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  1. THE CLIMAX AND DEMISE OF THE 60’S Lucy Beam Hoffman 1
  2. The demise of the 60’s ◦ The years 1970-1973 saw the climax and demise of the 1960s counterculture movement. ◦ The decade had begun with a sense of optimism and hope, as young people came together to challenge the status quo and fight for social change. ◦ However, by the early 1970s, many of the movement's goals had not been achieved, and the country was facing a number of crises, including the Vietnam War, the Watergate scandal, and the energy crisis. ◦ As a result, many young people became disillusioned with the movement and turned away from it. 20XX PITCH DECK 2
  3. 20XX PITCH DECK 3 The Pendulum of History
  4. The Legalization of Abortion ◦ Despite its demise, the 1960s counterculture movement had a lasting impact on American society. ◦ It helped to bring about important changes, such as the legalization of abortion and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ◦ It also helped to create a more tolerant and open society, and it inspired a new generation of activists to continue fighting for social justice. 20XX 4
  5. 20XX PITCH DECK 5 •1970: The Kent State shootings, in which four unarmed students were killed by National Guardsmen, led to a wave of protests and riots across the country. Here are some of the key events that took place during this period:
  6. The pentagon papers ◦ 1971: The publication of the Pentagon Papers, which revealed that the government had lied about the Vietnam War, further eroded public trust in the establishment. 20XX PITCH DECK 6
  7. 20XX PITCH DECK 7 The Pentagon Papers were a highly classified study of the U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam from the end of World War II until 1967. The study was commissioned by U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and prepared by a team of analysts working for the Department of Defense. • The study was labeled "Top Secret" and drew on classified material from the archives of the Department of Defense, State Department, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)1. • The papers revealed that the Johnson Administration had "systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress" about the Vietnam War23. The papers were leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg, a senior research associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Center for International Studies235. Ellsberg was initially charged with conspiracy, espionage, and theft of government property, but the charges were later
  8. 20XX Watergate ◦ 1972: The Watergate break- in, in which burglars broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters, led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. 8 President Richard Nixon - Address Announcing Resignation - YouTube
  9. Oil embargo of 1973 ◦ Arab oil embargo, temporary cessation of oil shipments from the Middle East to the United States, the Netherlands, Portugal, Rhodesia, and South Africa, imposed by oil- producing Arab countries in October 1973 in retaliation for support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War; ◦ the embargo on the United States was lifted in March 1974, though the embargo on the other countries remained in place for some time afterward. 20XX PITCH DECK 9
  10. Yom Kippur War ◦ Yom Kippur War, also called the October War, the Ramadan War, the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973, or the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, fourth of the Arab-Israeli wars, which was initiated by Egypt and Syria on October 6, 1973, on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur. ◦ It also occurred during Ramadan, the sacred month of fasting in Islam, and it lasted until October 26, 1973. ◦ The war, which eventually drew both the United States and the Soviet Union into indirect confrontation in defense of their respective allies, was launched with the diplomatic aim of persuading a chastened—if still undefeated—Israel to negotiate on terms more favorable to the Arab countries. 20XX PITCH DECK 10
  11. Pendulum swing of the 70’s ◦ These events, along with the ongoing Vietnam War, led many young people to lose faith in the American Dream and the institutions of government. ◦ As a result, the counterculture movement began to decline in the early 1970s. ◦ However, its legacy continues to live on, and it continues to inspire people to fight for social change. 20XX PITCH DECK 11
  12. MOVEMENTS AND TRENDS IN THE 70’S 20XX PITCH DECK 12 Despite the Boomers spending power, the 1970s was a time of economic decline for the United States. • By the end of the decade, three recessions and skyrocketing inflation resulted in mass unemployment. • The manufacturing sector, once America’s “sure thing” for employment, was no longer secure. • Oil embargoes further contributed to what President Jimmy Carter called the “malaise” of the nation. • Mortgages rose to a crippling twenty percent, leading to a housing crisis. • Credit card interest rates became untenable for the average American as well. These economic realities caused many former liberals to abandon their ideals. Conservatives took advantage of this backlash with a strong push towards “traditional values.” Churches also saw a return of participants; many found the “born again” philosophy appealing.
