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Engineering plant facilities 12 mechanics building preventive maintenance and energy conservation


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Engineering plant facilities 12 mechanics building preventive maintenance and energy conservation

  1. 1. L | C | LOGISTICS PLANT MANUFACTURING AND BUILDING FACILITIES EQUIPMENT Engineering-Book ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS AND HOW IT WORKS MECHANICS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE AND ENERGY CONSERVATION September 2014 Supply Chain Manufacturing & DC Facilities Logistics Operations Planning Management Expertise in Process Engineering Optimization Solutions & Industrial Engineering Projects Management
  2. 2. Facilities Management Meaning of Facilities Management Facilities management is an interdisciplinary field primarily devoted to the maintenance, cleaning and care of large commercial, institutional And manufacturing buildings, such as: hotels, resorts, schools, office complexes, sports arenas or convention centers, and factory offices Duties may include the care of HVAC systems, HVAC electric controllers, Low Voltage Electric Power systems, electric motors, diesel engines, pumps, valves, piping, water treatment and waste water plants, Vertical Transportation, building plumbing, fixtures and lighting systems, landscape decoration; and other FM safety, cleaning and office equipments Facilities management (FM) is the total facilities management of all services that support the core business of an administration organization
  3. 3. Facilities Management Benefits of Facilities Management Facility Management Services provides to its clients a dedicated technical team to solve the day to day problems associated with: facility assets failure due to usage and age deterioration, performs preventive and corrective maintenance, as well as repair and cleaning 0utsourcing facility management provides the following: healthy, comfortable, safe, clean and secure environment with consistent and standardized management procedures and overall support services quality improvements extended asset life and reduced assets repairs costs
  4. 4. Facilities Management Roles Highly Skilled Professional Engineers, technicians in refrigeration, electricity, mechanics, water, environment, safety, sanitation, carpenters, plumbers, lifts, electrical escalators, dock levellers, rolling shutter doors, office phone, LCD TV Staff FM Help Desk Operator and work orders administration Management Chief Engineer, Supervisors, technical advisor
  5. 5. Facilities Management Help Desk Operator The main responsibilities of the Help Desk Operator are: accept requests for assistance or problem reports from users, obtain necessary information from users to adequately describe the request or problem report, enter information into the problem tracking system, directly respond to the request or problem if within own areas of expertise, complete information on problem reports that were solved personally and close report in problem tracking system, direct the request or problem to the most appropriate support area (e.g., Electrical, HVAC, Mechanical, Carpentry, VT), liaison with user to ensure that requests or problem reports have been satisfactorily handled
  6. 6. Facilities Management DOCUMENTATION RECEIVED FROM CLIENT TABLE OF PRIORITY LEVELS S/No System Sub-System Sub-System (Asset Description) Priority Level Response Time Completion Time 1 Vertical Transportation Roller shutter-manual, highspeed & motorised; Docklevellers; Rolling doors; Elevators; P1 Critical Immediate <= 3 hours P2 Urgent Same Day One hour for elevator only < 1 Days P3 Routine 7 Days 15 Days P4 Planned 30 Days 30 Days P5 Project As Agreed As Agreed 2 Non Mechanical Building Maintenance Plumbing & Sanitary; Building; Electrical; IT & Electronics; P1 Critical Immediate < 1 Day P2 Urgent Same Day < 2 Days P3 Routine 7 Days <3 days for minor & 10 days for major P4 Planned 30 Days 30 days P5 Project As Agreed As Agreed 3 HVAC Air curtain; Dehumidifier; Split units AC; VRV/VRF; AHU, F&CU, Chillers, Cooling Towers, Pressurized Fans, Exhaust Fans, Ventilation fans; Mechanical; Electrical P1 Critical Immediate < 1 Day P2 Urgent Same Day < 3 Days P3 Routine 7 Days <3 days for minor repair & 10 days for major P4 Planned 30 Days 30 Days P5 Project As Agreed As Agreed
