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What happened to the jewish population after wwii.pptx

  1. WANNSEE CONFERENCE AND THE "FINAL SOLUTION" • On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi Party and German government officials gathered at a villa in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss and coordinate the implementation of what they called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."
  2. THE FINAL SOLUTION • The Wannsee Conference was a high-level meeting of German officials to discuss and implement the so-called “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” (mass killing). • The SS envisioned that some 11 million Jews, some of them not living on German-controlled territory, would be eradicated as part of the Nazi program.
  3. REPRESENTING THE SS AT THE WANNSEE CONFERENCE WERE: • SS General Reinhard Heydrich, the chief of the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt-RSHA) and one of Reichsführer-SS (SS chief) Heinrich Himmler's top deputies • SS Major General Heinrich Müller, chief of RSHA Department IV (Gestapo) • SS Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann, chief of the RSHA Department IV B 4 (Jewish Affairs) • SS Colonel Eberhard Schöngarth, commander of the RSHA field office for the Government General in Krakow, Poland • SS Major Rudolf Lange, commander of RSHA Einsatzkommando 2, deployed in Latvia in the autumn of 1941 • SS Major General Otto Hofmann, the chief of SS Race and Settlement Main Office. • Representing the agencies of the State were: • State Secretary Roland Freisler (Ministry of Justice) • Ministerial Director Wilhelm Kritzinger (Reich Cabinet) • State Secretary Alfred Meyer (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories-
  5. COORDINATING THE "FINAL SOLUTION" At the time of the Wannsee Conference, most participants were already aware that the Nazi regime had engaged in mass murder of Jews and other civilians in the German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union and in Serbia. Some had learned of the actions of the Einsatzgruppen and other police and military units, which were already slaughtering tens of thousands of Jews in the German-occupied Soviet Union. Others were aware that units of the German Army and the SS and police were killing Jews in Serbia. None of the officials present at the meeting objected to the "Final Solution" policy that Heydrich
  6. THE GOAL OF THE WANNSEE CONFERENCE • The participants discussed a number of other issues raised by the new policy, including the establishment of the Theresienstadt camp- ghetto as a destination for elderly Jews as well Jews who were disabled or decorated in World War I, the deferment until after the war of “Final Solution” measures against Jews married to non-Jews or persons of mixed descent as defined by the Nuremberg laws, prospects for inducing Germany's Axis partners to give up their Jewish populations, and preparatory measures for the “evacuations.” • Despite the euphemisms which appeared in the protocols of the meeting, the aim of the Wannsee Conference was clear to its participants: to further the coordination of a policy aimed at the physical annihilation of the European Jews.
  7. THE “FINAL SOLUTION”: “FINAL SOLUTION” EUPHEMISMS • The term “Final Solution” (Die Endlösung) was a euphemism. Himmler was fully prepared to talk about killing to his immediate subordinates, but much of the Nazi killing machine was shrouded in bureaucratic euphemism. • The doctors and administrators charged with murdering ‘incurables’ were the ‘Public Ambulance Service Ltd’ (Gemeinnützige Krankentransport GmbH); • the motorized death squads which first went into action in Poland in 1939 were ‘task forces’ (Einsatzgruppen) • the massacre of nearly 34,000 Jews in the ravine of Babi-Yar after the capture of Kiev in September 1941 was a ‘major operation’ (Gross-Aktiori). • People identified for extermination in official Nazi documents were listed as those to be given ‘special treatment’ (Sonderbehandlung), sometimes abbreviated to ‘SB’, and from roughly mid-1943 the term ‘special lodging’ (Sonderunterbringung) was also used.
  8. HOW MANY JEWS WERE KILLED IN 1942? • 15,000 murders a day: August-October 1942 were the Holocaust's deadliest months • The killing only stopped when there was no one left to murder. • From August to October 1942, 1.32 million Jews were either slain in Nazi death camps or shot in close by regions, an almost inconceivable 15,000 people per day, a new study suggests. • This is more than previously calculated, and is a rate that surpasses recent genocides such as the one that occurred in Rwanda in 1994. • In fact, roughly 25 percent of all Holocaust victims were murdered from August to October 1942, which was quite likely the deadliest three months in human history as the German killing machine was at its most lethal.
  10. DEPORTATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS • From May 15 to July 9, 1944, Hungarian gendarmerie officials, under the guidance of German SS officials, deported around 440,000 Jews from Hungary. Most were deported to Auschwitz- Birkenau, where, upon arrival and after selection, SS functionaries killed the majority of them in gas chambers. • Thousands were also sent to the border with Austria to be deployed at digging fortification trenches. By the end of July 1944, the only Jewish community left in Hungary was that of Budapest, the capital.
  12. REMAINING JEWISH POPULATION OF EUROPE IN 1945 Before the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, Europe had a vibrant, established, and diverse Jewish culture. By 1945, most European Jews— two out of every three— had been killed.
