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  1. 1. CIVIL ENGINEERING SURVEYOR The Journal of the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors Mapping GIS Arbitration NEC June 2014
  2. 2. shaping the future www.korecgroup.com info@korecgroup.com tel UK: 0845 603 1214 IRE: 01 456 4702 Trimble V10 Imaging Rover Capture now, measure later, avoid site rework and benefit from increased quality control and data validations. Trimble UX5 UAS A revolution in surveying and mapping data capture technology, geospatial aerial data has never been faster or easier. Trimble TX8 3D Laser Scanner Faster, more rugged and with a longer range than any previous Trimble scanner.
  3. 3. June Contents 05. From the CEO 06. ICES regions 10. Social network 12. News 22. Events 47. Profiles 48. Classifieds/Where to buy 49. Subscriptions 50. Recruitment 51. Training dates FeaturesRegulars 20. Behind the scenes at the map museum Darrell Smart and Abigail Tomkins with Tom Harper, British Library 24. Qatar arbitration: Be careful Hamish Lal FCInstCES, Jones Day 26. Monitoring wave induced shocks at Eddystone Lighthouse Jon Penn, Caption Data 29. At rest: Finding the victims of the Herrin Massacre Steven M Di Naso, Eastern Illinois University, with Scott Doody 33. Notification of compensation events Rob Horne, Trowers & Hamlins 35. Questions of jurisdiction Gillian Cruickshanks, MBM Consulting 37. Mapping due-diligence to minimise construction delays Carole Ankers, Landmark Information 39. A profession scattered within an industry Dennis Gedge MCInstCES 42. The technology and techniques driving effective highway asset management Sarah Jones, LandScope Engineering 45. Taking BIM mobile Iain Miskimmin, Bentley Systems COMIT Civil Engineering Surveyor is printed using PEFC-certified paper as part of the institution’s commitment to promote sustainable forest management. Printed by Buxton Press Limited, Palace Road, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 6AE. © 2014 Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. ISSN 0266-139X Edited, designed and produced by ICES Publishing Operations Director and Editor in Chief: Darrell Smart BEng dsmart@cices.org • Tweet @darrellsmart Deputy Editor of Publications: Abigail M Tomkins BA (Hons) atomkins@cices.org • Tweet @amtomkins Media Sales Manager: Alan Lees alees@cices.org • Tweet @alan_lees Administrator: Joanne Gray jgray@cices.org www.cices.org www.surco.uk.com ICES Publishing is operated by SURCO Limited, a subsidiary of the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors Dominion House, Sibson Road, Sale, Cheshire M33 7PP United Kingdom +44 (0)161 972 3110 www.cices.org President: Alan Barrow FCInstCES MRICS Honorary Secretary: AH Palmer FCInstCES Chief Executive Officer: Bill Pryke Civil Engineering Surveyor is published monthly by the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. Statements made and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the institution, its Council of Management or other committees. No material may be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher. All rights reserved. CES July/August 2014 will feature hydrography and marine projects. Copy date: 20 June 2014. Please note that this date applies to news, calendar items and letters. Articles, reviews and other lengthier contributions inevitably require a longer lead in time. Cover shot: A map for the king: A coloured chart of Falmouth Haven from 1597. Article pp20-22. Image ©British Library. ces.digitalpc.co.uk linkedin.com >Chartered ICES twitter.com/CharteredICES facebook.com/CInstCES instagram.com/charteredices chartered.ices
  4. 4. Do you support the vital work of civil engineering surveyors? Are you ready to start the path to professional recognition? Do you know someone who would benefit from joining ICES as an Affiliate? ICES Affiliates gain access to specialist publications, including the monthly journal Civil Engineering Surveyor, regional events, discounted conferences and seminars. If you are thinking of membership but aren’t sure where to begin or if you know someone who should be affiliated to ICES, get in touch. Help ICES continue to be the leading professional body for civil engineering surveyors. The Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors is a registered educational charity. Contact: Membership Department Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors +44 (0)161 972 3100 development@cices.org www.cices.org Affiliate Image ©Terry Higginson MCInstCES
