidelines – Check the power light (power may be off) – Connect the AC adapter (battery might have run down) – Check the connections at the adapter unit – Try a new AC adapter – Eliminate power strips – Try unplugging all unnecessary devices – Try reseating memory modules, which may be loose – Replace CMOS RAM battery (if CMOS setup corrupted) A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 47
  48. 48. Problems with Video• Causes: – Display settings – The power system – A faulty LCD panel or inverter board• Table 11-4 shows troubleshooting tips• Advice for replacing the LCD panel or inverter board – Purchase the same LCD assembly originally installedA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 48
  49. 49. Table 11-4 Problems with video and what to do about themA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 49
  50. 50. Table 11-4 Problems with video and what to do about them (continued)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 50
  51. 51. A Notebook Gets Wet• Steps to take when a notebook gets wet: – Turn off the electricity at the circuit breaker – Turn off the computer and disconnect the AC adapter – Turn off any attached devices – Ground yourself by touching a metal unpainted part – Remove any PC Cards or removable drives – Remove the battery pack, memory, and hard drive – Open the notebook and elevate it on two books – Allow notebook to dry for 24 hoursA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 51
  52. 52. The Notebook is Dropped• Save your work, close all files, shutdown computer• Disconnect the AC adapter• Turn off and disconnect any external devices• Reinstall power adapters and turn on the notebook• Troubleshooting the system (if it is not working)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 52
  53. 53. Protecting and Retrieving Data• Obtain a notebook IDE adapter kit• Remove the notebook hard drive from the notebook• Connect the IDE adapter to the drive• Copy the data onto a hard drive in the desktop system• Reinstall the hard drive in the notebook A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 53
  54. 54. Figure 11-67 Use an IDE adapter kit to install a notebook hard drive into a desktop systemA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 54
  55. 55. More Errors and What to do About Them• Other sources for notebook troubleshooting tips: – Table 11-5 – Troubleshooting tips for desktop computers – Web site of the notebook manufacturer – The notebook service manual – Other Internet sites (using general search)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 55
  56. 56. Table 11-5 Error messages and what to do about themA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 56
  57. 57. Table 11-5 Error messages and what to do about them (continued)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 57
  58. 58. Online Resources for Troubleshooting Notebooks• Tips for desktops apply to troubleshooting notebooks• Be especially conscious of warranty issues – Know what you can do within the warranty guidelines• Notebook documentation is comprehensive• OEM provides extra support for the system• Drivers are obtained from setup CD or OEM Web site A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 58
  59. 59. Surveying Tablet PCs• Tablet PC: small notebook with special features• Forms of tablet PC – A convertible tablet PC – A slate model tablet PC – A tablet PC with a docking station• Some features: – Onscreen writing ability for notes and drawings – Voice- and handwriting-recognition software – Built-in support for wireless, wired, dial-up networking – Windows XP Tablet PC Edition operating system A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 59
  60. 60. Surveying PDAs• PDAs (personal digital assistants) – Sometimes called personal PCs or handheld PCs – Used for smaller tasks, such as scheduling – Examples: Palm Pilot, Pocket PC, or BlackBerry• PDAs connect to desktop using Bluetooth or USB• A few features: GPS receiver, fold-out keyboard• A few questions to ask before purchase? – How easy is the PDA to use? – What operating system does the PDA use? – What is the price of the PDA?A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 60
  61. 61. Figure 11-71 Garmin iQue M5 Color Pocket PC PDA and GPSA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 61
  62. 62. Battery Life on a PDA• Battery life on a PDA varies by model• Some PDAs use rechargeable batteries• Data is lost if battery completely discharges• Good habit: set PDA in its cradle when not in useA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 62
  63. 63. Applications on a PDA• Some tasks performed: – Store addresses and phone numbers – Manage a calendar – Run word-processing software – Send and receive e-mail – Access Web sites – Provide telecommunication• Applications may be preinstalled or downloaded• Web content read by PDA is limitedA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 63
  64. 64. Connecting a PDA to a PC• Use cradle with cable or Bluetooth wireless• Synchronization: process by which PDA and PC talk• Setting up communication: – Install synchronization software – Connect the PDA – PDA and PC will immediately synchronize• A few troubleshooting tips: – Ensure USB or serial cable is plugged in at both ends – Ensure USB or serial port is enabled in CMOS setup – Uninstall and reinstall the PDA software on the PCA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 64
  65. 65. PDA Manufacturers and Operating Systems• List of operating systems used on PDAs: – Windows Mobile – BlackBerry – Palm OS – Symbian OS• Some manufacturers: – Casio – Compaq – Hewlett-Packard – Palm (was PalmOne)A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 65
  66. 66. Summary• Notebook (laptop): portable computer• OS build: notebook OS customized by the OEM• Power Options Properties: used to configure AC and DC power management schemes• PCMCIA: develops standards for PC card, CardBus, and ExpressCard slots• Wireless notebooks can connect in an ad hoc mode or via an access pointA+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 66
  67. 67. Summary (continued)• Notebook memory modules: SO-DIMMs, SO-RIMMs credit card memory, and proprietary memory modules• Mini PCI specifications: define form factor for notebook expansion cards• Troubleshooting notebooks is like troubleshooting desktops• Tablet PC: small notebook with special user interface• PDAs (personal digital assistants): miniature computer used for simple tasks, such as scheduling A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 67