  13. IMMIGRATION Six million Jews died in the Holocaust. Jewish communities across Europe were shattered. Many of those who survived were determined to leave Europe and start new lives in Israel or the United States. The population shifts brought on by the Holocaust and by Jewish
  14. • America Denied Refugees After the End of World War II • 2020 marks the 75th anniversary of one of the most egregious acts of exclusion, one that has been almost stricken from historical memory: the decision to prevent Jewish Holocaust survivors and non-Jewish victims of World War II from immigrating to the United States. • At war’s end in 1945 Europe, millions of ill-clothed, malnourished, diseased, and disoriented concentration, death, and labor camp survivors, forced laborers and slave laborers, POWs and political prisoners were left to wander the roadways and haunt the town squares and marketplaces in search of food and shelter. • American military forces took the lead in rounding them up, transporting them to assembly centers, and then repatriating millions to their former homes in western Europe, Italy, and the Soviet Union. REMAINING JEWISH POPULATION OF EUROPE IN 1945
  15. DP CAMPS At the conclusion of World War II, there were millions of refugees in Europe, including many Holocaust survivors who refused to go home or had no homes to return to. These survivors experienced struggles and successes as they sought to rebuild their lives in the shadow of the Holocaust, often in Displaced Persons (DP) camps. Tens of thousands emigrated to the United States between 1947 and 1953 and many more found their way to Israel.
  16. DPS • By summer’s end, however, there remained left behind in Germany a million displaced persons (DPs), who were unable or unwilling to return home or, like the Jewish survivors, had no homes to return to. • The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency, largely funded by the United States, was organized to shelter, feed, and provide these last million victims of war with medical care in newly established DP camps. • They would remain there for the next three to five years while the
  17. MOST JEWISH DPS PREFERRED TO EMIGRATE TO PALESTINE BUT MANY ALSO SOUGHT ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES. • Following World War II, several hundred thousand Jewish survivors remained in camps for displaced persons. • The Allies established such camps in Allied-occupied Germany, Austria, and Italy for refugees waiting to leave Europe. • They decided to remain in the DP camps until they could leave Europe. At the end of 1946 the number of Jewish DPs was estimated at 250,000, of whom 185,000 were in Germany, 45,000 in Austria, and 20,000 in Italy. • Most of the Jewish DPs were refugees from Poland, many of whom had fled the Germans into the interior of the Soviet Union during the war. Other Jewish DPs came from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania.
  18. CREATION OF ISRAEL, 1948 • On May 14, 1948, David Ben- Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. U.S. President Harry S. Truman recognized the new nation on the same day.
  19. ISRAEL Although the United States supported the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which favored the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had assured the Arabs in 1945 that the United States would not intervene without consulting both the Jews and the Arabs in that region. The British, who held a colonial mandate for Palestine until May 1948, opposed both the creation of a Jewish state and an Arab state in Palestine as well as unlimited immigration of Jewish refugees to the region. Great Britain wanted to preserve good relations
  20. DAILY LIFE OF DPS • Among the concerns facing these Jewish DPs in the years following the Holocaust were the problems of daily life in the displaced persons camps, Zionism, and emigration. • Soon after liberation, survivors began searching for their families. UNRRA established the Central Tracing Bureau to help survivors locate relatives who had survived the concentration camps. • Public radio broadcasts and newspapers contained lists of survivors and their whereabouts. • The attempt to reunite families went hand-in-hand with the creation of new
  21. DP CAMPS – FORMER CONCENTRATION CAMPS • Schools were soon established and teachers came from Israel and the United States to teach the children in the DP camps. • Orthodox Judaism also began its rebirth as yeshivot (religious schools) were founded in several camps, including Bergen-Belsen, Foehrenwald, and Feldafing. • Religious holidays became major occasions for gatherings and celebrations. • Jewish volunteer agencies supplied
  22. SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS • The DPs also transformed the camps into active cultural and social centers. Despite the often bleak conditions—many of the camps were former concentration camps and German army camps— social and occupational organizations soon abounded. • Journalism sprang to life with more than 170 publications. • Numerous theater and musical troupes toured the camps. • Athletic clubs from various DP centers challenged each other.
  23. ZIONISM Zionism (the movement to return to the Jewish homeland in what was then British-controlled Palestine) was perhaps the most incendiary question of the Jewish DP era. In increasing numbers from 1945–48, Jewish survivors, their nationalism heightened by lack of autonomy in the camps and having few destinations available, chose British-controlled Palestine as their most desired destination. The DPs became an
  24. • While there has been a continuous Jewish presence in the land of Israel over the millennia, the yearning to return to Zion, the biblical term for both the land of Israel and Jerusalem, has been a cornerstone of Jewish communal life since the Romans violently colonized the land, sending Jews into exile two thousand years ago. • An earlier exile by the Babylonians produced perhaps the most well- known lamentation “By the rivers of Babylon, there we wept as we remembered Zion.” • That connection between Jews and the land, and the hope for repatriation, is deeply embedded in
  25. TRUMAN RECOGNIZES THE STATE OF ISRAEL • Despite growing conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Palestinian Jews and despite the Department of State’s endorsement of a trusteeship, Truman ultimately decided to recognize the state Israel.
