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The Seeds of the Final Solution 2.pptx

  1. By Lucy Beam Hoffman
  2. Inspiration
  3. Striking Workers and Hyper Inflation  The effects of defeat - Warfare meant that Germany could not import or export industrial goods and severely limited trade. Resources and food were diverted to the war.  The terms of the Treaty of Versailles ordered that Germany had to pay huge sums in reparations to the Allies. In 1921, as Germany could not pay, French and Belgian troops invaded and occupied the Ruhr to take goods and raw materials.  During 1923 Germany printed more money to pay striking workers. Hyperinflation resulted, wiping out the value of savings.  The 'Golden Years‘ - The years 1924 to 1929 became known as the 'Golden Years' – Germany became increasingly prosperous and peaceful. The USA lent Germany huge sums of money. The economy was rebuilt, unemployment was reduced, and people began to feel secure.  
  4. Hitler – A Runner in WWI Hitler had volunteered at age 25 by enlisting in a Bavarian Regiment. After its first engagement against the British and Belgians near Ypres, 2,500 of the 3,000 men in the Hitler's regiment were killed, wounded or missing. Hitler escaped without a scratch. Throughout most of the war, Hitler had great luck avoiding life-threatening injury. More than once he moved away from a spot where moments later a shell exploded killing or wounding everyone. Corporal Hitler was a dispatch runner, taking messages back and forth from the command staff in the rear to the fighting units near the battlefield. During lulls in the fighting, he would take out his watercolors and paint the landscapes of war. On October 7, 1916, Hitler's luck ran out when he was wounded in the leg by a shell fragment during the Battle of the Somme. He was hospitalized in Germany. It was his first time away from the Front after two years of war. Following his recovery, he went sightseeing in Berlin, then was assigned to light duty in Munich. He was appalled at the apathy and anti-war sentiment among German civilians. He blamed the Jews for much of this and saw them as conspiring to spread unrest and undermine the German war effort.
  5. Hitler Appointed Chancellor
  6. Concentration Camps
  7. Germany – post WWI The Occupation of the Ruhr was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.
  8. Concentration Camps
  9. Timeline of the Holocaust 1933 January 30 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany March 22 Dachau concentration camp opens April 1 Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses April 7 Laws for Re-establishment of the Civil Service barred Jews from holding civil service, university, and state positions May 10 Public burnings of books written by Jews, political dissidents, and others not approved by the state July 14 Law stripping East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship
  10. Sachsenhausen 1935 September 15 “Nuremberg Laws”: Anti-Jewish racial laws enacted; Jews no longer considered German citizens; Jews could not marry Aryans; nor could they fly the German flag. November 15 Germany defines a “Jew”: Anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew 1936 March 3 Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions July Sachsenhausen concentration camp opens 1937 July 15 Buchenwald concentration camp opens
  11. Cooperation of the Austrians   1938 - March 13 Anschluss (incorporation of Austria): All anti-Semitic decrees immediately applied in Austria  April 26 Mandatory registration of all property held by Jews inside the Reich  August 1 Adolf Eichmann establishes the Office of Jewish Emigration in Vienna to increase the pace of forced emigration  APPEASEMENT  September 30 Munich Conference: Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudetenland, previously western Czechoslovakia  Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier  October 5 Following request by Swiss authorities, Germans mark all Jewish passports with a large letter “J” to restrict Jews from immigrating to Switzerland 
  12. The Anschluss
  13. Timeline November 9-10, 1938 Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass): Anti-Jewish program in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen) November 12 Decree forcing all Jews to transfer retail businesses to Aryan hands November 15 All Jewish pupils expelled from German schools December 12 One billion mark fine levied against German Jews for the destruction of property during Kristallnacht,
  14. Kristallnacht
  15. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact “Liebensraum”  The German-Soviet Pact was signed in August 1939. It paved the way for the joint invasion and occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that September. The pact was an agreement of convenience between the two bitter ideological enemies. It permitted Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to carve up spheres of influence in eastern Europe, while pledging not to attack each other for 10 years. Less than two years later, however, Hitler launched an invasion of the Soviet Union.
  16. The German – Soviet Pact
  17. Poland’s Changing Boundaries  +showing+the+changing+boundaries+of +Poland&rlz=1C1SQJL_enUS828US82 8&oq=map+showing+the+changing+bou ndaries+of+Poland&aqs=chrome..69i57j 33i160l3.9357j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie =UTF- 8#fpstate=ive&vld=cid:e0492f99,vid:66y 49BnxLfQ
  18. Blietzkrieg "Blitzkrieg," a German word meaning “Lightning War,” was Germany’s strategy to avoid a long war in the first phase of World War II in Europe. Germany's strategy was to defeat its opponents in a series of short campaigns.
