More Related Content


Recently uploaded(20)

Amassing of troops in Vietnam.pptx

  1. Decade of the 60’s Amassing of troops to Vietnam Race Riots in the US Presenter – Lucy Beam Hoffman
  2. How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 U.S. Presidents • Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon all deepened U.S. involvement in the decades-long conflict. • The Truman Doctrine • Fearing that Vietnam, too, would become a communist state, he sent over jeeps, along with 35 military advisers, as part of a multimillion-dollar aid • U.S. involvement in the conflict would only deepen from there. By the end presidency, the United States was funding more than one-third of France’s war costs, a number that would soon skyrocket to about 80 percent. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 2
  4. The American Soldier in Vietnam 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 4 More than 2.5 million American men served in Vietnam during the war. Some of these men were career military officers. But many others were poor or working-class teenagers who enlisted or were drafted into the military right out of high school. A large proportion of the U.S. troops consisted of African American men from the inner cities, the sons of immigrants from factory towns, and boys from rural farming communities. • During the Vietnam War, however, at least one-third of the American troops were selected for military service through an involuntary process known as the draft. A government agency called the Selective Service collected the names of all American men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six. • When a man's name was drawn, he was required to report to his local draft board for evaluation. There, he would either qualify for a deferment (an official delay of military service), or he would be inducted into the armed forces. In this way, many young men ended up serving in Vietnam whether they wanted to or not.
  5. Draft Card Notice 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 5
  6. The Draft in Context • Although only 25 percent of the military force in the combat zones were draftees, the system of conscription caused many young American men to volunteer for the armed forces in order to have more of a choice of which division in the military they would serve. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 6
  7. 11 ways people dodged the Vietnam draft • There were two kinds of methods to avoid being drafted when you number was called: illegal and legal. • 1. Be a Conscientious Objector • 2. Make up a health condition • 3. Have children who need you • 4. Be a homosexual • 5. Run away to Canada • 6. Go to college • 7. Have a high lottery number • 8. Hold an “essential” civilian job • 9. Get Married • 10. Forge military ID or reserve papers • 11. Enlist anytime 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 7
  8. How many people died in Vietnam? • In 1995 Vietnam released its official estimate of the number of people killed during the Vietnam War: • as many as 2,000,000 civilians on both sides and • some 1,100,000 North Vietnamese and Viet Cong fighters. • The U.S. military has estimated that between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died. • The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., lists more than 58,300 names of members of the U.S. armed forces who were killed or went missing in action. • South Korea had more than 4,000 dead • Thailand about 350 • Australia more than 500 • New Zealand some three dozen. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 8
  9. US Fatalities in Vietnam 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 9
  10. Human Cost of the Vietnam War 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 10
  11. Vietnam War Memorial 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 11
  12. Vietnam War Protests • The antiwar movement began mostly on college campuses, as members of the leftist organization Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) began organizing “teach-ins” to express their opposition to the way in which it was being conducted. 12
  13. Students for a Democratic Society 13
  14. Anti-Vietnam movements • By November 1967, American troop strength in Vietnam was approaching 500,000 and U.S. casualties had reached 15,058 killed and 109,527 wounded. The Vietnam War was costing the United States some $25 billion per year, and disillusionment was beginning to reach greater sections of the taxpaying public. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 14
  15. • After a brutal confrontation with the soldiers and U.S. Marshals protecting the building, hundreds of demonstrators were arrested. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 15
  16. The Pentagon Protest • The Pentagon protest was also a vivid demonstration of division in America. • It would be followed by years of unrest including, in 1970, the deadly shooting of unarmed students at Kent State University in Ohio. • The turmoil revealed a nation more deeply split than at any time since the civil war a century earlier, with protesters castigated as traitors, veterans returning to insults and the very meaning of patriotism suddenly uncertain. • The rift has arguably never healed but rather become a scab picked at by the “culture wars.” 16
  17. Vietnam War Protest Songs • • • +by+Pete+Seeger&docid=603542638550325432&mid=4821B479D80 C11BBD9AE4821B479D80C11BBD9AE&view=detail&FORM=VIRE 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 17
  18. How the Vietnam War Empowered the Hippie Movement • The hippie counterculture reached its height during the escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam and subsided as the conflict drew to a close. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 18
