Units of energy The International System(IS) measured in Joules(J),Kilojoules(KJ) are used to express larger quantities of energy. 1KJ=1000J Calories are often used to measured heat energy, Kilocalories are used to express larger cuantities of heat. 1Kcal= 1000cal 1cal=4.18J
TYPES OF ENERGY Thermal energy: Its the energy produced by the temperature of the objects. This is a example of ocean temperature of water.
Nuclear energy: It,s the Chemical energy: Is the energy produced by atoms energy produced by the stored of substances by chemical processes.
Electrical energy: energy that is associated with the electricity, when they`re connected to a supply of electricity.
Electromagnetic: It´s the Sound energy: Its the energy energy produced by the produced by the vibrations electromagnetic fenomena. produced by the sound.
Mechanical Energy: -Kinetic energy: is the energy produced by the movement.-Potential energy: is the energy relationated with the heigh, and when the object fall it produced kinetic energy.
ENERGY SOURCESThe energy sources are the resources were we obtain energy. There are two types of Energy sources, non reneweable and renewable energy sources. : -Non-reneweable energy sources: Nuclear Coal Carbon Petroleum Natural Gas Radioactive Material -Reneweable energy sources: Hydraulic Solar Wind Marine Geothermal
Non-reneweable energy sources.NUCLEAR: Nuclear energy is stored in the nucleic of atoms. -Production: There are two kinds of produccion of nuclear energy:Nuclear fusion: This ocurs when two light nucleic join to form a heavier nucleus.Nuclear fission: This ocurs when a heavy nucleus is split into two light nucleus. Its the opposite of nuclear fusion. -Transformation:The nuclear energy is transformed in Nuclear power stations: It is transformed by the rection heats water, it is converted into steams that move the turbines of a generator and produce energy.
COAL: The coal is a energy source from the remains of plantsthat were fossilised in absence of oxygen. Actually it is use to generate electricity in power stations, for central heating systems, to pitch anda tar and for cook. -Extraction: Open cast mines: When the coal is close to the surface the soil is remove to expose it. Undergrounds mines: When the coal is so far to the surface they make mines wich consists of tunnels that provide ventilation to prevents accidents. -Transport: By land: normally by train because they can carry very large loads.By sea: in enormus ships that weigh up more or less 500 000t. By road: usually use only for local transport.
PETROLEUM: The petroleum ocurs by the burning of the remains of plants and animals that have descomposed by bacteria. Extraction:First they locallized where is the petroleum and it is extracted from the oil rig using pumps. This petroleum isnt purified because it have salt water, rocks, mud, so then it is purified. Storage: Before transport the petroleum its stored in containers that could be: -Oil tankers, are merchants ships designed for the transportation of petroleum. They usually are larges ships. -Oil pipelines, are enormus steel pipes. They are usually used for transportation over land.
Uses of PetroleumDeriative Uses ExamplesFuel oil To produced electricity or heating.Liquid fuels Heat engines Petrol/DieselLiquefied gases Fuel Butane and Methane.Light components Lubricant, for making Vaseline cream.Heavy components To make things Tar waterproof
NATURAL GAS: Natural gas is a mixture of gases from descompose living beings. It has more than a 70% ofMethane, a 20% of Carbon Dioxide and a 10% of other hydrocarbons. Extraction: Its extracted by driling and it is so expensive. Storage and transport:
-Reneweable E.S: Hydraulic Solar Wind Marine Geothermal
The reneweable energy sources are sources that dont finish, sources that came from unlimited natural resources. Hydraulic: It is produced by the movement of water, the advantages are that its clean, cheap and non-polluted and the disadvantages building power stations is expensive, reservoirs take place of productive land, if a dam breaks it could be a catastrophe and reservoirs can spoil the landscape. Solar energy: It is produced by the light from the sun, the advantages are that its clean, is not necesary to built big powers stations and its unlimithed and the disadvantagesare that sunlight depends on the season and solar panel are expensives.
Wind energy: Energy produce by the wind, when it moves blades. The advantages are that is not polluted and unlimited and the cost of a wind farm is low and the disadvantages arethat is also a variable source of energy, like solar energy, wind turbines are hazard for birds and wind turbines produce noise pollution. Marine energy: It is related with the sea, it can be, tidalenergy(extracted from the tides), wave energy(obtain from the sea waves) and ocean thermal energy(produce by thedifference of temperature between the surface of the ocean to the deep part.
Geothermal energy: Energy related with the heat stored in the Earths crust. It can produce heat or electricity, heat if thetemperature is below 150ºC and electricity if it is above 150ºC Biomass: Energy produce by plants remains and agriculture waste, for example sunflowers.
Environmental impact Environmental impact is defined as the effect of a certain action on the environment in its various aspects. types:-Most of the energy used in different countries comes from oil and natural gas. Oil spills in seas, rivers and lakes produce environmental pollution: damage to marine lifeand birds, vegetation and water. In addition, harm fisheries and recreational beaches. -Other alternative energy sources is developed that generates radioactive waste or radioactive contaminants many, from nuclear reactions or radioactive mineraldeposits of the plants where they are refined or processed these minerals.
-Another is the noise impacts, as the noise produced by the industry, reduces the hearing and may affect the circulatory system. -The mining and mineral processing often producenegative environmental impacts on air, soil, water, crops,flora and fauna, and human health. Also can impact both positively and negatively, in several aspects of the local economy such as tourism, establishment of new populations - Another impact is the emission of greenhouse gases such as CO2, which are causing climate change.