  19. Countries conquered with Blietzkrieg • Poland (attacked in September 1939) • Denmark (April 1940) • Norway (April 1940) • Belgium (May 1940) • the Netherlands (May 1940) • Luxembourg (May 1940) • France (May 1940) • Yugoslavia (April 1941) • Greece (April 1941)
  20. EINSATZGRUPPEN – MOBILE KILLING SQUADS The Einsatzgruppen (task forces, special action groups) were units of the Security Police and SD (the SS intelligence service) that followed the German army as it invaded and occupied countries in Europe. Often referred to as “mobile killing squads,” they are best known for their role in the systematic murder of Jews in mass shooting operations on Soviet territory.
  21.  1940 - April 9 Germans occupy Denmark and southern Norway  May 7 Establishment of Lodz Ghetto  May 10 Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemberg, and France  May 20 Concentration camp established at Auschwitz  November 16 Establishment of Warsaw Ghetto  1941- January 21-26 Anti-Jewish riots in Romania, hundreds of Jews murdered  April 6 Germany attacks Yugoslavia and Greece, occupation follows  June 22 Germany invades the Soviet Union  September 28-29 34,000 Jews massacred by Einsatzgruppen at Babi Yar outside Kiev  October Establishment of Auschwitz II (Birkenau)  December 8 Chelmno death camp begins operations 
  22. The Euthanasia Program Life unworthy of Life  The Euthanasia Program was the systematic murder of institutionalized patients with disabilities in Germany. It predated the genocide of European Jewry (the Holocaust) by approximately two years. The program was one of many radical eugenic measures which aimed to restore the racial "integrity" of the German nation. It aimed to eliminate what eugenicists and their supporters considered "life unworthy of life": those individuals who—they believed—because of severe psychiatric, neurological, or physical disabilities represented both a genetic and a financial burden on German society and the state. The goal of the Nazi Euthanasia Program was to kill people with mental and physical disabilities. In the Nazi view, this would cleanse the “Aryan” race of people considered genetically defective and a financial burden to society.
  23. Who did the Nazis kill in the Euthanasia Program? • those suffering from schizophrenia, epilepsy, dementia, encephalitis, and other chronic psychiatric or neurological disorders • those not of German or "related" blood • the criminally insane or those committed on criminal grounds • those who had been confined to the institution in question for more than five years
  24. Babi Yar  April 6 Germany attacks Yugoslavia and Greece, occupation follows  June 22 Germany invades the Soviet Union  September 28-29 34,000 Jews massacred by Einsatzgruppen at Babi Yar outside Kiev  October Establishment of Auschwitz II (Birkenau)  December 8 Chelmno death camp begins operations
  25. Final Solutions Attempts Zyklon-B was developed by German chemists in the early 1920s and patented in 1926. It was manufactured by two German companies: Tesch and Stabenow (which was based in Hamburg) and Degesch (which was based in Dessau). Zyklon-B was produced as blue- colored pellets that would change into HCN, an extremely poisonous gas, when exposed to the air. Because of the risk to handlers, the pellets had to be stored and transported in hermetically sealed metallic containers to avoid exposing the pellets to the air.
  26. 1942  1942 - January 20 Wannsee Conference in Berlin: Plan is developed for “Final Solution”  March 17 Gassing of Jews begins in Belzec  May Gassing of Jews begins Sobibor  June Jewish partisan units established in the forests of Byelorussia and the Baltic states  Summer Deportation of Jews to killing centers from Belgium, Croatia, France, the Netherlands, and Poland; armed resistance by Jews in ghettos of Kletzk, Kremenets, Lachva, Mir, and Tuchin  Winter Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece and Norway to killing centers; Jewish partisan movement organized in forests near Lublin
  27. Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution"  1. The SS – including Eichmann  2. Not present at the meeting were representatives of the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) and the Reich Railroads (Reichsbahn) in the German Ministry of Transportation.  The SS and police had already negotiated agreements with the German Army High Command on the murder of civilians, including Soviet Jews, in the spring of 1941, prior to the invasion of the Soviet Union.  In late September 1941, Hitler had authorized the Reich Railroads to transport German, Austrian, and Czech Jews to locations in German-occupied Poland and the German-occupied Soviet Union, where German authorities would kill the overwhelming majority of them.
  28.  1943  March Liquidation of Krakow ghetto  April 19 Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins  Summer Armed resistance by Jews in Bedzin, Bialystok, Czestochowa, Lvov, and Tarnow ghettos  Fall Liquidation of large ghettos in Minsk, Vilna, and Riga  October 14 Uprising in Sobibor  October-November Rescue of the Danish Jewry  1944  March 19 Germany occupies Hungary  May 15 Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews  July 24 Russians liberate Majdanek  October 7 Revolt by inmates at Auschwitz; one crematorium blown up  November Last Jews deported from Terezin to Auschwitz
  29.  1945  January 17 Evacuation of Auschwitz; beginning of death marches  January 27 Beginning of death march for inmates of Stutthof  April 6-10 Death march of inmates of Buchenwald  April 15 Liberation of Bergen Belsen by British Army  April Liberation of Nordhausen, Ohrdruf, Gunskirchen, Ebensee and Dachau by American Army  May 5 Liberation of Mauthausen and Gusen by American Army
  30. Discovery of Auschwitz Soldiers of the 60th Army of the First Ukrainian Front opened the gates of Auschwitz Concentration Camp on January 27, 1945. The prisoners greeted them as authentic liberators. It was a paradox of history that soldiers formally representing Stalinist totalitarianism brought freedom to the prisoners of Nazi totalitarianism. The Red Army obtained detailed information about Auschwitz only after the liberation of Cracow, and was therefore unable to reach the gates of Auschwitz before January 27, 1945.