  7. 7. Facilities Management ON-SITE SERVICES
  8. 8. Planned Preventive Maintenance ON-SITE SERVICES
  9. 9. Facilities Management S/No Request Details Assigned Details SLA Status SLA Status System (HVAC Electric Buildin g Toilet Other) Date & Time dd/mm/yy hh:mm Requestor Recorded By PO Ref No WRF Ref. No / PM Ref. Type *(RM / CM / PRO / Quote / Move / CS / FS / PM) Priority Date commited dd/mm/yy Description of Request Status Description Of Work Done Remarks
  10. 10. Facilities Management Assigned Details Sub-System / Asset Usage Description Remark Assigned Details SLA Status Actual SLA Actual SLA WRF Ref. No / PM Ref. Used spare part/consumable (As per Inventory list) Location Detail of Location Assigned To Targeted Response (Date & Time) Actual Response (Date & Time) Actual Completion (Date & Time) Feedback from End- User Spare part Qty
  11. 11. Facilities Management Spare Parts Assigned Details WRF Ref. No / PM Ref. Spare Parts Used In HVAC Electrical NMBM VT PM RM CM PRO Quote Move status
  12. 12. Facilities Management
  13. 13. Facilities Management WORK ORDER FORM Date & Time: Reported By: WRF Ref. No: (ie. DD/MM/YY HH:MM) - Contact No: Received By: Email Address: - Type Of WO: Loại WO: *(RM / CM / PRO / Quote / Move / CS / FS) WO Remarks: Details of Request Location: Equipment Details: Description of Request: Priority Level *(Critical / Urgent / Routine / Planned / Project)Assigned To: System: *(VT / HVAC / NMBM / CS / FS)Dept: Sub-system: Contact No: Site Attendance Report Inform Location Owner: Name: Approval: Permit To Work (PTW Required?) : *(YES / NO) PTW Reference No. : Observation on site: Action Taken Details of Spares Used Item Code Item Description Issue Qty Return Qty Total Final Issued Qty Receipt Sign Store Personnel Sign Follow Up Actions (If Required) Actual Date & Time Responded Actual Completion Date & Time: (ie. DD/MM/YY HH:MM) (ie. DD/MM/YY HH:MM) Requestor Feedback: Details Of Feedback: Acknowledgement of Completion: (Name/Date/Time/Signature) Requestor Acknowledgement of Completion(Name/Date/Time/Signature) Sodexo Supervisor
  14. 14. Facilities Management PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE LOG REPORT INSTRUCTION Introduction 1 Proactive Walkthrough shall be scheduled and assigned 2 Proactive Walkthrough Checklist' for Internal & External shall be use as a guide to conduct inspection. Recording 3 Observation by respective personnel shall be entered into hard copy of the 'Proactive Maintenance Log Record' (PML). 4 Submit completed Proactive Maintenance Log Record to Helpdesk as soon as walkthrough completed. Helpdesk 5 Helpdesk shall assign a PML reference no. to the log record and entered the observation details in PML Soft Copy 6 Helpdesk issue the PML record to Supervisor or Maintenance Manager who in turn issue them to Day Technician. 7 Supervisor or Maintenance Manager shall issue PML record (or selected observation) to Shift Technician where appropiate 8 Technicians to proceed and conduct Proactive Maintenance 9 Technician must envisage to complete the Proactive Maintenance within 1 week. Works that are KIV, requires spares or are Chargeable or Requires Additional Spares (to Order) 10 For Works requiring Spares, technician draw spares from store and indicate PML reference no to the items drawn out. 11 For works that requires additional spares or are chargeable, Technician to enter remarks and refer them back to Helpdesk. 12 Helpdesk opens a Quote Work Order for such faults. 13 For KIV works, Technician must indicate reason for the works to be defered or kept in view. Completion 13 Once completed, Technician return the PML to Helpdesk for record in the soft copy. 14 PML shall be signed and filed by Helpdesk.
