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- 1. Rev 3 PRESENTATION FORWARDED TO: WORLD CORPORATIONS IN: • Chemical and gas processing • Gas Transportation • Refining • Oil and gas field operation, and • Engineering projects and consulting. Caracas, March 2014 WRONG SIZING OF A RECIP COMPRESSOR IN OIL AND GAS SERVICE Presented at 2014 Windrock Conference Stone Mountain Park GA, USA
- 2. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 CONTENT CONTENT 1.- INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 4 2.- EXISTING COMPRESOR CONFIGURATION ................................................................. 7 4.- BASIC DATA TO ESTIMATE NUMBER OF STAGES.................................................. 11 5.- NUMBER OF STAGES AND DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE ...................................... 14 6.- BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS ANALYSIS – POWER AND FLOW........................... 15 Existing Case 1 ........................................................................................................... 15 Existing Case 2 ........................................................................................................... 17 Remedial Case ............................................................................................................ 18 Revamp Case .............................................................................................................. 18 Case Summary............................................................................................................ 19 Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 2/63
- 3. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 CONTENT 7.- SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS ANALYSIS.......................................... 21 Existing Case 1 ........................................................................................................... 21 Existing Case 2 ........................................................................................................... 21 Remedial Case ............................................................................................................ 23 Revamp Case .............................................................................................................. 26 ATTACHMENTS 1 TO 4 – BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS.............................................. 30 ATTACHMENTS 5 TO 8 – SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS....................... 41 Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 3/63
- 4. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 INTRODUCTION 1.- INTRODUCTION What happens when a wrongly sized multistage compressor is applied in a gas field?. Here we present a history case for a two stage compressor in a natural gas compresion process needding only one stage. There are two objectives for this presentation: 1.- to see the effect of wrong cylinder sizes and 2.- to present novel graphical tools for the diagnostic and optimization of reciprocating compressors, as described below. Process and compressor data is shown in Fig. 0 and Table 3. 4 / 63
- 5. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 INTRODUCTION No cross–checks with field data is provided in this work for space limitations. For convenience, the numerous figures were located at the end of this document in separate attachments. For the diagnostic and optimization process, we make use of the Basic Performance Maps in Attachments 1 through 4, featuring the following parameters: • Absorved Power per cylinder • Available power per cylinder • Flow, and • Variable volume Pocket settings 5 / 63
- 6. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 INTRODUCTION Complementary Special Purpose Performance Maps as contained in Attachments 5 through 8, are used to graphicaly depict limits for key mechanical and thermodynamic parameters as: • Low volumetric efficiency, • Rod Overload, • Rod load reversal, and • High Discharge temperature. 6 / 63
- 7. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 2.- EXISTING COMPRESOR CONFIGURATION RPM: 300 Stroke: 19” Rod Diameter: 4” Maximum rated power: 594 HP/cyl Gas Handled: Natural Gas 6% fluctuation Φ 8” HE Variable Volume Pocket ϕ 7.75 x 16” Cyl 1 Stage 1 Cyl 2 Stage 2 250 # 800 # ϕ11.5 “ Fig. 0 370 # 20% fluctuation 7 / 63
- 8. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS CASES 3.- BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS CASES Operator wanted to handle maximum throughput with good reliability, but the compressor was out of thermodynamic balance (see Attachment 1 Fig. 2) creating also unbalance and detonations in the engine side. There was a compressor crankshaft failure in the past. Cylinder 2 rod load reversal was a problem as shown in Attachment 5 Figure 10, and discharge temperature a concern at low suction pressures according to Fig. 11. Four (4) analysis cases were prescribed in order to find a remedial approach to mitigate the reliability problems while a revamp with the full solution was pursued in the mid term. See Tables 1 and 2. 8 / 63