  5. 5. WHEN asked what the theme of my column would be this month, I responded that I wanted it to tie into the feedback I received from members following my visits to our regions this spring. So perhaps I should begin with a reminder of the feedback. On the positive side, members were upbeat and encouraged about the amount of work they are now receiving, with some even finding themselves overwhelmed! On the downside, however, skills shortages were a real issue for both the major contractors and the SMEs. This is not surprising given that the same message is currently being received across the whole construction sector. The need to listen to our members is something I consider to be extremely important — particularly if they are expressing concerns. And it raised the question in my mind as to what we can do as a professional body to take positive action, support our members and mitigate those concerns. The civil engineering surveying profession presents opportunities to individuals as well as companies. It is a career that makes a difference, and one that shapes the environment around you. In other words, it is an exciting and varied profession. So how do we play our part in attracting people to this wonderful career? Reaching out For us as a professional body, there needs to be a two pronged approach. Firstly, we need to engage with individuals throughout their education and at the very outset of their careers. Secondly, we need to identify those already within the civil engineering surveying sector who, for one reason or another, have not become professionally qualified. Membership of ICES is a great way for individuals to demonstrate their competence and progress their careers — we have seen this in the exciting projects our members are employed in, here in the UK and across the globe. In addition, there is much to be gained for those companies who choose to support these individuals in their membership. They too will reap a number of benefits, including staff who are highly motivated and feel valued, better retention rates and a competitive edge over other organisations with a demonstrably competent and professional workforce which, as a consequence, should win more tenders. Affiliations We will be inviting all those with an interest in civil engineering surveying to join us today as affiliates. Whether they will take this as a first step to fuller membership or simply as a way of keeping in touch with the vital work our members do, we will provide support to them with our excellent journal Civil Engineering Surveyor, newsletters, and access to a wide range of national and regional events. By connecting with prospective members and allied professionals, we can encourage the take-up of continuing professional development and training within our fields of expertise, and ensure that civil engineering surveying attracts a competent and excellent workforce. If some of the things in this column strike a chord for you as an individual and your own career aspirations, or you know of anyone who you think could benefit from this initiative, then please contact Serena Ronan, our region and administration manager, for more details. Likewise, if you employ staff and are keen to create a professional and competent team within your own organisation, do get in touch. Bill Pryke, Chief Executive Officer, bpryke@cices.org Serena Ronan can be contacted at sronan@cices.org Join us in the pursuit of excellence CEO Bill Pryke on a new push from ICES towards a competent and engaged workforce
  6. 6. The presentation will explain how to utilise laser scanning to create 3D models for building information modelling projects. It will show real-life examples of large scale 3D laser scan projects and their conversion to Autodesk Revit models. It will cover the complex 3D challenges each project raised and the variety of phase deliverables produced. The presentation will also show how games engine technology can be used to recycle and add value to the 3D dataset, building bespoke applications tailored for health and safety briefings, facilities management, stakeholder engagement and site briefings. Speakers are Severn Partnership’s Mark King and SEEABLE’s Dr Nigel Moore. 