Material ciff negotiation presentation guadalupe

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  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • We use a range of techniques to influence people and get others on side.
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • JULIO GÓMEZ-POMAR
  • Material ciff negotiation presentation guadalupe

    1. 1. Cooperative Negotiation The 7 principles of Harvard Negotiation Metholodogy Guadalupe de la Mata 1www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    2. 2. TODAY’S CLASS The Seven Principles of cooperative neogotiation (Harvard Methodology) Main concepts Keys to prepare for negotiation considering each of them Real Examples (short videos) Lets experience it!: the Ugly Orange Case Study Guadalupe de la Mata 2 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    3. 3. Negotiation Styles HIGH COLLABORATE ACCOMODATE Problem solved creatively, aiming for win- win Build friendly relationship Characteristics: Characteristics: Search for common interests Promote harmony Problem-solving behaviours Avoid substantive differences Recognising both parties’ needs Give into pressure to save relationship COMPROMISE Synergistic solutionsCONCERN FOR RELATIONSHIP Place relationship above fairness of Win-win becomes the main purpose of the the outcomes Split the difference negotiator Characteristics: Meeting half way AVOID Look for trade offs DEFEAT Take whatever you can get/Inaction Accept half-way measures Be a winner at any cost/Competitive Characteristics: Aims to reduce conflict rather than problem solve Characteristics: Feeling of powerlessness synergistically Win-Lose competition Indifference to the result Pressure/Intimidation Resignation, surrender Adversarial relationships Take what the other party is willing to Defeating the other becomes a goal for the concede negotiator Withdraw & remove = behaviour of negotiator CONCERN FOR SUBSTANCE LOW HIGH Source: Rollin & Christine Glaser
    4. 4. Harvard Negotiation Project • Began in 1983 • In conjunction with MIT and Tufts • Negotiation art and a science Guadalupe de la Mata www.innovationforsocialchange.org 4
    5. 5. Getting to Yes AuthorsRoger Fisher Bruce Patton William Ury Guadalupe de la Mata 5 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    6. 6. Negotiation Styles HIGH COLLABORATE ACCOMODATE Problem solved creatively, aiming for win- win Build friendly relationship Characteristics: Characteristics: Search for common interests Promote harmony Problem-solving behaviours Avoid substantive differences Recognising both parties’ needs Give into pressure to save relationship COMPROMISE Synergistic solutionsCONCERN FOR RELATIONSHIP Place relationship above fairness of Win-win becomes the main purpose of the the outcomes Split the difference negotiator Characteristics: Meeting half way AVOID Look for trade offs DEFEAT Take whatever you can get/Inaction Accept half-way measures Be a winner at any cost/Competitive Characteristics: Aims to reduce conflict rather than problem solve Characteristics: Feeling of powerlessness synergistically Win-Lose competition Indifference to the result Pressure/Intimidation Resignation, surrender Adversarial relationships Take what the other party is willing to Defeating the other becomes a goal for the concede negotiator Withdraw & remove = behaviour of negotiator CONCERN FOR SUBSTANCE LOW HIGH Source: Rollin & Christine Glaser
    7. 7. Getting to Yes: 7 PRINCIPLES What do you really care about? The needs, concerns, goals, hopes and fears that motivate the parties Ideas about how the parties might meetPromises made to build or their interests together. finalise agreement. Basic building blocks of negotiationHow do you deal with people issues? Steps each party could take to satisfy their own interests outside the current negotiation (BATNA) Prepare to communicate efficiently during the negotiation How can I persuade them they are being fairly treated? Criteria that the parties use to legitimise their perspectives. Guadalupe de la Mata 7 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    8. 8. INTERESTS