  13. ◦ Presidential rhetoric shows the seismic shift in perception of the nation. ◦ In 1961, the young, energetic, civil rights-minded John F. Kennedy argued that Americans would “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." ◦ But in 1971, the stern-faced President Richard Nixon declared that "Americans cannot—and will not—conceive all the plans, design all the programs, execute all the decisions, and undertake all the defenses of the free nations of the world." 20XX PITCH DECK 13
  14. WOMEN’S LIB CONTINUES The rise of the women's liberation movement, which fought for equal rights for women in all aspects of society. 20XX PITCH DECK 14
  15. The environmental movement ◦ The growth of the environmental movement, which sought to protect the natural world from pollution and destruction. ◦ In the 1960s and 1970s, the environmental movement focused its attention on pollution and successfully pressured Congress to pass measures to promote cleaner air and water. ◦ In the late 1970s, the movement increasingly addressed environmental threats created by the disposal of toxic waste. 20XX PITCH DECK 15
  16. Los Angeles in the 70’s vs the 2020’s 20XX PITCH DECK 16
  17. World Earth Day ◦ The Canopy Day Home to about 80% of the world’s biodiversity, forests are collectively the second biggest storehouse of carbon after oceans, absorbing significant amounts of greenhouse gasses. They also enhance biodiversity, while protecting waterways, enhancing soil nutrition, and providing buffers from natural disasters. 20XX PITCH DECK 17
  18. GAY RIGHTS GROW, BUT NOT WITHOUT A BACKLASH 20XX PITCH DECK 18 1974 – Kathy Kozachenko becomes the first openly gay American elected to public office when she wins a seat on the Ann Arbor, Michigan city council; • In New York City Dr. Fritz Klein founds the Bisexual Forum, the first support group for the Bisexual Community; • Ohio repeals sodomy laws. • Robert Grant founds American Christian Cause to oppose the "gay agenda", the beginning of modern Christian politics in the United States. • In London, the first openly LGBT telephone help line opens, followed one year later by the Brighton Gay and Lesbian Switchboard; • the Brunswick Four are arrested on January 5, 1974, in Toronto, Ontario. • This incident of Lesbophobia galvanizes the Toronto Lesbian and Gay community;[31] the National Socialist League (The Gay Nazi Party) is founded in Los Angeles, California.[32]
  19. GAY BACKLASH #HearOurStory - The Brunswick Four - YouTube 20XX PITCH DECK 19 The Brunswick Four refers to four lesbian women — Adrienne Rosen (formerly Adrienne Potts), Pat Murphy, Sue Wells and Lamar Van Dyke (formerly Heather Elizabeth Nelson) — who were thrown out of a Toronto bar on 5 January 1974. Their expulsion and eventual detention led to charges and significant public outcry at their treatment by the bar staff and the police. The Brunswick Four case raised awareness about homophobia and harassment in Canada, and fueled Toronto’s growing LGBTQ2S+ rights movement.
  20. • As the 1970s continued, a new political movement known as the “New Right” emerged. This movement, rooted in the rapidly growing suburban Sun Belt, celebrated the free market and lamented the decline of “traditional” social values and roles. New Right conservatives resented and resisted what they saw as government meddling. 20XX PITCH DECK 20
  21. JONESTOWN MASSACRE The repudiation of so-called alternative lifestyles and religions found renewed purpose after the Jonestown Massacre of 1978, when over 900 followers of preacher Jim Jones and his Peoples Temple— based in San Francisco—committed mass suicide. 20XX PITCH DECK 21 The “Jonestown Massacre” occurred on November 18, 1978, when more than 900 members of an American cult called the Peoples Temple died in a mass suicide-murder under the direction of their leader Jim Jones (1931-78). • It took place at the so-called Jonestown settlement in the South American nation of Guyana. • Jones had founded what became the Peoples Temple in Indiana in the 1950s, then relocated his congregation to California in the 1960s. • In the 1970s, following negative media attention, the powerful, controlling preacher moved with some 1,000 of his followers to the Guyanese jungle, where he promised they would establish a utopian community. • On November 18, 1978, U.S. Representative Leo Ryan, who had gone to Jonestown to investigate claims of abuse, was murdered along with four members of his delegation. That same day, Jones ordered his followers to ingest poison-laced punch while armed guards stood by.