- 9. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS CASES Table 1.- Analysis Cases Definitions CASE FEATURES PURPOSE FIGS. Existing 1 First stage variable volume pocket fully closed Check full power absorved and profile. Check full flow. Fig. 1 & 2 Attach. 1 Existing 2 First stage variable volume pocket adjusted to match available power Check power absorved and profile. Check flow. Fig. 3 & 4 Attach. 2 Remedial First stage variable volume pocket fully open plus a 75% clearance cylinder 1 crank end bottle An attempt to evenly distribute the load between the two cylinders. Check flow. Fig. 5 Attach. 3 Revamp Replace cylinders with bigger ones featuring variable volume pockets in each cylinder Ultimate solution for maximum flow and reliability. Figs. 6 & 7 Attach. 4 9 / 63
- 10. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS CASES Table 2.- Analysis Cases Configuration EXISTING CASES REMEDIAL CASE REVAMP CASE Diam (inch) Diam (inch) C1 HE See Fig. 0 13.5 CE Add Clearance 75 % Var. Vol. Pocket Fully Open 11 x 16 C2 HE See Fig.0 See Fig. 0 10.5 CE Var. Vol. Pocket 8 x 16 10 / 63
- 11. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC DATA TO ESTIMATE NUMBER OF STAGES 4.- BASIC DATA TO ESTIMATE NUMBER OF STAGES Tables 3 through 6 show how one stage configuration is appropriate for handling natural gas with a compression ratio of (800 + 14.3) / (250 + 14.3) = 3.081. Adiabatic discharge temperature 266 °F is acceptable when compared against API 11P 350 °F limit. 11 / 63
- 12. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC DATA TO ESTIMATE NUMBER OF STAGES Table 3.- Basic Data to Estimate Number of Stages Ps 250 psig Pd 800 psig Ts 100 ºF ΔT COOLER 20 ºF k 1.3 Assumption Patm 14.3 Psia Td max 350 ºF η ISEN 0.85 Assumption Zs 0.94 Guess Zd 0.93 Guess 12 / 63
- 13. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC DATA TO ESTIMATE NUMBER OF STAGES Table 4.- Thermodynamic Ecuations to Predict Discharge Temperature and Number of Stages ADIABATIC NON-ADIABATIC 1 NON ADIABATIC 2 Exp RT = − += η 1 1 Exp R T Z R T Exp = T R Expn ln ln ⋅= ( )[ ]11ln ln +− ⋅= T R Expn η ( )TZ R Expn ln ln ⋅= Where: n = number of compression stages k k Exp 1− = 460 460 + + = s d T T T atms atmd PP PP R + + = s d Z Z Z = 13 / 63
- 14. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 5.- NUMBER OF STAGES AND DISCHARGE TEMPERATURE Table 5.- Number Of Stages (n). Adiabatic And Non Adiabatic Models Model Theoretical Number of Stages Adiabatic 0.70 n, Non Adiabatic 1 0.81 n, Non adiabatic 2 0.73 Table 6.- Discharge Temps – Second Stage Number of Stages 1 2 Compression Ratio 3.081 1.755 Td Adiabatic ºF 266 200 Td Non Adiabatic1 ºF 295 215 Td Non Adiabatic2 ºF 274 208 14 / 63
- 15. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS – PWR & FLOW 6.- BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS ANALYSIS – POWER AND FLOW Existing Case 1 (Attachment 1) Attachment 1 Figure 1 shows the total power this reciprocating compressor consumes in the analisis range. An examination of curves profile indicates 1- the cylinders sizes are small for the power available and 2- the flow is aprox. 11.5 MMSCFD at nominal pressures. A simple appreciation of Fig. 1 can erroneously lead to conclude this compressor is suitable for suction pressures around 400 PSI and discharge pressures of around 1000 PSI. However, a breakdown of the gas power into the two stage/cylinders (see Figure 2), reveals how at full load and nominal pressures (250 x 800 psi) first stage absorves 740 HP while second stage absorves only 150 HP thus creating a thermodynamic unbalance. 15 / 63
- 16. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS – PWR & FLOW Existing Case 1 (Attachment 1) – Cont´d This thermodynamic unbalance translates to a unbalanced torque regime with likely high torque stresses on the crankshaft and undesirable torque pulsations in the gas engine side. This load unbalance increases the risk of cranckshaft failure in both compressor and engine side during upset process conditions or speed changes. Engine cylinders power balance is difficult to achieve, as per operators´ story. Further increase of suction pressure makes this unbalancing worse. Rated maximum power per cylinder was established by the OEM at 594 HP. 16 / 63
- 17. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS – PWR & FLOW Existing Case 2 (Attachment 2) Existing Case 2 in Attachment 2 shows how cylinder 1 variable volume pocket is uncapable of controling cylinder 1 power across the operating range. Beyond suction pressure 250 PSIG the absorved power cannot be kept below 594 HP because the stage 2 flow reverses. At its own, cylinder 2 absorved power is 190 HP with a diverging profile with respect to cylinder 1. Flow decreases to 10 MMSCFD. Something has to be done to equalize cylinder 1 and cylinder 2 load regime, IE further unloading of cylinder 1, which is the next analysis case. 17 / 63