08 SEP 14: Committee meeting ICES HQ, Sale 6pm for 6.30pm 23 SEP 2014: Concurrent delay: The legal approach and the delay expert’s approach Weightmans, Manchester, 5.30pm for 6pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/north-west-north-wales/ An evening seminar with buffet. 03 NOV 14: Committee meeting ICES HQ, Sale 6pm for 6.30pm 18 NOV 2014: Update on recent case law in the construction industry Eversheds, Manchester, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/north-west-north-wales/ ICES Northern Counties 24 JUN 2014: Practical guidance on the FIDIC suite of contracts Eversheds, Newcastle upon Tyne, 6pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/northern- counties/ A seminar presented by David Moss of Eversheds LLP. The presentation will focus on the standard terms and the FIDIC approach; common/recommended amendments to the standard terms; the increased use of FIDIC contracts in the UK market; common problems encountered; and the use of dispute adjudication boards. ICES Scotland Appeal to members ICES Scotland is now entering a busy period and urgently requires people to join or return to the committee and support the business of the institution. The areas of support largely encompass managing strategic relationships with CPD providers such as lawyers, liaising with other institutions such as ICE/CIOB on potential collaborative CPD events, representing ICES at CPD events (ensuring attendance registers and feedback forms are completed by attendees and submitted to ICES HQ), and interviewing candidates for membership. Those interested should either email the secretary or attend the ICES Anglia & Central Civil Engineering Surveyor apologises to ICES A&C secretary Gordon Clarke for listing him as George Clarke in the previous issue. 05 JUN 2014: Sheringham Shoal Egmere, Sheringham Shoal Offshore Wind Farm, Scira Offshore Energy, Walsingham, 6.30pm for 7pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/anglia-central Jason Halsey, plant and operations manager, will be hosting a follow up event from the July 2013 visit. Sheringham Shoal is an operational renewable energy project. It has 88 turbines and two substations located off the north Norfolk coast. The operational shore-base is at Wells-next-the- Sea and a new operations centre at Egmere. No PPE required. ICES Eastern & Midlands 16 SEP 14: Concurrent delay: legal and programming issues Weightmans, Birmingham, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/eastern-midlands/ ICES E&M presents a one-hour seminar in conjunction with Weightmans Solicitors and DGA Construction Consultants. The seminar will address wide and narrow definitions of concurrent delay; what the law says; the roles for ‘first in time’ or dominant delay; apportionment when both parties are at fault; and retrospective and prospective approaches in delay analysis. A light buffet will be served. ICES Ireland & Northern Ireland 20 JUN 2014: A night at the dogs Harold’s Cross Greyhound Stadium, Dublin 6.45pm, first race 8pm Bookings: ciaran.bruton@osi.ie Members and non-members welcome. ICES North West & North Wales 17 JUN 2014: BIM – Legal issues Hill Dickinson, Liverpool, 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/north-west-north-wales/ David Oram will cover various issues surrounding building information modelling, including the responsibilities and liabilities of contributors; the duties of the BIM model manager; responsibility for design errors, insurance, changes to the standard form of construction contract and copyright. 07 JUL 14: Committee meeting ICES HQ, Sale 6pm for 6.30pm 15 JUL 2014: Scan to BIM and SEEABLE data Black and Veatch, Chester 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/north-west-north-wales/ Head Office Dominion House, Sibson Road, Sale, Cheshire M33 7PP, United Kingdom +44 (0)161 972 3100 www.cices.org CEO: Bill Pryke bpryke@cices.org Professional Development & Membership Manager: Paul Brown pbrown@cices.org Membership Officer: Juliette Mellaza jmellaza@cices.org Regions & Administration Manager: Serena Ronan sronan@cices.org Administrator: Louise Whittaker lwhittaker@cices.org Administration Assistant: Tom Johnson tjohnson@cices.org Legal Advice A legal hotline is available free of charge to ICES members from the institution’s advisory solicitors. Advisory Solicitors Jeremy Winter +44 (0)20 7919 1000 Jeremy.Winter@bakermckenzie.com Jonathan Hosie +44 (0)20 3130 3343 jhosie@mayerbrown.com Committees ICES