  22. Jonestown Massacre ◦ Cyanide Laced Flavor Aid Took Out Most Of The People's Temple ◦ After growing up in Indiana with an alcoholic and racist father, Jones lit out on his own and started preaching at the Cadle Tabernacle in Indianapolis, in 1956. Jones broke away from the group and started his own racially integrated congregation, but his coffers weren’t overflowing from the onset, and he had to work a series of odd jobs in order to make money. ◦ The oddest job was door-to-door monkey salesman. There aren’t a lot of reports about how many monkeys Jones sold, but he was charismatic so it’s likely that he was able to move a few units. ◦ By the 1960s, he’d given up the monkey game and moved his congregation to Northern California, first settling in Ukiah before bringing the group to San Francisco. PITCH DECK 20XX 22
  23. The rise of disco ◦ In addition to these movements, there were also a number of popular culture trends that emerged in the 1970s that can be seen as a reaction to the counterculture of the1960s. ch?v=upIstttL9ew 20XX 23
  24. Leisure suits ◦ The popularity of "leisure suits," which were seen as a more conservative and traditional alternative to the hippie fashion of the 1960s. 20XX PITCH DECK 24
  25. “Me” movement ◦ The growth of the "Me Decade," which was characterized by a focus on individual self-expression and fulfillment. 20XX PITCH DECK 25
  26. TIME MAGAZINE COVERS OF THE 60’S AND 70’S 20XX Pitch deck 26
  27. Tom Wolfe names the 70’s “The Me Movement” ◦ When journalist Tom Wolfe (1931–) surveyed the changes that had swept America in the past few years, he gave the decade a label that has stuck: "The Me Decade." ◦ Wolfe and others noticed that the dominant concerns of most people had shifted from issues of social and political justice that were so important in the 1960s to a more selfish focus on individual well-being. ◦ What was behind this sudden change in the American mood? 27 20XX
  28. Space race – highlights of the 60’s ◦ On May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard became the first American in space during a suborbital flight aboard his Mercury capsule named Freedom 7. ◦ Three weeks later, based on the success of Shepard’s brief flight, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to achieving a lunar landing before the end of the decade. 20XX PITCH DECK 28
  29. MLK, Jr. ◦ 1963: Martin Luther King Jr., "The Man Who Made History“ ◦ Worked tirelessly during the Montgomery Bus Boycott ◦ Helped set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) ◦ “I Have a Dream” Speech ◦ Played an active role during the Black Sanitation Workers’ Strike ◦ Martin Luther King Jr.’s nonviolent protests earned him the Nobel Peace Prize 20XX PITCH DECK 29
  30. WORDS OF MLK, JR. 20XX PITCH DECK 30 I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in the stride toward freedom is not the White Citizens Councilor or the Ku Klux Klanner but the white moderate who is more devoted to order than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice.