- 18. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS – PWR & FLOW Remedial Case (Attachment 3) Remedial Case equalizes C1 and cylinder 2 absorved power as shown in Attachment 3. At nominal pressure conditions (250 x 800 PSI) cylinders 1 and 2 consume roughly 260 HP each. Flow further decreases to 7 MMSCFD. Revamp Case ( Attachment 4) Attachment 4 ilustrates how Revamp Case maximizes and completely equalizes both cylinders absorved power, allowing complete controlability of the power across and beyond the operating range. The flow increased to 15.4 MMSCFD with good reliability. Both variable volume pockets were sized as to have the same setting across the operating range, thus improving operability. 18 / 63
- 19. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS – PWR & FLOW Case Summary Power and flow regimes belonging to the different analysis scenarios are organized in Table 7 for quick reference. Case 1 handles a significant flow but, as stated above, has an unaceptable power unbalance. Case 2 mitigates the power unbalance with 15% penalty in flow, but still the picture is bad. Case 3 illustrates how difficult is to balance this machine by means of unloading cylinder 1. The flow decreases 60 % which is a high price to pay in terms of revenues. 19 / 63
- 20. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 BASIC PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS – PWR & FLOW Case Summary – Cont´d Case 4 represent the full solution together with the highest investment (replacement of the two cylinders). It is expected that an increase in the reliability and throughput would return the investment in the midterm. Table 7.- Case Summary. Power and Flow ANALYSIS CASE TOTAL POWER POWER PER CYLINDER FLOW HP HP/CYL 1 HP/CYL 2 MMSCFD 1 Existing 1 890 740 150 11.5 2 Existing 2 784 594 190 10.0 3 Remedial 520 260 260 7.0 4 Revamp 1,188 594 594 15.4 20 / 63
- 21. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS 7.- SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS ANALYSIS Existing Case 1 (Attachment 5) As mentioned in 3, there is a problem with rod 2 which load remains in tension (does not reverses) when the overall compression ratio increases due to pressure fluctuations. See Attachment 5 Figure 10. Similarly, high discharge temperature becomes a concern when overall compression ratio increases. See Figure 11. Other key parameters as low volumetric efficiency and rod load have a good picture as shown in Attachment 5 Figures 8 and 9. 21 / 63
- 22. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS Existing Case 2 (Attachment 6) Existing Case 2 represents a concern with rod load reversal when the compression ratio decreases. Attachment 6 Figure 14 shows this situation and suggests that with discharge pressures around 770 PSI, there might be a reversal problem. At 320 PSI suction pressure the operating point crosses the boundary to the prohibited zone for rod load reversal. At its own, discharge temperature becomes a concern when the compression ratio increases. See Attachment 6 Figure 15. 200 x 900 PSI network conditions are clearly indicated as bordeline. Further increase of discharge pressure beyond 900 PSI can pose a problem. In such a operating region, the variable volume pocket settings cross the boundary to the prohibited zone. 22 / 63
- 23. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS Remedial Case (Attachment 7) Low volumetric efficiency and rod load show a good picture as depicted by Figures 12 and 13. No thresholds are observed in the analysis range. As expected, low volumetric efficiency regime becomes a problem within this scenario because of the unloading provided to cylinder 1. Particularly evident is the situation for the crank end discharge corner of this cylinder as depicted by Figure 16: at higher pressure ratios the operating point crosses the boundary to the prohibited zone. In the 800 – 900 PSI Pd range and 200 – 220 PSI Ps range, one can expect to have low volumetric efficiency problems. 23 / 63
- 24. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS Remedial Case (Attachment 7) – Cont´d The solution for the low volumetric efficiency problem would come in terms of closing the variable volume pocket to 13” in order to be safe before the discharge pressure fluctuations. The penalty would come in terms of power unbalance between cylinder 1 and cylinder 2. As depicted in Attachments 1 & 2. Figure 17 confirms the warnings from Figure 16: high pressure ratios create cylinder 1 CE discharge low volumetric efficiency problems. Rod load poses no concerns to the operator, as shown in Figures 18 and 19. 24 / 63
- 25. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS Remedial Case (Attachment 7) – Cont´d Rod load reversal has problems at low compression ratios: See in Figure 20 how the operating point in the 700 – 820 PSI discharge pressure range crosses the prohibited threshold. There is no way to improve this situation via pocket setting. The solution is to increase the pressure ratio. Discharge temperatures show no thresholds of concern in the analysis range. It can be seen in Figure 21 and 22. The closest boundary is 300 °F cylinder 2 but it is not of concern because it needs a fairly high compression ratio as to be trespassed. At nominal suction pressure (250 PSI), the required discharge pressure as to produce high discharge temperature in cylinder 2, is aproximately 1,200 PSI. 25 / 63