committees and panels are available to receive member queries. Commercial Management Practices Committee Chair: David Kyte cmpc@committees.cices.org Contracts & Dispute Resolution Panel Chair: Steve Williams cdrp@committees.cices.org Education, Professional Development & Membership Committee Chair: Steve Jackson epdm@committees.cices.org Finance & General Purposes Committee Chair: Chris Birchall fgp@committees.cices.org Geospatial Engineering Practices Committee Chair: Chris Preston gepc@committees.cices.org International Affairs Committee Chair: Mike Sutton iac@committees.cices.org ICES Network Chair: Alex Maddison network@cices.org Regions ICES Anglia & Central Chair: John Elven john.elven@btinternet.com Secretary: Gordon Clarke gordon@collinsprojectdelivery.co.uk ICES www.cices.org/anglia-central ICE www.ice.org.uk/eastofengland ICES Eastern & Midlands Chair: Derek Spalton d.spalton@derby.ac.uk Secretary: Lukasz Bonenberg Lukasz.Bonenberg@nottingham.ac.uk ICES www.cices.org/eastern-midlands ICE www.ice.org.uk/westmidlands www.ice.org.uk/eastmidlands ICES Hong Kong Chair: Michael Wong michael.wong@leightonasia.com Secretary: Ralph Leung ices.ralphlcw@gmail.com ICES www.cices.org.hk ICE www.ice.org.uk/hongkong ICES Ireland & Northern Ireland Chair: Ken Stewart Ken.Stewart@dfpni.gov.uk Secretary: Ciaran Bruton ciaran.bruton@osi.ie ICES www.cices.org/ireland ICE www.ice.org.uk/ireland www.ice.org.uk/northernireland ICES Northern Counties Chair: Steve Aspinall steve@evanspiling.co.uk Secretary: George Bothamley George.Bothamley@costain.com ICES www.cices.org/northern-counties ICE www.ice.org.uk/northeast ICES North West & North Wales Chair: Mark Hudson markhudson@coastway.net Secretary: Jennii Chadwick Jennii.Chadwick@BAMNuttall.co.uk ICES www.cices.org/north-west-north-wales ICE www.ice.org.uk/northwest www.ice.org.uk/wales ICES Scotland Chair: Bob MacKellar rmackellar@yahoo.co.uk Secretary: Mark Shaw mark.shaw@echarris.com ICES www.cices.org/scotland ICE www.ice.org.uk/scotland ICES South East Chair: Eric Zeeven eric.zeeven@cwcontractors.com ICES www.cices.org/south-east ICE www.ice.org.uk/london www.ice.org.uk/southeast ICES South West & South Wales Chair: Mark Phillips Mark.Phillips@electricityalliance-sw.com Secretary: Steve Lailey steven.lailey@skanska.co.uk ICES www.cices.org/south-west-south-wales ICE www.ice.org.uk/wales www.ice.org.uk/southwest ICES UAE Chairman: Dhammika Gamage dhammika.gamage@alnaboodah.com ICES www.cices.org/uae ICE www.ice.org.uk/nearyou/Middle-East/United-Arab-Emirates ICES Yorkshire Chair: Neil Harvey neil.harvey@metsurveys.com Secretary: Matthew Lock matthew.lock@korecgroup.com ICES www.cices.org/yorkshire ICE www.ice.org.uk/yorkshire
  7. 7. next committee meeting. The committee would welcome non-members who intend to pursue ICES membership or members of other institutions. 06 JUN 2014: Committee meeting Forthbank Stadium, Stirling, 7.30pm All members, non-members and prospective members welcome. 19 JUN 2014: Site visit to the Forth Bridge Experience Project (Historic Rail Bridge) William Tunnell Architecture, South Queensferry, 5.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/scotland/ In 2013 Network Rail appointed WT Architecture to develop early proposals for visitor buildings for the historic Forth Bridge. The project involves creation of facilities at both ends of the bridge, one facilitating access to the bridge via a walk, and the other a more extensive visitor centre beneath the Fife Cantilever of the bridge, giving access to the top of the bridge via hoists. William Tunnell will talk about these proposals and will be joined by Ian Heigh of Network Rail, who is leading the project and was head engineer for the recent restoration of the bridge. Complimentary drinks and nibbles will be served. 12 AUG 2014: Construction defects MacRoberts, Glasgow, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/scotland/ David Moss, partner, will present a seminar on the contractual responsibility for defects; investigating and remedying defects; recovery of losses; insurance, prescription and collateral warranties. Tea and coffee on arrival. Wine, nibbles and networking afterwards. 