  15. 15. Facilities Management PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE LOG RECORD Date of Inspection : Proactive Maintenance Log Reference No. Location Inspected : : S No. Date & Time Description Of Proactive Maintenance Works Sub Location Observed By Helpdesk - WOF Reference No. Date & Time Status (Completed/ KIV) Remarks Inspection Conducted By: Received By Helpdesk/Supervisor: Signature, Date & Time: Signature, Date & Time:
  16. 16. Planned Preventive Maintenance ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS S/No Request Details Description of Request Assigned Details System SLA Status Date & Time Requestor Recorded By Sodexo Location Detail of Location WRF Ref. No Type Of Work Order * Assigned To Priority Level Problem Description Root Cause Description Solution Description recommendation
  17. 17. Planned Preventive Maintenance DAILY TASK & MORNING BRIEFING S No. Duties Responsibilities Time 1 Take Over of Shift Duties ·Keys & Card Access ·Mobile Phone ·Log Out Tag Out ·Central & Personal Tools ·PPE ·Store Shift Leaders 0600hrs – 0615hrs 2 Sodexo Morning Briefing All 0700hrs – 0715hrs 3 Review & Submission of Reports: ·Summary of Work Order Report ·Summary of Preventive Maintenance ·Summary of Proactive Work Orders ·Summary of Spares & Consumables Supervisor/ Manager 0715hrs – 0745hrs 4 P&G Safety Tool Box Meeting All 0800hrs – 0820hrs 5 Daily meeting with Client Supervisor/ Manager 0900hrs 6 Daily Walkthrough Management 0830hrs – 0930hrs 7 Take Over of Shift Duties Shift Leaders Future 8 Daily Walkthrough Shift Team 1900hrs – 2000hrs 9 Take Over of Shift Duties Shift Leaders 1800hrs – 1815hrs
  18. 18. Planned Preventive Maintenance DAILY OPERATIONAL MEETING WITH TECHNICAL TEAM MINUTES OF MEETING – Day /Month / Year/ (time) Date Venue Attendees Summary WO No. PO Ref. WO Ref. Type Priority Date commited Description Status Remarks 1 Inventory No. WO Ref. Spare part Qty Asset Usage Description Location Detail Location 1 Total Daily PM No. PM Ref. Spare part Qty Asset Usage Description Location Detail location 1 Total Minutes of Meeting Yesterday No. WO type Plan Qty Actual qty Remarks 1 Minutes of Meeting Today No. WO type Plan Qty Actual qty Remarks 1 Safety Information No. Description Action Remarks 1. 2. Instruction from Representative No. Description Action Remarks 1 Help needed by tecnicians No. Description Action Remarks 1
  19. 19. TOOLBOX TALK – TOPIC 1 (HEARING CONSERVATION) LIMITS OF EXPOSURE : OSHA Regulations state that when noise levels exceeds 82 dB for an eight-hour TWA, a hearing conservation program must be in place. PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURE : Duration per day, in hour Sound level dBA slow response 8 90 6 92 4 95 3 97 2 100 1 ½ 102 1 105 ½ 110 ¼ or less 115
  20. 20. TOOLBOX TALK – TOPIC 2 (HOT WORKS) HOT WORK : Any spark-producing work such as welding, ox-acetylene cutting, grinding, or open flame HOT WORK PERMIT : A permit that, when signed by authorized personnel, allows hot work to be done in specific designated areas within the limitations listed on the permit. Only those named on the permit are allowed to perform the hot work. A permit is valid only for one (1) operations shift (8 hrs) SPECIAL HAZARD AREA : Areas that have the following characteristics: Explosive atmospheres Special circumstances which prevent the removal of highly flammable and combustible materials Ignition sources that cannot be shut down Hot work being performed on any pipe, tank, vessel, drum, and so on that contains flammable liquid, vapors, or gases Work that penetrates the roof and/or electrical classified areas Hot work in special hazard areas requires approval by two Authorizers.
  21. 21. TOOLBOX TALK – TOPIC 3 (BARRICADES & SIGNBOARDS) BARRICADES: Barricades will be used to isolate areas where there is unusual hazard to approaching personnel or to protect personnel inside a barricade from external hazards Examples: Open grating and holes or openings in floor or roof area Excavations Elevated works/Overhead works where a falling object hazard exists Chemical spills, leaks, or line breaks Maintenance Works SIGNBOARDS: Signs should be posted and should be visible when work is being performed that constitutes a hazard or potential hazard. Signs also should be posted wherever a reminder of accident prevention requirements would be beneficial or where the hazard
  23. 23. Planned Preventive Maintenance MANAGEMENT OF LOCKOUT TAGOUT SYSTEM 1. Purpose •For the protection of workers, equipment being worked on will be at its lowest practical energy state to prevent the accidental release of energy or the inadvertent operation of equipment. •This instruction establishes requirements that will be followed when locking and tagging equipment during operations. Particular circumstances or conditions may warrant more restrictive measures. Energy sources (e.g. steam, air, oil, hot water) will be disconnected or isolated, and precautions taken to prevent loose or movable parts from rotating or otherwise moving and becoming a hazard.
  24. 24. Planned Preventive Maintenance 2. Scope The instruction applies to all Sodexo site personnel whom will be required to execute technical works and need to lockout/tagout energy sources during the course of work. 3. Procedure •Duty Supervisor and Lead Technician will draw out the lockout lock, MCB hasp, a multi-lock device and his personal tag. One of his personal tag will be in place of the lock in the lockout/tagout cabinet. •All technicians whom require to lockout/tagout energy sources will draw out a lock and personal tag. One of their personal tag will be in place of the lock in the lockout/tagout cabinet.