- 26. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS Revamp Case ( Attachment 8) Being a revamp case, one would expect to have no concerns on mechanical limits affecting the reliability. However as a borderline application (two stages instead of one, see Tables 5 & 6) some thermodynamic limits should surround the operating range. This can be observed in Attachment 8 as stated next. Figure 23 depicts a 900 PSI low volumetric efficiency threshold at low suction pressures withing the operating range. One should not open too much the variable volume pocket because it will create a low volumetric efficiency regime at a discharge pressure of 900 PSI. Rod overload and load reversal are not a concern within this revamp case as shown in Figures 24 & 25. 26 / 63
- 27. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 SPECIAL PURPOSE PERF. MAPS ANALYSIS Revamp Case ( Attachment 8) – Cont´d Cylinder 2 high discharge temperature is attainable only at high pressure ratios in the vicinity of the operating range. This can be seen graphically in Figure 26, where one can have high discharge temp below 180 PSI suction pressure. In the event it happens, then one can mitigate the problem by further opening the pocket (unloading the compressor). 27 / 63
- 28. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 CONCLUSIONS 8.- CONCLUSIONS Total absorved power can be a misleading parameter as to characterize the power rating of a multistage reciprocating compresor. It is necessary to plot the individual cylinders power in order to have a complete picture for the power balance within the compressor, which translates into a torque balance on the crankshaft and driver side. The analysis cases presented here showed how a wrongly sized cylinders (cylinders too small) within a wrongly configured staging (two stages instead of one) led to a thermodynamically unbalance stages (different power consumptions, flow reversal). Multistage compressors require unloading mechanisms in all stages in order to appropriately distribute the load across the operating range. 28 / 63
- 29. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 CONCLUSIONS Basic performance maps and special purpose performance maps as those contained in the attachments are of special usefullness when it comes to the diagnostic and optimization of reciprocating compressors. 29 / 63
- 30. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – BASIC PERF. MAPS ATTACHMENT 1 EXISTING CASE 1 – BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 30 / 63 30 / 6330 / 63
- 31. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – BASIC PERF. MAPS 6 11 16 21 26 31 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 TotalAbsorvedPower-ghp Suction - psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Total Power and Flow @ 300 RPM Avail. Pwr. 1,188 ghp Total GHP Fluctuation Flow-MMSCFD@14.3psia&60ºF Pd 900# 800 700 700 - 900# Pd Flow Fig. 1 Existing Case 1. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Closed 31 / 63
- 32. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – BASIC PERF. MAPS Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Power and Flow @ 300 RPM -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Suction - psig AbsorvedPowerPerCyl-ghp/cyl 6 11 16 21 26 31 Avail. Pwr. 594 ghp/cyl GHP/cyl Fluctuation Flow-MMSCFD@14.3psia&60ºF Cyl 1, 700 - 900 # Pd Pd 900# 800700 700 - 900# Pd Flow Cyl 2 Fig. 2 Existing Case 1. Var. Vol. Pocket Closed GHP/cyl 32 / 63
- 33. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – BASIC PERF. MAPS ATTACHMENT 2 EXISTING CASE 2 - BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 33 / 6333 / 6333 / 63
- 34. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – BASIC PERF. MAPS Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Power and Flow - 300 RPM -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Suction - psig AbsorvedPowerPerCyl-ghp/cyl 5 10 15 20 25 Avail. Pwr. 594 ghp/cyl Power/cyl Flow-MMSCFD@14.3psia&60ºF C1 C2 Pd 900 # 800700 Flow700 - 900 Fluctuation Fig. 7 700 - 900# Pd Exist. Case 2. Match Available Power w/C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Fig. 3 34 / 63
- 35. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – BASIC PERF. MAPS Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Flow & Var. Vol. Pocket - 300 RPM -10 -5 0 5 10 15 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Suction - psig Flow-mmscfd-14.3psia&60ºF 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 C1Var.Vol.Pocket-Inch Flow 900 # Pd Fluctuation Var. Vol Pocket Máx. VV Pocket 16" 700 - 900 # Pd Fig. 8 700 Exist. Case 2. Match Available Power w/C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Fig. 4 35 / 63