  19. The Counterculture Movement • On March 8, 1965, two battalions of U.S. Marines landed on beaches of Da Nang, marking the first official engagement of American troops in the Vietnam War. • Over the next several years, as the United States escalated its ill-fated involvement in that conflict, hundreds of thousands of Americans joined in mass protests across the country, repulsed and outraged by the terrible bloodshed taking place in Southeast Asia. • Though the anti-war movement had begun on college campuses at the dawn campuses at the dawn of the 1960s, more and more people joined in joined in opposition to the war in the latter half of the decade, as television as television brought images of its atrocities into American homes in a new homes in a new level of excruciating detail. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 19
  20. Hippies 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 20
  21. Long hair and beards, colorful style, psychedelic drug use, love of rock music and eco-conscious lifestyle • The hippie counterculture, which emerged in the late 1960s and grew to include hundreds of thousands of young Americans across the country, reached its height during this period of escalation of American involvement in the Vietnam War, and subsided as that conflict drew to a close. • But hippies’ rejection of mainstream American culture, and their distinctive brand of rebellion—including their long hair and beards, colorful style, psychedelic drug use, love of rock music and eco-conscious lifestyle—would leave a lasting impact on the nation in the decades to come. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 21
  22. Counterculture Prior to the Vietnam War • In many ways, the hippies of the 1960s descended from an earlier American counterculture: the Beat Generation. • This group of young bohemians, most famously including Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs, made a name for themselves in the 1940s and ‘50s with their rejection of prevailing social norms, including capitalism, consumerism and materialism. • Centered in bohemian havens like San Francisco and the East Village of New York City, Beats embraced Eastern religions, experimented with drugs and a looser form of sexuality; their followers became known by the diminutive term “beatniks.” 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 22
  23. Beatniks – 1950’s 20XX 23
  24. Bob Dylan: • As the 1950s gave way to the 1960s, the Beats and beatniks gradually gave way to a new kind of counterculture: the hippies, who actually preferred to call themselves “freaks” or “love children.” • The hippies were much younger than the beatniks (they could even have been the Beats’ children) and had a much different style. • They listened to folk and rock music, not jazz; they dressed flamboyantly, in bright colors, where the Beats and where the Beats and beatniks had favored shades of black and grey. • Ripped jeans, bell bottoms, tie-dyed clothing and flowers worn in the hair were all big parts of the typical hippie style. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 24
  25. Where were the Hippies? • Though the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco and New York City’s East Village were famous hippie meccas, the movement thrived all over the country. • In a cover story published in July 1967, during the “Summer of Love,” Time magazine reported that the hippie movement was “blooming in every major U.S. city from Boston to Seattle, from Detroit to New Orleans,” encompassing some 300,000 people. • Many hippies eventually chose to move outside the city, where the cost of living was lower. (Hippies were perennially broke.) • On a growing number of rural communes, hippies joined disaffected political disaffected political radicals and Vietnam draft dodgers in embracing back-to-the- embracing back-to-the-land living, including free love, organic farming, farming, vegetarianism, holistic medicine and a lot of marijuana use. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 25
  26. Hippie Communes • They came from the mountains and kept to themselves. If you were lucky, you might have seen them frolicking in the hills under the glow of the buttery, golden hour sunshine that California does so well. Collectively, they were known as “The Brotherhood of the Sun,” and in the 1970s, they emerged as one of the most successful communes in US history. In a manner of speaking, that is, because if we’ve learned anything from our past investigations into communes and cults, it’s that these sort of things have an expiration date. 26 “The Brotherhood of the Sun”
  27. Decline and Lasting Effects of the Hippie Movement • In some ways, the Summer of Love also marked the beginning of the end for the hippie movement, as drugs, homelessness and crime had infested Haight-Ashbury, pushing out many of the neighborhood’s original residents. original residents. • In October 1967, the Diggers held a “Death of the Hippie March” in San Francisco to decry the commercialization of hippie culture. • The march ended at the famed Psychedelic Shop, an early hippie hangout that was closing. • Marchers buried the shop’s signs, marking a symbolic death for the hippie heyday. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 27
  28. The Diggers 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 28 • The San Francisco Diggers became one of the legendary groups in the Haight-Ashbury during the years 1966 to 1968. • Shrouded in a mystique of anonymity, they took their name from the original English Diggers of the 1640s. • The San Francisco Diggers combined street theater, anarchic direct action, and art happenings in their social agenda. • Their most famous activities revolved around Free Food (every day in the Panhandle), and the Free Store (where everything was free for the taking). • They produced a series of events that mark the evolution of the hippie phenomenon from a homegrown face-to-face community to the mass-media circus that splashed its face across the world's front pages and TV screens.