  25. 25. Planned Preventive Maintenance •The duty supervisor and Lead Technician will be responsible for administration of the lockout/tagout system on site. •The Sodexo Maintenance Manager or Supervisor will review and approve the Permit- To-Work for all internal lockout/tagout requirements only •Where a lockout/tagout is required for the following types of work, the Permit To Work(P & G) form will need to be submitted to P & G Safety team and technical team Head for review and approval: •Routine works requiring PTW without JSA; •Confined Space Entry; •Working On Height; •Hot Works; •Minor project Works;
  26. 26. Planned Preventive Maintenance Review safety procedures. Set priorities for all maintenance work. Assign cost accounts. Complete the work order. Review the backlog and develop plans for controlling it. Predict the maintenance load using effective forecasting technique. A job priority ranking reflects: The criticality of the job The availability of all materials needed for the work order in the plant The production master schedule Realistic estimates and what is likely to happen Flexibility in the schedule
  27. 27. Planned Preventive Maintenance Effective planning and scheduling contribute significantly to the following: Reduced maintenance cost. Improved utilization of the maintenance workforce by reducing delays and interruptions. Improved quality of maintenance work by adopting the best methods and procedures and assigning the most qualified workers for the job Minimizing the idle time of maintenance workers Maximizing the efficient use of work time, material, and equipment Maintaining the operating equipment at a responsive level to the need of production in terms of delivery schedule and quality
  28. 28. Planned Preventive Maintenance Classification of Maintenance Work According to Planning and Scheduling Purposes Routine maintenance: are maintenance operations of a periodic nature. They are planned and scheduled and in advance. They are covered by blanket orders Emergency or breakdown maintenance: interrupt maintenance schedules in order to be performed. They are planned and scheduled as they happened Design modifications: are planned and scheduled and they depend on eliminating the cause of repeated breakdowns Scheduled overhaul and shutdowns of the plant: planned and scheduled in advanced Overhaul, general repairs, and replacement: planned and scheduled in advanced Preventive maintenance: planned and scheduled in advanced The maintenance management system should aim to have over 90% of the maintenance work planned and scheduled
  29. 29. Planned Preventive Maintenance Determine the Maintenance works procedure Prepare for each Facilities Asset/Equipment the maintenance procedure in detail Develop Maintenance Schedule, showing sequence and timing of the activities Establish the Job Risk Assessment for the maintenance works Determine if they requires a Work permit prior to the execution of Maintenance works Plan and order parts and materials required for the Maintenance works as per schedule Check if special tools and equipment are needed and obtain them Assign technicians with appropriate skills Establish the crew size for the maintenance works Maintenance works focus on cleaning equipment components, checking their condition, functionality; secure proper connectivity and tightness of all component, and replace those that are not working properly or are about to fail
  30. 30. Facilities Management AC Split Units Maintenance Procedure SAFETY CHECKLIST PPE (safety gloves, shoes, helmet, goggles etc.) Barricade work area Working at height safety Other safety measures or permits as required TASK DESCRIPTION-MONTHLY Check and clean air filter and unit casing. Check and clean drip tray. Flush drain pipe Check and clean condenser coil if necessary Check and clean blower fan. Lubricate all fan and motor bearings Check all mounting bolts and fan guard of condenser unit. Check all mounting bolts for indoor unit. Record air flow reading (cfm) Clean indoor unit Test proper functioning of thermostat Check low pressure of freon gas Check electrical contactor and isolator Record running current for the compressor motor (ampere) and compare against name plate Clean area after servicing
  31. 31. Facilities Management
  32. 32. Facilities Management S/NO JOB HAZARD EXPOSU RE/ DETAILE D HAZARD PLANT, EQUIP MENT AND TOOLS USED HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS EXISTING OPERATION CONTROLS & PPE RISK RATING RECOMMEND ADDITIONAL OPERATION CONTROLS Residu al risk rating COMPLET ON DATE & ASSIGN TO S L R S L R 1 Check and clean air filter and unit casing. Ladder/ wash tap Eye injury & fall Googles/hand gloves/safety harness & proper usage of ladder 2 2 4 If motorized lifter is used-require to be trained & certified 2 2 4 EMPLOYEE NAME (PRINT NAME) EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE DATE 2 Check and clean drip tray. Flush drain pipe Wet/dry vacuum cleaner Eye injury Googles/hand gloves 2 2 4 No further controls required 3 Check and clean condenser coil if necessary Water jet hose Eye injury Googles/hand gloves-caution when jet spraying 2 5 10 No further controls required EMPLOYEE NAME (PRINT NAME) EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE DATE 4 Check and clean blower fan. rags Eye injury/mo ving parts Googles/hand gloves/Logout & Tagout 2 2 4 No further controls required