- 36. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – BASIC PERF. MAPS ATTACHMENT 3 REMEDIAL CASE - BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 36 / 6336 / 6336 / 63
- 37. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – BASIC PERF. MAPS Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Power & Flow - 300 RPM -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Suction - Psig AbsorvedPowerPerCyl.-Ghp/Cyl 2 7 12 17 22 FlowMMSCFD@14.3Psia&60°F 700 800 900 C2 (900, 800, 700) Fluctuation 900 800 700 Flow Power Avail. Pwr. 594 ghp/cyl Fig. 13 Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottle C1 Fig. 5 37 / 63
- 38. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – BASIC PERF. MAPS ATTACHMENT 4 REVAMP CASE - BASIC PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 38 / 6338 / 6338 / 63
- 39. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – BASIC PERF. MAPS 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Flow-mmscfd@14,3psia&60°F AbsorvedPowerPerCyl-Ghp/Cyl Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Power & Flow - 300 RPM 800 Fluctuation Flow Power Cyl 2 or Cyl 3 900 700 900 700 Avail. Pwr. 594 GHP/cyl See VV Pockets in graph 7 Revamp Case. Cyl 1 13.5" / Cyl 2 10.5" w/VV Pockets 800 900 700800 Fig. 6 39 / 63
- 40. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – BASIC PERF. MAPS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 FlowMMSCFD-14,3Psia,60°F Var.Vol.Pockets-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Flow and C1 & C2 Var Vol Pockets - 300 RPM 800900 Fluctuation Flow 700 See Pwr in a separate graph VV Pockets C1 & C2 900 800 700Revamp Case. Cyl 1 13.5" / Cyl 2 10.5" w/VV Pockets Fig. 7 40 / 63
- 41. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS ATTACHMENT 5 EXISTING CASE 1 – SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 41 / 63
- 42. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Discharge-Psig Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Low Vol. Eff. Thresholds - 300 RPM Fluctuation Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone Fig. 8 Existing Case 1. Var. Vol. Pocket Closed C2 HE Disch. C2 CE Disch. Nom. Pd 800 # (Hypotetical Plot) 42 / 63
- 43. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Discharge-Psig Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Overload Thresholds - 300 RPM Fluctuation Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone Oper. Region Fig. 9 100 KLBF Thresholds Cyl 2Traction Compression Existing Case 1. Var. Vol. Pocket Closed (Hypotetical Plot) 43 / 63
- 44. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Discharge-Psig Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Load Reversal Thresholds - 300 RPM Permitted Zone Prohibited Zone Oper. Region Fluctuation Compression Traction Fluct. C2 Thresholds Fig. 10 Existing Case 1. Var. Vol. Pocket Closed 44 / 63
- 45. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 1 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Discharge-Psig Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 High Disch. Temp. Threshold - 300 RPM Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone Oper. Regions 300 ºF Threshold Cyl 2 Fluctuation Fluct. Fig. 11 Existing Case 1. Var. Vol. Pocket Closed 45 / 63
- 46. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS ATTACHMENT 6 EXISTING CASE 2 - SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 46 / 63
- 47. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1Var.Vol.Pocket-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Low Volumetric Eff. Thresholds - 300 RPM Fluctuation Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone 900 800 700 Máx. VV Pocket Setting 16" Fig. 12 Low VE Thresholds C1 Disch. HE Exist. Case 2. Match Available Power w/C1 Var. Vol. Pocket (Hypotetical Plot) VV Pocket Setting 47 / 63
- 48. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1Var.Vol.PocketSetting-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Overload Thresholds. 300 RPM No thresholds are observed in the analysis range Fig. 13 Internal Gas Loads Only Exist. Case 2. Match Available Power w/C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Máx. VV Pocket Setting 16" VV Pocket Setting 48 / 63
- 49. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1VariableVolumePocketSetting-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Load Reversal - 300 RPM Fluctuation Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone 900 800 700 Fig. 14 C2 Thresholds Interna Gas Loads Only Máx. Var. Vol. Pocket Setting 16" Exist. Case 2. Match Available Power w/C1 Var. Vol. Pocket VV Pocket Setting 49 / 63
- 50. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 EXISTING CASE 2 – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1VariableVolumePocketSetting-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 High Discharge Temp. Thresholds - 300 RPM Fluctuation Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone 700 900800 Fig. 15 Máx. Var. Vol. Pkt Setting 16" C2 300°F Disch. Temp. Thresholds Exist. Case 2. Match Available Power w/C1 Var. Vol. Pocket VV Pocket Setting 50 / 63