    9. 9. Starting point Starting point• Don’t Bargain Over Positions – Arguing over positions produces unwise outcomes – Arguing over positions is inefficient – Arguing over positions endangers an ongoing relationship – When there are many parties, positional bargaining is even worse – Being nice is no answer – There is an alternative… Guadalupe de la Mata 9 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    10. 10. 1. Interests1. Interests The purpose of a negotiation is to satisfy your interest and the other party´s interests . Negotiate the WHY….not the WHAT Ejemplo Harvard (min 3.9) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYGJNh8wFRc&feature=relmfu Guadalupe de la Mata 10 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    11. 11. 1. Interest vs. positions1. Interest vs. positions Positional vs. Cooperative Negotiations Focusing on positions can lead to sub-optimal agreements Position B Positions A and B are too far away for a mutually beneficial agreement Interests A Interests B Interests A and B, as a Position A broader concept, allow for a common ground for Zone of agreement potential agreement Cooperative negotiations The purpose of a negotiation is to satisfy your interest and the other parties interests Side-by-side problem solving: Both parties share the problem of trying to find an agreement that both can live with Finding a good agreement, that does not leave potential joint gains on the table Guadalupe de la Mata 11 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    12. 12. Cooperative negotiation: Negotiating is not Compromising It is joint problem solving Our goal is to efficiently reach a satisfying agreement for both parties, and to conclude on a positive note. Fisher and Ury define negotiations as “Back and forth communication to reach agreement where some interests are shared and some interests are opposed. “Getting to Yes” Guadalupe de la Mata 12 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    13. 13. 1. Interests preparation1. Interests preparation Guadalupe de la Mata 13 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    14. 14. OPTIONS
    15. 15. 2. Options2. OptionsThe range of possibities among which parties can reach an agreement Create options to satisfy interests. An agreement is better if it incorporates many options Brainstorming to come up with ideas and options that can meet the interestsof both sides Do not evaluate them during brainstorming Guadalupe de la Mata 15 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    16. 16. 2. Options preparation2. Options preparation Find ways to work together to maximize common benefits Separate inventing from judging. Broaden the options on the table, rather than look for a single answer. BE CREATIVE! Search for mutual gains. Invent ways to make their decision easy. Guadalupe de la Mata 16 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    17. 17. Invent options for mutual gainAVOID– Premature judgment– Searching for the single answer– The assumption of a fixed pie– Thinking that ‘solving their problem is their problem’ Guadalupe de la Mata 17 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    18. 18. Invent options for mutual gain IIEncourage• Separate inventing from deciding – (brainstorming) – Consider brainstorming with the other side Guadalupe de la Mata 18 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    19. 19. Invent options for mutual gain III• Look for mutual gain – Identify shared interests – Dovetail different interests • Any difference in interests? • Different beliefs? • Different values placed on time? • Different forecasts? • Differences in aversion to risk? – Ask for their preferences – Make their decision easy • Whose shoes? • What decision? • Making threats is not enough? Guadalupe de la Mata 19 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    20. 20. ALTERNATIVES
    21. 21. 3. Alternatives3. AlternativesWhat I am going to do if we dont reach an agreement? Deals I can take outside of the possible agreement Look at all your alternatives and select the BEST Know your BATNA You are going to negotiate with more Best CONFIDENCE if you know what you Alternative can do if the negotiation fails To a Negotiated Agreement Guadalupe de la Mata 21 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    22. 22. 3. Alternatives Preparation3. Alternatives Preparation Guadalupe de la Mata 22 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    23. 23. CRITERIA
    24. 24. 4. Criteria4. Criteria What are the standards to convince each other that what we propose is fair? To resolve conflicting interest use independent standards: (market value, precedent or industry practice) Standars should be relevant and widely accepted Is an argument based on objective criteria, independent of the parties will. There are more than one objective criteria for an agreement Guadalupe de la Mata 24 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    25. 25. 4. Criteria Preparation4. Criteria Preparation •Find a range of objective criteria to persuade the other party (and yourself) that what you propose is fair and makes sense. •How will they explain the agrement to other parties? •Prepare to help them expain the result •Think of impartial processes to find an objective criteria (obtaining an expert opinion, arbitration…) Guadalupe de la Mata 25 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    26. 26. Insist on using objective criteria• Deciding on the basis of will is costly• The case for using objective criteria: – Principled negotiation produces wise agreements amicably & efficiently• Developing objective criteria: – Fair standards – Fair procedures• Negotiating with objective criteria: – Frame each issue as a joint search for objective criteria – Ask “What’s your theory?” – Reason and be open to reason – Never yield to pressure Guadalupe de la Mata 26 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    27. 27. COMUNICATION Guadalupe de la Mata 27 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    28. 28. COMUNICATION