  33. 33. Facilities Management 5 Lubricate all fan and motor bearings Grease gun Moving parts Googles /hand gloves/L ogout & Tagout 2 2 4 No further controls required RISK ASSESSMENT NAME AUTHOR’S SIGNATURE ASSESSMENT DATE 6 Check all mounting bolts and fan guard of condenser unit. Hand tools Hand injury Self care when using hand tools 2 2 4 No further controls required 7 Check all mounting bolts for indoor unit. Hand tools Hand injury Self care when using hand tools 2 2 4 No further controls required MANAGERS NAME MANAGER’S SIGNATURE ASSESSMENT DATE 8 Clean indoor unit rags Eye irritation Googles /hand gloves 2 2 4 No further controls required 9 Test proper functioning of thermostat No tools Non Non required - - - No further controls required 10 Check low pressure of freon gas Gas manifold Non Non required - - - No further controls required SAFETY DEPARTMENT NAME SAFETY OFFICER’S SIGNATURE APPROVED DATE 11 Check electrical contactor and isolator Visual inspectio n Electroc ution Goggles & electrica l gloves 2 2 4 No further controls required
  34. 34. Facilities Management 13 Record running current for the compressor motor (ampere) and compare against name plate Ampere meter Electrocution Goggles & electrical gloves 2 2 4 No further controls required
  35. 35. Monthly Preventive Maintenance day by day monthly cycle It includes all the activities related to the preparation of: The work job order Bill of materials Purchase requisition Necessary drawings Labor planning sheet including standard works times All data needed prior to scheduling and releasing of the job work order
  36. 36. Facilities Management KPI 2014 Client Score guide: Location 95% - 100%: Excellent Review by 85% - 94% : Good Date review <85% : Unsatisfactory No Performance Total points Minus points Actual points Comments I Productivity 1 100% Training record is documented to prove that technicians have been trained to provide good service. 10 0 10 2 Re-work on work orders < 2% 10 0 10 3 Maintenance site cleanliness maintained and 10 0 10 captured as per standard = 100%. 4 Master plan and month plan completion rate > 95% 10 0 10 5 Control faclitily by planning CM&PM and providing spare part in <3 days> 95% work orders 20 0 20 6 Use 3rd party vendor for repairing <2% work orders. 10 0 10 7 Minor repairs completed < 3 days > 95% of work orders (after issue of PO# or approval for parts if applicable) 20 0 20 8 Major repairs completed < 10 days > 95% of work orders (after issue of PO# or approval for parts if applicable) 10 0 10 9 Emergency work orders completed < 24 hours on > 90% of work orders 20 0 20 10 Replacement parts supplied in < 3 days > 95% of work orders (after issue of PO# or approval for parts) 10 0 10 11 Late completion of scheduled work orders <2% 10 0 10
  37. 37. Facilities Management II Quality of work 1 Clearly and timely communication between maintenance team and user to keep work process on track. 20 0 20 2 Root cause defined on corrective maintenance > 95% 20 0 20 3 No unresolved defects found during walkthrough in facilities inspection. 10 0 10 4 Root cause and work order proper documentation followed 100% 10 0 10 5 Customer satisfaction feedback capture on work order >95% 10 0 10 6 Working based on facilities standard for providing a professional service. 10 0 10 III Cost controlling 1 Do more work by technician team to reduce the 3rd party to involve<1% of work orders. 20 0 20 2 Actual cost at or below estimate for work orders > 95% 10 0 10 3 Adhere to repair Plan as per budget accordingly. 10 0 10 4 Performance of % of unplanned repair budget vs. time elapsed is within +2%. 10 0 10 IV Delivery 1 Work orders for in scope maintenance services completed on time > 95% 10 0 10 2 Proper prioritization of work orders > 95% 10 0 10 3 Adequate resources avaialble for in scope 10 0 10 maintenance services > 95% 4 Dropped requests for maintenance service = 0% 10 0 10
  38. 38. Facilities Management V Safety 1 Zero record of injury. 30 0 30 2 Behavior Observation System compliance and participant > 95%. 10 0 10 3 Job Safety Assessment and safety procedure are in place and compliance 100%. 10 0 10 4 100% staff follow defined plant's regulation. 10 0 10 5 Zero incident while providing maintenance 20 0 20 service in the plant. VI Moral 1 Proactively Suggest simple improvement. 10 0 10 2 100% job done based on quality, safety to prove a moral service in etablishing satisfaction. 10 0 10 3 Actively propose new areas where technicians expertise can be applied to the benefit of the facilities. 10 0 10 420 0 420
  39. 39. Integrated Building Management Operating and maintaining the Utilities and Power distribution of the plant by using BMS(Building Management system) with optimal man power HVAC Fire protection Lighting Access control Security and others… Energy efficiency - Cost savings - Improved working conditions - Environmental benefits
  40. 40. Integrated Building Management
  41. 41. Integrated Building Management Monitoring & controls of chiller management system. Monitoring & controls of primary pumps & secondary pumps Monitoring the variable frequency drive in secondary pumps, AHU Monitoring the Fire fighting pumps Controlling the AHU temp through set point adjustment for maintaining room temp 24+°C Integrated parameters like * Chiller * UPS * Diesel generators * Precision Air conditioner * Package units