19 AUG 2014: Energy seminar MacRoberts, Edinburgh, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/scotland/ Duncan Osler, partner, will discuss the new EU Procurement Directives that were agreed by the European Parliament on 15 January 2014 and will be consulted on by the Scottish government this year. It’s the start of the two year period for implementing these directives into national law and new additional laws are also expected as and when the procurement reform bill is enacted. Tea and coffee on arrival. Wine, nibbles and networking afterwards. 16 SEP 2014: Public sector property asset management EC Harris, Edinburgh, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/scotland/ Graham Hill, lead partner for EC Harris Scotland, will discuss best practice guidance on current issues relating to public sector asset management, covering improving public sector assets and reducing costs; optimising public sector property management; strategic best practice; changes to property assets; collaboration and public sector property vehicles. Refreshments available. The event is free and open to all. 30 SEP 2014: Expert witness MacRoberts Glasgow, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/scotland/ 21 OCT 2014: How to start your own business — Risk, compliance and planning Young & Partners, Dunfermline, 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 19 NOV 2014: The pen is mightier than the sword: Effective business writing Maclay Murray & Spens, Edinburgh 6pm for 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/scotland/ ICES South East ICES SE thanks Andy Rhoades of Heathrow Airport for his presentation last month on the BIM project at the airport. In addition to those planned, we hope to run two further events in September on planning a major tunnel construction project like Crossrail, and remote piloted aerial systems. Further details to follow. 26 JUN 14: 4D planning UCL, Chadwick Building (registration and reception in G04 with the lecture in the Basement LT B05) London, 6.30pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/south-east/ Christopher Brown, director of Oakwood Engineering, will talk about the international award winning Gravesend Station remodelling. The station had to undergo a complex remodelling during a 15-day full line blockade over Christmas and new year 2013/14. 4D BIM was selected by Network Rail to virtually construct the station using 3D models and hourly programme data. The model was used extensively within the project team prior to the blockade, with a significant amount of benefits. The presentation will cover capturing 3D data; 3D model sources; determination of the level of detail; implementation within the project team; model uses; the blockade; and project outcome and lessons learned. 03 JUL 2014: Networking on the Thames London, 6pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/south-east/ An evening of socialising and networking onboard a cruise of the River Thames. Sponsored by Topcon UK. There will be a buffet and cash bar onboard. 24 SEP 14: Concurrent delay Weightmans, London 5.30pm for 6pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/south-east/ A talk covering the legal approach and delay expert’s approach to concurrent delay. Refreshments will be served. 23 OCT 14: Surveying the Somme update A talk by the La Boiselle Study Group. 06 NOV 2014: Thames Tideway Tunnel Pinsent Masons, London 13 NOV 2014: Infrastructure Information Service Union Jack Club, London This is a joint ICES/CIOB event. ICES South West & South Wales 21 JUN 2014: River cruise on the Tower Belle 11.15am-3pm. £6 per ticket Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/bookings/ Join ICES SWSW for a social and networking cruise from Bristol Harbourside. Regular CES contributor, Hamish Mitchell will be giving a talk on the Bristol Channel. Attendees should meet at 11.15am at Wapping Wharf by SS Great Britain. The boat will depart at 11.45am sharp. Buffet and refreshments will be provided. Cash bar available. The cruise is sponsored by Keyline Builders Merchants. 08 JUL 2014: Committee meeting Atkins Hub, Almondsbury nr Bristol BS32 4RZ 6pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/south-west- south-wales/ A buffet will be served. 09 SEP 2014: Committee meeting Atkins Hub, Almondsbury nr Bristol BS32 4RZ 6pm Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100 sronan@cices.org www.cices.org/south-west- south-wales/ A buffet will be served. 06 JAN 2015: Committee meeting ICES SE chair, Eric Zeeven introducing the BIM presentation. Delegates at the ICES SE Heathrow Airport BIM event.