- 51. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS ATTACHMENT 7 REMEDIAL CASE - SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 51 / 63
- 52. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1VariableVol.Pocket-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Low Volumetric Efficiency Thresholds - 300 RPM 900# 800# 700# Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone Fluctuation Low VE C1 CE Disch. Max. Var. Vol. Pocket Opening 16" Fig. 16 Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottle 900# 800# 700# C1 Var Vol Pocket Setting 52 / 63
- 53. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Low Volumetric Efficiency Thresholds - 300 RPM 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Suction - Psig Discharge-Psig Fluctuation Permitted Zone Prohibited Zone Fluctuation Oper. Region C1 CE Disch. Threshold Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottle Fig. 15Fig. 17 53 / 63
- 54. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Overload Thresholds. 300 RPM 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Suction - Psig Discharge-Psig Fluctuation Permitted Zone Prohibited Zone Fluctuation Oper. Region 100 KLBF C2 Threshold Only Internal Gas Load Fig. 16 Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottle Fig. 18 54 / 63
- 55. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1VariableVolumePocket-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Overload Thresholds - 300 RPM No thresholds are observed in the analysis range Fig. 19 internal gas load only Max. Var. Vol. Pocket Opening 16" Fluctuation Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottl C1 Var Vol Pocket Setting 55 / 63
- 56. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1Var.Vol.PocketSetting-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Load Reversal Thresholds. 300 RPM 800 # 900 # Max. Var. Vol. Pocket Setting 16" Fluctuation Permitted Zone Prohibited Zone Fig. 20 C2 Thresholds Internal Gas Load Only 700 #Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottle C1 Var Vol Pocket Setting 56 / 63
- 57. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1VariableVolumePocketSetting-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 High Discharge Temp. Thresholds - 300 RPM No thresholds are observed in the analysis range Fig. 21 Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Adjusted + 75% C1 CE Bottle Max. Var. Vol. Pocket Setting 16" C1 Var Vol Pocket Setting Fluctuation 57 / 63
- 58. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REMEDIAL CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Discharge-Psig Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 High Discharge Temp. Thresholds - 300 RPM Fluctuation Permitted ZoneProhibited Zone 300° F C2 Threshold Fluctuation Oper. Region Fig. 22 Remedial Case. C1 Var. Vol. Pocket Fully Open + 75% C1 CE Bottle 58 / 63
- 59. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS ATTACHMENT 8 REVAMP CASE - SPECIAL PURPOSE PERFORMANCE MAPS Tlf: +58.212.816.5779 Caracas, Venezuela www.turbodina.com Móvil: +58.414.247.1337 Orlando, Florida mando@turbodina.com 59 / 63
- 60. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1&C2Var.Vol.Pockets-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Low Vol. Eff. Thresholds - 300 RPM Fluctuation Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone No thresholds are observed for Pd = 800 & 700# Máx VVP Setting 21" C2 Thresholds HE Disch. 900# No thresholds are observed in the C1 corners Revamp Case. Cyl 1 13.5" / Cyl 2 10.5" w/VV Pockets Fig. 23 Var Vol Pocket Setting 800900 700 60 / 63
- 61. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1&C2VarVolPockets-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Overload Thresholds - 300 RPM No thresholds are observed in the analysis range Only internal gas loads Revamp Case. Cyl 1 13.5" / Cyl 2 10.5" w/VV Pockets Fig. 24 Fluctuation Var Vol Pocket Setting 800900 700 Máx VVP Setting 21" 61 / 63
- 62. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1&C2Var.Vol.Pockets-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 Rod Load Reversal Thresholds - 300 RPM No thresholds are observed in the analysis range Only Internal Gas Loads Revamp Case. Cyl 1 13.5" / Cyl 2 10.5" w/VV Pockets Fig. 25 Fluctuation Var Vol Pocket Setting 800900 700 Máx VVP Setting 21" 62 / 63
- 63. Wrong Sizing of a Recip Compressor Rev 3 March14 REVAMP CASE – SPECIAL PURPOSE MAPS 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 C1&C2Var.Vol.Pockets-Inch Suction - Psig Zap Station, Compressor K3, Cylinders C1 & C2 High Disch. Temp. Thresholds - 300 RPM 900 # C2 300 oF Thresholds Max. VV Pockets Setting 21" Prohibited Zone Permitted Zone No thresholds are observed for Pd = 700 & 800# Revamp Case. Cyl 1 13.5" / Cyl 2 10.5" w/VV Pockets Fluctuation Fig. 26 Var Vol Pocket Setting 800900 700 63 / 63

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