  26. AGRICULTURAL TRAINING BEFORE EMIGRATION TO PALESTINE • Buchenwald" building, where Jews received agricultural training in preparation for life in Palestine. Buchenwald displaced persons camp, Germany, ca. August 1946.
  27. EMIGRATION • After liberation, the Allies were prepared to repatriate Jewish displaced persons to their homes, but many DPs refused or felt unable to return. • The Allies deliberated and procrastinated for years before resolving the emigration crisis, although some Allied officials had proposed solutions just months after liberation. • Earl Harrison, in his August 1945 report to President Truman, recommended mass population transfer from Europe and
  28. DPS IMMIGRATING • • Harrison traveled to thirty DP camps in Germany and Austria in July 1945. • His report on August 3 revealed that many of the rumors of poor treatment were indeed true and that “we appear to be treating the Jews as the Nazis treated them, except that we do not exterminate them.” • The camps under the auspices of General George S. Patton in Southern Germany were especially poorly run. • The report urged the immediate evacuation of the DPs and specifically called for opening the gates of Palestine to Jewish immigration: “The evacuation of the Jews of Germany and Austria to Palestine will solve the problem of the individuals involved and will also remove a problem from the military authorities who have had to deal with it.”
  29. MODERN ZIONISM • What is known as modern Zionism emerged in the mid-19th century in tandem with the rise of the nation-state and widespread national liberation movements across Europe. • In the case of the Jews, it was also in response to a long history of intense anti- Jewish hatred, persecution, and discrimination in countries and societies across the world where Jews lived, including in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. • Its advocates believed that a modern Jewish state would provide Jews with a safe haven from the bigotry and endangerment they suffered perennially as a minority culture among non-Jewish majority cultures and ensure that Jews have the same right to nationhood and
  30. EARLY ZIONISM • In the late 1800s, the “father” of modern Zionism, Austrian journalist Theodor Herzl, consolidated various strands of Zionist thought into an organized political movement, advocating for international recognition of an independent and sovereign Jewish state in the land of Israel.
  31. TODAY’S JEWISH SOVEREIGN STATE • Today, with a Jewish sovereign state a reality, Zionists believe in and support the right of the democratic State of Israel to exist as a Jewish homeland. Israel is the only Jewish state in the world. • Being a Zionist is distinct from supporting the policies of the government of Israel.
  32. NEW BEGINNINGS: JEWISH REFUGEES AFTER THE HOLOCAUST • Truman conceded to loosen immigration laws in the United States and brought thousands of DPs into America. • The priority immigrants were orphaned children. • Over the course of 1946 to 1950, over 100,000 Jews migrated to the United States.
  33. BRITISH BLOCKADES TO PALESTINE Britain complicated process for regulation of displaced Jewish immigration to Palestinian was plagued with problems. Jews were moved to Italy, a trip which they often did on foot From Italy, ships and crew were rented for the passage across the Mediterranean to Palestine. Some of the ships made it past a British naval blockade of Palestine, but most did not. The passengers of captured ships were forced to disembark in Cyprus, where the British operated DP camps.
  34. IMMIGRATION TO ISRAEL AFTER 5/15/1948 • Immigration to Israel increased rapidly despite war against hostile Arab neighbors • . On May 15, 1948, the first day of Israeli statehood, 1,700 immigrants arrived. • There was an average of 13,500 immigrants each month from May through December of 1948, far exceeding the prior legal migration approved by the
  35. MORE ON ZIONISM • Zionism is a big tent movement that includes those across the spectrum from progressives, moderates and conservatives and those who are apolitical. • There are Zionists who are critical of Israeli policies, just as there are Zionists who rarely voice disagreement with the Israeli government. • There are diverse views among Zionists about the Israeli- Palestinian conflict, about how to promote peace, whether to support a two-state solution, and about approaches to Israeli settlements.
  36. THE WAR REFUGEE BOARD • Ultimately, the survivors of the Holocaust were able to emigrate to Israel, the United States, or a host of other countries. • The State of Israel accepted as many that were willing to come, and Israel worked with the arriving DPs to teach them job skills, provide employment, and to help the immigrants help build the wealthy and technologically advanced country that it is today. • Finally, after Treasury Department officials presented Roosevelt with a report—which had originally bore the title “Report to the Secretary on the Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews”— the president agreed to create the War Refugee Board, signing an Executive Order on January 22, 1944. • Saving the Jews became official US policy, although the War Refugee Board could not do anything that might delay Allied victory.