  32. MALCOLM X – THE ANGRY MAN 1965: Malcolm X, "The Angry Man" 20XX PITCH DECK 32 “Usually when people are sad, they don't do anything. They just cry over their condition. But when they get angry, they bring about a change.” In April 1957, Malcolm X began writing his “God’s Angry Men” column in the New York Amsterdam News, immediately after the brutal police beating of Hinton Johnson. • The paragraphs of his June 1st column end with the refrain “White Man’s Heaven Is Black Man’s Hell”—the title of a song Louis X, later Farrakhan, recorded on vinyl in 1960. • Farrakhan studied, worked, and served under Malcolm, “enough time for him to incorporate Malcolm’s oratorical style into his own,” writes Manning Marable. • Both sampled Elijah Muhammad’s teachings in a call and response that played out in music and print. •
  33. The Vietnam war ◦ 1966: The Vietnam War, "The Grim Reaper" 20XX PITCH DECK 33
  34. The summer of love ◦ 1967: The Summer of Love, "The Hippie" 20XX PITCH DECK 34 ttps:// Chapter 1 | Summer of Love | American Experience | PBS - YouTube
  35. Violence in america ◦ 1970: The Kent State Shootings, "The Tragedy of Kent State" 20XX PITCH DECK 35
  36. vietnam ◦ 1971: The Vietnam War, "The War That Won't Go Away" 20XX PITCH DECK 36
  37. END OF VIETNAM WAR 1975: The Fall of Saigon, "The End of an Era" 20XX PITCH DECK 37 Background The Fall of Saigon was a series of events that took place across the last few days of April of 1975 as Saigon (the capital city of South Vietnam) was captured by North Vietnamese communist forces. • It marked the very last events of the Vietnamese War which had been dragging on for close to twenty years. • In early March of that year, North Vietnamese forces attacked the highlands just north of the city of Saigon. • As the Northern forces started bombarding the city's international airport on April 28th, U.S. President Gerald Ford ordered Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter airlift of all time, to rescue American civilians and military personnel, as well as South Vietnamese civilians by the thousands.
  38. GETTING OUT OF VIETNAM 1973 - Operation Frequent Wind 20XX PITCH DECK 38 U.S . combat troops left the Republic of Vietnam in 1973 according to the terms of a peace agreement • The fighting had ended for American forces, but the North Vietnam Communist government re- equipped its army and escalated the ground war in Vietnam. • Meantime, the U.S. government continued aid to South Vietnam at a greatly reduced level. • Consequently, several thousand U.S . citizens remained, many employees at the Defense Attaché Office (DAO) complex at Tan Son Nhut Airport, at the U.S. Embassy compound in downtown Saigon, or at four consulates at Da Nang, • Each of these sites retained a handful of U.S . Marine guards. 29th April 1975: Operation Frequent Wind evacuates 7,000 US and Vietnamese civilians from Saigon - YouTube
  39. Jimmy Carter ◦ 1976: Jimmy Carter, "The New President“ ◦ Some of Mr. Carter's most interesting promises involve what could be called Presidential “style.” ◦ Because the restoration of trust and confidence in government is by no means a petty concern, such promises have considerable importance. 20XX PITCH DECK 39 E
  40. A COLD WAR MYSTERY: WHY DID JIMMY CARTER SAVE THE SPACE SHUTTLE? 1977: The Space Shuttle Enterprise, "The Space Shuttle" 20XX PITCH DECK 40 When Frosch went to the White House to meet with the president and said NASA didn’t have the money to finish the space shuttle, the administrator got a response he did not expect: “How much do you need?” In doing so, Jimmy Carter saved the space shuttle, Kraft believes. • Without supplementals for fiscal year 1979 and 1980, the shuttle would never have flown, at least not as the iconic vehicle that would eventually fly 135 missions and 355 individual fliers into space. • It took some flights as high as 400 miles above the planet before retiring five years ago this week. “That was the first supplemental NASA had ever asked for,” Kraft said. “And we got that money from Jimmy Carter.”
  41. Space race continues ◦ On NASA’s own 50th anniversary website, space historian John Logsdon described the Carter presidency in less than flattering terms. “Jimmy Carter was perhaps the least supportive of US human space efforts of any president in the last half-century,” 20XX PITCH DECK 41
  42. 20XX PITCH DECK 42 Thank YOU for attending the “Decade of the 60’s” class. I’ve so enjoyed each of you. Your input made the class much richer and more educational. HAVE A GREAT SUMMER!