  42. 42. Integrated Building Management Supply air temp sensor Return air temp sensor RH sensor Actuator CO2 sensor CO sensor DPS DPT Parameters -Pressure -Flow -Air Velocity -Valves -Damper Actuators -Humidity -Water Detection -Occupancy Detection -Test Equipment -CO2 content
  43. 43. Client Integrated Building Management Communication Network CClliieenntt IInntteerrffaaccee Object Model Request Driven Service Application Active Service Application Data Model DDaattaa IInntteerrffaaccee Dynamic DB Component BMS Service DDaattaabbaassee BACnet Interface Echelon Interface Remote Interface TToo BBAACCnneett NNeettwwoorrkk TToo EEcchheelloonn NNeettwwoorrkk TToo RReemmoottee CCoonnnneeccttiioonn
  44. 44. Sample screen shots
  45. 45. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques Energy benchmarking - process of collecting, analyzing and relating energy performance data of comparable activities with the purpose of evaluating and comparing performance between or within equipment
  46. 46. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Cooling Tower; a properly sized cooling tower is designed to cool water to within 5 degrees of wet bulb temperature. lbs of water per hour cooled x temperature change in degrees F = BTU's/ hr cooling capacity. 12,000 BTU's hr = 1 TonR tons of refrigeration 12,000 BTU/hr / 3412 = 3.517 Kw hr Chiller Sizing Information; Before you begin, you must know three factors: The incoming water temperature The chill water temperature you require The flow rate General sizing formula: Calculate Temperature Differential (ΔT°F) ΔT°F = Incoming Water Temperature (°F) - Required Chill Water Temperature Calculate BTU/hr. BTU/hr. = Gallons per hr x 8.33 x ΔT°F Calculate tons of cooling capacity Tons = BTU/hr. ÷ 12,000 Oversize the chiller by 20% Ideal Size in Tons = Tons x 1.2 You have the ideal size for your needs in tons of refrigeration
  47. 47. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving How to Calculate the Capacity for an Industrial Chiller Industrial chillers work by letting a fluid flow through the device. The fluid has a high specific heat capacity, which means that it absorbs and releases a lot of energy when its temperature rises and falls. The greater the fluid's temperature change as it goes through the chiller, the greater the chiller's capacity for moving energy. The other relevant factor is the fluid's rate of transfer through the chiller. The chiller's capacity is proportional to this flow rate 1. Find the refrigerant's temperature change as it passes through the chiller. For instance, if refrigeration fluid enters the chiller at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and leaves it at 79 degrees Fahrenheit: 79 - 60 = 19 degrees. 2. Multiply the temperature rise by 500, a conversion constant: 19 x 500 = 9,500. 3. Multiply this answer by the fluid's flow rate, measured in gallons per minute. For instance, if 320 gallons go through the chiller each minute: 9,500 x 320 = 3,040,000. This is the capacity of the chiller, measured in British Thermal Units (BTUs) per hour. 4. Divide your answer by 3,412 to convert your answer to kilowatts: 3,040,000 / 3,412 = 890.97 kW/hr
  48. 48. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Chiller efficiency in terms of the energy efficiency ratio, or EER, and the coefficient of performance, or COP, for chillers total heat removed in Btu/hr = h h = 500 X q X dt = 40 tons of refrigeration hr q = chilled water flow rate in gpm, (example 40 gmp) dt = chilled water's total temperature differential, (example 24 F) h = 500 X 40 gpm X 24 deg-F = 480,000 Btu/hr. Kw hr = 480,000 / 3412 = 140.68 1 Ton of refrigeration = 12,000 Btu/hr, System running at 24.8 Kw hr, EER = 480,000 / 24,800 = 19.35 > 13-14 standard for AC split unit COP = 19.35 x 0.293 = 5.67 => 140.68 / 24.8
  49. 49. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Air handling unit capacity calculation 136 gpm to tone Small units (up to 1,000 cfm, 500 L/s) may be placed inside ceiling space Air handling unit is a device to treat air. It has the ability to perform air circulation, ventilation, heating, cooling, humidification/dehumidification and filtering. On average you will need one ton of capacity per 500 square feet ( x 0.092903 = 46.45 m2) Cooling load is defined as the rate at which heat has to be removed from a space to maintain a constant temperature; the cooling load is calculated in units of BTU/hr, which represents the speed heat is removed Estimate the cooling load factor, or CLF, for your type of space using the following as a guide: residential/apartment, CLF is 1.0; office, CLF is 1.2; classroom, CLF is 1.5; and assembly, CLF is 2.5. CLF is in units of CFM/SF which is cubic feet per minute per square feet; example if: 500 SF x 2.5 CLF = 1,250 CFM Air cooling requirements in cubic feet per minute = floor area x cooling load factor Total cooling load, TCL = 1.08 x CFM x T If the interior design temperature is 75 degrees F, cooling coil temperature is 55 degrees F CFM is 1,250 CFM, then TCL = 1.08 x CFM x "T = 1.08 (1,250) (75-55) = 27,000 BTU/hr 27,000 / 3412 = 7.91 Kw/hr; 27,000 / 12000 = 2.25 ton refrigeration hr.