    29. 29. 5. Comunication5. Comunication¿Am I ready to listen and talk in an efficient way?Both side communicationACTIVE LISTENING: In a respective way, clarifying ambiguities and makingsure you have been understood.SPEAK WITH INTENT:Clearly and with the objective of making yourself understoodand with a purpose linked to your interests. Guadalupe de la Mata 29 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    30. 30. 5. Preparare for good Comunication 5. Preparare for good Comunication Guadalupe de la Mata 30 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    31. 31. Guadalupe de la Mata 31www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    32. 32. Listening is your most powerful negotiating toolBut before you can listen, you have to be skilled at asking questions:Three critical questioning skills1. Know where your questions are going2. Ask for permission to ask questions3. State why you want to ask questions Guadalupe de la Mata 32 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    33. 33. Active Listening Techniques (1) Guadalupe de la MataCentre for Conflict Resolution, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999 33 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    34. 34. Active Listening Techniques (2) Guadalupe de la MataCentre for Conflict Resolution, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999 34 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    35. 35. Active Listening Techniques (3) Guadalupe de la MataCentre for Conflict Resolution, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999 35 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    36. 36. Active Listening Techniques (4) Guadalupe de la MataCentre for Conflict Resolution, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999 36 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    37. 37. RELATIONSHIP
    38. 38. 6. Relationship6. RelationshipDisentangle the people and the problemAsk yourself: ¿Am I ready to deal with the relationship?Use people techniques for people problems Perceptions: make questions to understand their perceptions Emotions: Acknowledge your emotions and theirs without blame Listen actively Put yourself in their shoes Turn a face-to face confrontation into a side by side problem solving Your are both sitting at the same side of the table dealing with the problem jointlyBe unconditionally constructive Guadalupe de la Mata 38 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    39. 39. COMMITMENT
    40. 40. 7. Commitments7. Commitments Guadalupe de la Mata 40 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    41. 41. 7. Commitments preparation7. Commitments preparation Guadalupe de la Mata 41 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    42. 42. APPLYING THE MODEL
    43. 43. Applying the modelApplying the model Focus on VALUE CREATION Focus on VALUE CREATION COMBINING THE RESOURCES COMBINING THE RESOURCES TO SATISFY MUTUAL NEEDS TO SATISFY MUTUAL NEEDS CLARIFYING INTEREST CLARIFYING INTEREST COMUNICATION AND RELATIONSHIP COMUNICATION AND RELATIONSHIP Guadalupe de la Mata 43 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    44. 44. MEASURING SUCCESS BATNA Satisfy interests The BEST of various options The results are considered legitimate The compromises are clear and operative Comunication is efective Improves the working Guadalupe de la Mata relationship 44 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    45. 45. ANNEXES• Videos:• Getting to YES Video (part 1 of 3) – http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=rYGJNh8wFRc&feature=relmfu• Getting to YES Video (part 2 of 3) – http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Cchpf7IK5nY&feature=relmfu• Getting to YES Video (part 3 of 3) – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ILeXnpPZfrw&feat Guadalupe de la Mata 45 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    46. 46. 11 The Four Phases of Negotiation BARGAIN PROPOSE DEBATEPLAN Guadalupe de la Mata 46 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    47. 47. Step One - Prepare• Research• LIST your objectives and their objectives• Those you INTEND to get• Those you MUST get Guadalupe de la Mata 47 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    48. 