Hip joint


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Hip joint

  1. 1. HIP JOINT
  2. 2. Definition • Forms the connection between the lower limb and the pelvic girdle. • It is a synovial articulation between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the pelvic bone . • The joint is a multi-axial ball and socket joint designed for stability and weightbearing at the expense of mobility.
  3. 3. Articulation • The articular surfaces of the hip joint are: • The spherical head of the femur; and • The lunate surface of the acetabulum of the pelvic bone. • The lunate surface is covered by hyaline cartilage and is broadest superiorly. • Except for the fovea, the head of the femur is also covered by hyaline cartilage.
  4. 4. • The rim of the acetabulum is raised slightly by a fibrocartilaginous collar (the acetabular labrum). • Inferiorly, the labrum bridges across the acetabular notch as the transverse acetabular ligament and converts the notch into a foramen.
  5. 5. Articular surface
  6. 6. Capsule • Attached to the hip joint is a strong, loose fibrous capsule which permits free movement of the hip joint; • It attaches proximally to the acetabulum and transverse acetabular ligament. • Some parts of the fibrous capsule are thicker than others and are called ligaments--the iliofemoral ligament.
  7. 7. Ligament • The hip joint is further strengthened by the presence of strong ligaments. • The ligaments of the hip joint include; • Ischio-femoral, ilio-femoral, pubo-femoral and the transverse acetabular ligamament (ligament of the head of femur).
  8. 8. • The ilio-femoral ligament; • Is anterior to the hip joint and is triangularly shaped. • Its apex is attached to the ilium between the anterior inferior iliac spine and the margin of the acetabulum and its base is attached along the intertrochanteric line of the femur. • Parts of the ligament attached above and below the intertrochanteric line are thicker than that attached to the central part of the line. • This results in the ligament having a Y appearance.
  9. 9. Ilio-femoral ligament
  10. 10. • The pubofemoral ligament; • Is anteroinferior to the hip joint. • It is also triangular in shape, with its base attached medially to the ilio-pubic eminence, adjacent bone, and obturator membrane. • Laterally, it blends with the fibrous membrane and with the deep surface of the ilio-femoral ligament.
  11. 11. Pubo-femoral ligament
  12. 12. • The ischiofemoral ligament; • Reinforces the posterior aspect of the fibrous membrane. • It is attached medially to the ischium, just posteroinferior to the acetabulum, and laterally to the greater trochanter deep to the ilio-femoral ligament.
  13. 13. Ischio-femoral ligament
  14. 14. Ligament of the head of femur • The ligament of the head of the femur; • Is a flat band of delicate connective tissue that attaches at one end to the fovea on the head of the femur and at the other end to the acetabular fossa, transverse acetabular ligament, and margins of the acetabular notch. • It carries a small branch of the obturator artery, which contributes to the blood supply of the head of the femur.
  15. 15. Ligament of the head of femur
  16. 16. • The fibers of all three ligaments are oriented in a spiral fashion around the hip joint so that they become taut when the joint is extended. • This stabilizes the joint and reduces the amount of muscle energy required to maintain a standing position.
  17. 17. Innervation • Femoral nerve or its muscular branches (anteriorly) • Accessory obturator nerve, if present (anteriorly) • Obturator nerve (anterior division) (inferiorly) • Superior gluteal nerve (superiorly and posteriorly) • Nerve to quadratus femoris (posteriorly). • Pain in the hip may be misleading because pain can be referred from the vertebral column.
  18. 18. Movements • Hip movements are flexionextension, abduction-adduction, mediallateral rotation, and circumduction. • Movements of the trunk at the hip joints are also important, such as those occurring when a person lifts the trunk from the supine position during sit-ups.
  19. 19. • Flexion;•Iliopsoas (the strongest flexor), sartorius, tensor of fascia lata, rectus femoris, pectineus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus (anterior part), and gracilis.
  20. 20. • Extension; Hamstrings (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and long head of biceps femoris), adductor magnus--posterior part, and gluteus maximus; • The gluteus maximus is relatively inactive from the straight (standing) position to the fully extended position unless forceful extension is required. • It acts mostly from the fully flexed to the straight position, as in climbing stairs or in rising from a sitting position.
  21. 21. • Abduction; Gluteus medius and minimus, and tensor of fascia lata. • Adduction; Adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, pectineus, and obturator externus. • Rotation;  Medial rotators; anterior fibers of gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor of fascia lata;  Lateral rotators; obturator externus, obturator internus, gemelli, piriformis, quadratus femoris, and gluteus maximus.
  22. 22. Blood supply • Vascular supply to the hip joint is predominantly through branches of the obturator artery, medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, superior and inferior gluteal arteries, and first perforating branch of the deep artery of the thigh. • The articular branches of these vessels form a network around the joint.
  23. 23. Relations of the Hip Joint Structures related to the hip joint are: • Anteriorly; Pectineus, iliopsoas, subtendinous iliac bursa, and femoral artery and nerve. • Laterally; Rectus femoris anterior to iliofemoral ligament, iliotibial tract, and gluteus minimus. • Inferiorly; Obturator externus crosses inferior to the femoral head and runs posterior to the femoral neck.
  24. 24. • Superiorly; Gluteus minimus, gluteus medius, and overlying gluteus maximus. • Posteriorly; Hriformis, obturator externus, obturator internus and gemelli, superior border of quadratus femoris, and sciatic nerve.
  25. 25. SO MANY THANKX