  50. 50. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving The lux is one lumen per square meter (lm/m2), and the corresponding radiometric unit, which measures irradiance, is the watt per square meter (W/m2) A flux of 1000 lumens, concentrated into an area of one square meter, lights up that square meter with an luminance of 1000 lux. However, the same 1000 lumens, spread out over ten square meters, produces a dimmer luminance of only 100 lux There is no single conversion factor between lx and W/m2; there is a different conversion factor for every wavelength, and it is not possible to make a conversion unless one knows the spectral composition of the light Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10,000 to 15,000 hours, depending partly on the conditions of use, and incandescent light bulbs at 1,000 to 2,000 hours. Several demonstrations have shown that reduced maintenance costs from this extended lifetime, rather than energy savings, is the primary factor in determining the payback period for an LED product
  51. 51. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving In practice, most buildings that use a lot of lighting use fluorescent lighting, which has 22% luminous efficiency compared with 5% for filaments, so changing to LED lighting would give only 34% reduction in electrical power and carbon emissions A typical 100 watt tungsten filament incandescent lamp may convert only 5% of its power input to visible white light (400–700 nm wavelength), whereas typical fluorescent lamps convert about 22% of the power input to visible white light The efficacy of fluorescent tubes ranges from about 16 lumens per watt for a 4 watt tube with an ordinary ballast to over 100 lumens per watt with a modern electronic ballast, commonly averaging 50 to 67 lm/W overall
  52. 52. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residence AC voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer Use of a higher voltage leads to significantly more efficient transmission of power The power losses in a conductor are a product of the square of the current and the resistance of the conductor, described by the formula This means that when transmitting a fixed power on a given wire, if the current is doubled, the power loss will be four times greater The power transmitted is equal to the product of the current and the voltage (assuming no phase difference) where represents a load resistance Since the current tends to flow in the periphery of conductors, the effective cross-section of the conductor is reduced. This increases the effective AC resistance of the conductor, since resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area The AC resistance often is many times higher than the DC resistance, causing a much higher energy loss due to ohm heating (also called I2R loss)
  53. 53. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Thus, the same amount of power can be transmitted with a lower current by increasing the voltage. It is therefore advantageous when transmitting large amounts of power to distribute the power with high voltages (often hundreds of kilovolts) High voltage transmission lines deliver power from electric generation plants over long distances using alternating current However, high voltages also have disadvantages, the main one being the increased insulation required, and generally increased difficulty in their safe handling In a power plant, power is generated at a convenient voltage for the design of a generator, and then stepped up to a high voltage for transmission Near the loads, the transmission voltage is stepped down to the voltages used by equipment
  54. 54. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current Electric motor found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators
  55. 55. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Efficiency To calculate a motor's efficiency, the mechanical output power is divided by the electrical input power: , where is energy conversion efficiency, is electrical input power, and is mechanical output power: where is input voltage, is input current, is output torque, and is output angular velocity Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second; It is equal to the energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one Newton through a distance of one meter (1 Newton meter or N·m), or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second
  56. 56. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Cavitation is the formation of vapor cavities in a liquid – i.e. small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids") – that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities where the pressure is relatively low When subjected to higher pressure, the voids implode and can generate an intense shockwave The most common examples of this kind of wear are to pump impellers, and bends where a sudden change in the direction of liquid occurs In pipe systems, cavitation typically occurs either as the result of an increase in the kinetic energy (through an area constriction) or an increase in the pipe elevation. When uncontrolled, cavitation is damaging; by controlling the flow of the cavitation, however, the power can be harnessed and non-destructive
  57. 57. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water") Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of calcium and magnesium-containing minerals such as limestone, chalk and dolomite Temporary hardness Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals (calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate) When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cat ions (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO2-, HCO-) 3 3 The presence of the metal cat ions makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulfate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium Hardness
  58. 58. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cat ions in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins Ion-exchange resin devices Conventional water-softening appliances intended for household use depend on an ion-exchange resin in which "hardness ions" - mainly Ca2+ and Mg2+ - are exchanged for sodium ions; ion exchange devices reduce the hardness by replacing magnesium and calcium (Mg2+ and Ca2+) with sodium or potassium ions (Na+ and K+)“ Regeneration of ion exchange resins When all the available Na+ ions have been replaced with calcium or magnesium ions, the resin must be re-charged by eluting the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions using a solution of sodium chloride or sodium hydroxide depending on the type of resin used For anionic resins, regeneration typically uses a solution of sodium hydroxide (lye) or potassium hydroxide The waste waters eluted from the ion exchange column containing the unwanted calcium and magnesium salts are typically discharged to the sewage system.