48. Step Two - Debate• Listen carefully• Ask questions• Clarify• Summarise• Don’t argue, interrupt or assume ...BUT Guadalupe de la Mata 48 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    49. 49. Step Three - Propose• Make proposals• State conditions• Express concerns• Search for common interests• ANDpositive body language Use Guadalupe de la Mata 49 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    50. 50. Step Four - Bargain• Key words are IF and THEN• Start making concession: – Every concession should have a condition (IF you … THEN I will … ) – Conserve your concessions - don’t give everything away too soon – You don’t have to share every piece of information with the opposing side! – Don’t be afraid to say no Guadalupe de la Mata 50 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    51. 51. Step Five - Agree• Usually final concession : “IF you do that, THEN we have a deal!”• Gain commitment• Record and agree results• Leave satisfied Guadalupe de la Mata 51 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    52. 52. Think about your influencing style Inspirational Personal Logical Forceful
    53. 53. 7 Deadly Sins of Negotiating• Pride - Be prepared to compromise• Gluttony - Don’t bite off more than you can chew• Anger - Handle objections calmly• Covetousness - Prioritise needs/wants• Envy - Know competitors strengths & weaknesses… AND your own• Sloth - Do your homework Guadalupe de la Mata 53• www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    54. 54. An Unconditionally Constructive Strategy Do only those things that are both good for the relationship and good for us - whether or not they reciprocate RATIONALITY Even if they are acting emotionally, balance emotions with reason UNDERSTANDING Even if they misunderstand us, try to understand them COMMUNICATION Even if they are not listening, consult them before deciding on matters that affect them RELIABILITY Even if they are trying to deceive us, neither trust them nor deceive them: be reliableNON-COERCIVE MODES OF Even if they are trying to coerce us, neither yield to that coercion nor try to INFLUENCES coerce them, be open to persuasion and try to persuade them ACCEPTANCE Even if they reject us and our concerns as unworthy of their consideration, accept them as worthy of consideration, care about them and be open to learning from them Guadalupe de la Mata 54 "Getting Together" Fisher www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    55. 55. Three Approaches To Resolving DisputesMOVING FROM A DISTRESSED TO AN EFFECTIVE RESOLUTION SYSTEM Power Rights Interests Distressed System Guadalupe de la Mata 55 "Dispute Resolution" Goldberg Green Sander www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    56. 56. Three Approaches To Resolving DisputesMOVING FROM A DISTRESSED TO AN EFFECTIVE RESOLUTION SYSTEM Interests Rights Power Effective System Guadalupe de la Mata Goldberg 56 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    57. 57. Stages in negotiation Sessions 11&12
    58. 58. The stages in the negotiation• It is important to understand that negotiation is a process that begins before we sit down at the table and does not end if we do not know how to make the agreements reached effective. Guadalupe de la Mata 58 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    59. 59. Three stages can be distinguished in the negotiation Guadalupe de la Mata 59 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    60. 60. Pre-negotiation Guadalupe de la Mata 60 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    61. 61. Negotiation Guadalupe de la Mata 61www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    62. 62. Post-negotiation Guadalupe de la Mata 62 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    63. 63. Closing the negotiation (I)• Evaluate the closing proposal, comparing it with the BATNA• Conclusion phase Reconsideration of the agreements reached Preparation of documents Discussion of the content of the documents Corresponding reviews and modifications Final document showing the agreement Guadalupe de la Mata 63 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    64. 64. Closing the negotiation (II)• Forming the commitment Signing a private document Elevating it to public document status Registration Guadalupe de la Mata 64 www.innovationforsocialchange.org
    65. 65. 42 Negotiation Check List Good Practice Avoid Actively listen ×Interrupting Question for clarification ×Attacking Summarising ×Blaming Test commitment ×Talking too much Seeking & giving information ×Sarcasm Encourage two way conversation ×Threats State and plan your proposal – then summarise ×Taking it personally Use the ‘if you ….then we’ll’ principle ×Closed body language

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