  31. The World-Wide Depression - US had been assisting Germany with reparation loans. - 1930 – US the largest purchaser of German exports. - US put up tariff barriers to protect US companies. - German industrialists lost US markets – credit impossible to find. - 1932 – German industrial production 58% of 1928 level. By the end of 1929, 1.5 million Germans unemployed. By early 1933 (Hitler appointed) 6 million Germans out of work.
  32. Beer Hall Putsch On November 8–9, 1923, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party led a coalition group in an attempt to overthrow the German government. This attempted coup d'état came to be known as the Beer Hall Putsch. Although the putsch failed—and Bavarian authorities were able to prosecute nine participants, including Hitler—the leaders ultimately redefined it as a heroic effort to save the nation and integrated it into the mythos of Hitler and the Nazis' rise to power.
  33. Hitler in Prison – “Mein Kampf” Rambling anti-Semitic, semi-autobiographical political statement – Make German Great again – regain its superior, dominant and domineeriring place on the world Stage. - Destroy the virus known as the Jewish People; regain Lebensraum in the east.
  34. Dauchau – Built in 1933 Dachau concentration camp was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners. It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 10 miles northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded.
  35. Boycott of Jewish Businesses  APRIL 1, 1933  NATIONWIDE BOYCOTT OF JEWISH-OWNED BUSINESSES  At 10:00 a.m., SA and SS members stand in front of Jewish- owned businesses throughout Germany to inform the public that the proprietors of these establishments are Jewish. The word "Jude," German for "Jew," is often smeared on store display windows, with a Star of David painted in yellow and black across the doors. Anti-Jewish signs accompany these slogans. In some towns, the SA marches through the streets singing anti-Jewish slogans and party songs. In other towns, violence accompanies the boycott; in Kiel, a Jewish lawyer is killed. The official boycott ends at midnight.
  36. 1935 Nuremberg Laws  At the annual party rally held in Nuremberg in 1935, the Nazis announced new laws which institutionalized many of the racial theories prevalent in Nazi ideology.  The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood."  Ancillary ordinances to the laws disenfranchised Jews and deprived them of most political rights. - Anyone who had three or four Jewish grandparents was defined as a Jew - After the Olympic Games (in which the Nazis did not allow German Jewish athletes to participate), the Nazis again stepped up the persecution of German Jews
  37. Race Laws
  38. Anschluss – 3/13/1938
  39. Euthanasia Program – T4 The "euthanasia" program was Nazi Germany's first program of mass murder. It predated the genocide of European Jewry (the Holocaust) by approximately two years. The program was one of many radical eugenic measures which aimed to restore the racial "integrity" of the German nation. It aimed to eliminate what eugenicists and their supporters considered "life unworthy of life": those individuals who— they believed—because of severe psychiatric, neurological, or physical disabilities represented both a genetic and a financial burden on German society and the state.
  40. Joseph Goebbels Adolf Hitler and Nazi propagandists played on widespread and long-established German anti-Semitism. • The Jews were blamed for things such as robbing the German people of their hard work while themselves avoiding physical labor. • Hitler declared that the mission of the Nazi movement was to annihilate "Jewish Bolshevism.” • Hitler asserted that the "three vices" of "Jewish Marxism" were democracy, pacifism and internationalism, and that the Jews were behind Bolshevism, communism and Marxism. • Joseph Goebbels in the 1937 The Great Anti-Bolshevist Exhibition declared that Bolshevism and Jewry were the same thing. • At the 1935 Nazi party congress rally at Nuremberg, Goebbels declared that "Bolshevism is the declaration of war by Jewish-led international subhumans against culture itself." • Der Stürmer, a Nazi propaganda newspaper, told Germans that Jews kidnapped small children before Passover because "Jews need the blood of a Christian child, maybe, to mix in with their Matzah."
  41. Kristallnacht – Nov 9/10, 1938
  42. 2017 NEVER AGAIN!
  43. Books about the Holocaust  1. If This Is a Man by Primo Levi  Denial: Holocaust History on Trial by Deborah E. Lipstadt Lipstadt  Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor E. Frankl  The Choice: Embrace the Possible by Edith Eva Eger  The Complete Maus by Art Spiegelman Scarlet Sky by Mark Sullivan  Night by Elie Wiesel  Beneath a Scarlet Sky by Mark Sullivan