  59. 59. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Energy In a thermodynamically closed system, any power dissipated into the system that is being maintained at a set temperature (which is a standard mode of operation for modern air conditioners) requires that the rate of energy removal by the air conditioner increase This increase has the effect that, for each unit of energy input into the system (say to power a light bulb in the closed system), the air conditioner removes that energy In order to do so, the air conditioner must increase its power consumption by the inverse of its "efficiency" (coefficient of performance) times the amount of power dissipated into the system
  60. 60. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving As an example, assume that inside the closed system a 100 W heating element is activated, and the air conditioner has an coefficient of performance of 200%. The air conditioner's power consumption will increase by 50 W to compensate for this, thus making the 100 W heating element cost a total of 150 W of power It is typical for air conditioners to operate at "efficiencies" of significantly greater than 100% However, it may be noted that the input electrical energy is of higher thermodynamic quality (lower entropy) than the output thermal energy (heat energy)
  61. 61. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Air conditioner equipment power in the U.S. is often described in terms of "tons of refrigeration" A ton of refrigeration is approximately equal to the cooling power of one short ton (2000 pounds or 907 kilograms) of ice melting in a 24-hour period The value is defined as 12,000 BTU per hour, or 3517 watts Residential central air systems are usually from 1 to 5 tons (3 to 20 kilowatts (kW)) in capacity In an automobile, the A/C system will use around 4 horsepower (3 kW) of the engine's power
  62. 62. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiation influence Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of differing temperature Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body The insulating capability of a material is measured with thermal conductivity (k) Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability (R-value) In thermal engineering, other important properties of insulating materials are product density (ρ) and specific heat capacity (c)
  63. 63. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Factors influencing performance Insulation performance is influenced by many factors the most prominent of which include: Thermal conductivity ("k" or "λ" value); Surface emissivity ("ε" value insulation thickness; Density; Specific heat capacity; Thermal bridging It is important to note that the factors influencing performance may vary over time as material ages or environmental conditions change Calculating requirements Industry standards are often rules of thumb. Both heat transfer and layer analysis may be performed in large industrial applications, but in household situations (appliances and building insulation), air tightness is the key in reducing heat transfer due to air leakage (forced or natural convection) Once air tightness is achieved, it has often been sufficient to choose the thickness of the insulating layer based on rules of thumb. Diminishing returns are achieved with each successive doubling of the insulating layer It can be shown that for some systems, there is a minimum insulation thickness required for an improvement to be realized
  64. 64. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving Thermodynamic heat pump cycles or refrigeration cycles are the conceptual and mathematical models for heat pumps and refrigerators A heat pump is a machine or device that moves heat from one location (the 'source') at a lower temperature to another location (the 'sink' or 'heat sink') at a higher temperature using mechanical work or a high-temperature heat source Thus a heat pump may be thought of as a "heater" if the objective is to warm the heat sink (as when warming the inside of a home on a cold day), or a "refrigerator" if the objective is to cool the heat source (as in the normal operation of a freezer) In either case, the operating principles are identical Heat is moved from a cold place to a warm place Heat pump and refrigeration cycles can be classified as vapor compression, vapor absorption, gas cycle, or Stirling cycle types
  65. 65. Energy Conservation and Energy Saving In this cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. The vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor superheated. The superheated vapor travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. The liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases, causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of the liquid.