  29. Haight Ashbury in San Francisco 20XX 29
  30. Origin of 420 in San Francisco 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 30
  31. Haight Ashbury • Walking along the streets of Haight- Ashbury, lined with colorful Victorian houses and lots of music stores and head shops, it was not unusual to run into locals like Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, Jerry Garcia, Grace Slick, or even Sid Vicious (who lived in California for a while before his untimely death). 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 31
  32. What changed in Haight Ashbury? 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 32 • Named for the intersection of Haight and Ashbury Streets (very original indeed, we know), the neighborhood was definitely not a cool place to hang out before the Summer of Love. • Quite the contrary, it was boring, lifeless, and mostly underpopulated, but that was to change dramatically soon enough. • It all started in the late 1950s when the Beats (which included the likes of Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, or William S. Burroughs) started to hang out in San Francisco’s North Beach neighborhood. • The high density of talented writers and poets that flocked to the area kickstarted what is known as the San Francisco Renaissance, the precursor to the Summer of Love. • The only problem was that North Beach was getting expensive, especially for beatnik poets, so many artists of the Beat Generation started moving West towards Haight- Ashbury, which was cheap and mostly vacant.
  33. The Summer of Love • In the summer of 1967, a hundred thousand young people descended upon the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. • These utopian-seeking artists, musicians, drifters, and hippies were there to take part in the cultural phenomenon known as the “Summer of Love.” • New forms of rock 'n' roll pulsed through the airwaves, psychedelic drugs were plentiful, and free love was embraced. • These counterculture dreamers were challenging society's expectations while wearing 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 33
  34. Concerts during the Summer of Love • America had seen a couple of post-WWII counter-culture movements that later became mainstreamed: Jazz, and the Bohemians, the Beat Generation, or what were called beatniks. The first focused on music, the second on literature. The Summer of Love saw this and more personified in “hippies.” 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 34
  35. Give Peace a Chance • On Nov. 15, 1969, the Vietnam Moratorium Committee staged what is believed to be the largest antiwar protest in United States history when as many as half a million people attended a mostly peaceful demonstration in Washington. Smaller demonstrations were held in a number of cities and towns across the country. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 35 John Lennon Give Peace A Chance 1969 - YouTube
  36. 1968 Democratic Convention • Though the 1968 protest at the Democratic National Convention were largely against the Vietnam War, the country was undergoing unrest on many fronts. • The months leading up to the infamous 1968 Democratic Convention were turbulent: The brutal assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in April had left the country reeling, and although segregation had officially ended, racism and poverty continued to make life difficult for many blacks. • But Chicago’s Mayor Richard Daley had no intention of letting his city or the convention be overrun by protestors. The stage was set for an explosive face-off. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 36
  37. Pigasus • Pigasus • Fed up with Democratic leadership’s penchant for war, yippies protesting at the 1968 Democratic National Convention conceived their own solution: nominate a pig for president. • Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman came up with the idea, named their candidate “Pigasus the Immortal” and pledged, “They nominate a president and he eats the people. We nominate a president and the people eat him.” 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 37
  38. Mayor Richard J. Daley, in full Richard Joseph Daley, (born May 15, 1902, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.—died December 20, 1976, Chicago), mayor of Chicago from 1955 until his death in 1976; he was reelected every fourth year through 1975. Daley was called “the last of the big-city bosses” because of his tight control of Chicago politics through widespread job patronage. He attained great power in national DemocraticParty politics. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 38
  39. Black Supporters of Mayor Daley • Blacks were a major component of the Daley coalition, providing him with his winning margin in his two closest mayoral elections. • But his relationship with them in the turbulent hours after Dr. King’s assassination when Daley issued a shoot-to-kill order in the wake of riots and looting on the Side. • He later resented the challenge to authority as party chairman by Democratic politicians. 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 39
  40. Shoot to Kill • Mayor Richard J Daley's "shoot to kill" comment to reporters • After the Chicago riots following the murder of Martin Luther King Jr, Mayor Daley told reporters that he had ordered police "to shoot to kill any arsonist or anyone with a Molotov cocktail in his hand . . . . to shoot to maim or cripple anyone looting any stores in our city." • following-the-murder-of-martin-news- footage/665646748#:~:text=After%20the%20Chicago%20riots%20foll owing%20the%20murder%20of,cripple%20anyone%20looting%20any %20stores%20in%20our%20city.%22 20XX PRESENTATION TITLE 40