Cuba! Capital Havana 23°8′N 82°23′W Official language Spanish GDP (nominal)2010 esti mate - Total $57.49 billion (68th) - Per capita$5,100 (90th)
History In the 1820s, when the rest of Spains empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal. Although there was agitation for independence, the Spanish Crown gave Cuba the motto La Siempre Fidelísima Isla ("The Always Most Faithful Island"). This loyalty was due partly to Cuban settlers dependence on Spain for trade, their desire for protection from pirates and against a slave rebellion, and partly because they feared the rising power of the United States more than they disliked Spanish rule.
Revolution The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt by Fidel Castros 26th of July Movement against the regime of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista between 1953 and 1959. Batista was finally ousted on 1 January 1959, and was replaced by a revolutionary government led by Castro. This government later reformed along communist lines, becoming the present Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965
Climate The local climate is tropical, moderated by northeasterly trade winds that blow year-round. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is 21 °C (69.8 °F) in January and 27 °C(80.6 °F) in July. The warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba sits across the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico combine to make the country prone to frequent hurricanes. These are most common in September and October.
Geography Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the northern Caribbean Sea at the confluence with the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between latitudes 19° and 24°N, and longitudes 74° and 85°W. The United States lies to the north-west, the Bahamas to the north,Haiti to the east, Jamaica and the Cayman Islands to the south, and Mexico to the west. Cuba is the principal island, surrounded by four smaller groups of islands: the Colorados Archipelago on the northwestern coast, the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago on the north-central Atlantic coast, the Jardines de la Reina on the south-central coast and the Canarreos Archipelago on the southwestern coast.
Natural Resources The most important mineral resource is nickel, of which Cuba has the worlds second largest reserves (after Russia). Sherritt International of Canada operates a large nickel mining facility in Moa. Cuba is the worlds fifth-largest producer of refined cobalt, a byproduct of nickel mining operations. Recent oil exploration has revealed that the North Cuba Basin could produce approximately 4.6 billion barrels (730,000,000 m3) to 9.3 billion barrels (1.48×109 m3) of oil. In 2006, Cuba started to test-drill these locations for possible exploitation
Demographics According to the census of 2002, the population was 11,177,743 5,597,233 men 5,580,510 women. The racial make-up was 7,271,926 whites, 1,126,894 blacks 2,778,923 mulattoes The Institute for Cuban and Cuban- American Studies at the University of Miami says that 62% is black, whereas statistics from the Cuban census state that 65.05% of the population was white in 2002
HealthHistorically, Cuba has ranked highin numbers of medical personneland has made significantcontributions to world health sincethe 19th century.Today, Cuba hasuniversal health care and althoughshortages of medical suppliespersist, there is no shortage ofmedical personnel. Primary care isavailable throughout the island andinfant and maternal mortality ratescompare favorably with those indeveloped nations
People Immigration and emigration have played a prominent part in the demographic profile of Cuba during the 20th century. During the 18th, 19th, and the early part of the 20th century large waves of Canarian, Catalan, Andalusian, Galician, and other Spanish people immigrated to Cuba. Between 1900 and 1930 close to a million Spaniards arrived from Spain. Other foreign immigrants include: French, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Greek, British, Irish, and other ethnic groups, including a small number of descendants of U.S. citizens who arrived in Cuba in the late 19th and early 20th centuries