  8. 8. ICES Dinner 2014 Chateau Impney, Droitwich Spa 6.45pm, 19 September 2014 Tickets: £75.00* Join ICES president Alan Barrow at Chateau Impney, one of the finest, most authentic examples of French chateau-style buildings in the UK that holds a history as enchanting as the building itself. The chateau was built in the 19th century by John Corbett who, after travelling to France, fell in love with beautiful French governess Hannah Eliza O’Meara. They married in Paris and returned to the UK to set up home. The couple had been charmed by Versailles and the French chateaux of the Loire Valley, and this undoubtedly influenced the design for their own home. French architect Auguste Tronquois was appointed to oversee the works, with a brief to design a grand chateau in the style of Louis XIII. In 1875, the spectacular Impney Hall and its grounds were completed, totally transforming the landscape with 155 acres of parkland, lakes, waterfalls, tropical gardens, and over 3,000 varieties of trees – many of which are still evident today. +44 (0)161 972 3110 dinner@cices.org Dress code: Black tie * Ticket price includes VAT Sponsors SOLD OUT Waiting list bookings only
  9. 9. Nominations for Council of Management The institution is now seeking nominations from corporate members (MCInstCES and FCInstCES) to join its council of management. No previous experience of any committees or panels is necessary. The institution is conscious to reflect the diversity of the industry and encourages nominations from all those who are keen to help shape its future. New council members, all of whom are directors and trustees of ICES, will receive a trustees’ handbook outlining the role and responsibilities of a council member and literature issued by the Charity Commission will be distributed. Expenses incurred in council activities are reimbursed. The term of office commences following this year’s AGM on 20 September 2014. If you would like more information or to speak to an existing member of council about what the role entails, please contact ICES CEO, Bill Pryke. A nomination form has been distributed with this issue of Civil Engineering Surveyor. Additional forms are available on request from ICES HQ or via the website. Completed forms must be returned to ICES by no later than noon on 7 July 2014. ICES HQ: +44 (0)161 972 3100 admin@cices.org www.cices.org/downloads New accreditation for DIT The institution has accredited Dublin Institute of Technology’s MSc course in applied construction cost management. ICES Ireland and Northern Ireland chair Ken Stewart presented the accreditation certificate to DIT’s College of Engineering and the Built Environment. DIT’s geomatics degree programme is already accredited by ICES. Pictured above: (left to right) Charles Mitchell, Richard O’Carroll, Ken Stewart, Ciaran Bruton and Dr Alan V Hore. MTR wins Merit A team from Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railways has won the Merit competition for early career civil engineering professionals. The competition, sponsored by the Institution of Civil Engineers, sees teams compete in a computer simulated construction project. Gordon Kwok, Dickie Chan, Henry Lam, Ellen Wong, Davy Chan and Dave Cheung were presented the award by David Kyte of the joint ICES/ICE Management Panel. Pictured above: The MTR team finding out who has won. ICES and IMCA to work closely together ICES and the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) are to work more closely together in the areas of hydrographic and civil engineering surveying in the marine environment. The two organisations signed a memorandum of understanding on 14 May 2014, outlining closer collaboration and co-operation. Under the terms of the memorandum of understanding, both ICES and IMCA acknowledge the competency of their respective members. Offshore survey personnel working to the assured competency levels of IMCA can use this as a demonstration of their competence for membership of ICES, whilst IMCA will recognise the competence of ICES members within its international competency framework for offshore survey work. Both organisations will promote continuing professional development and best practice, and have pledged to support the uptake and development of internationally recognised standards. ICES chief executive officer Bill Pryke commented: “I am delighted to strengthen the relationship between our two organisations. I have a great respect for the valuable work of IMCA and know that closer collaboration between us can only benefit the offshore survey industry. IMCA rightly acknowledges the competency of our members and ICES would welcome membership applications from those working to the high standards of professionalism and safety that IMCA embodies.” IMCA technical director Jane Bugler said: “We view this as a win-win situation for both organisations and our global memberships. Closer collaboration and relations between associations with the aim of continually raising technical standards and improving competence is vital for our industry. Competence and training is an IMCA core activity and we look forward to working closely with ICES in the coming months and years, encouraging our member companies to promote membership of ICES and the benefits of CPD internally to their team members.” Pictured above: Jane Bugler signing the MOU with ICES president Alan Barrow. BIM conference now online Presentations from the institution’s BIM conference are now available free to view online. Talks filmed include David Philp of the Cabinet Office’s BIM Task Group, Will Hackney of London Underground, Malcom Taylor of Crossrail, Simon Rawlinson of EC Harris and ICES vice president Ian Bush of Survey4BIM. ICES BIM 2014 covered the theme of the developing role of the surveyor and was held at Canary Wharf, London in February. The videos are available via the downloads section of the ICES website www.cices.org/downloads
  10. 10. New accreditation for UWL The institution has accredited five courses at the University of West London. The foundation degree, bachelors, honours and masters in civil and environmental engineering, and masters in applied project management with internship, are all accredited for the next five years. UK government agrees payment charter for construction A new payment charter in the UK has been agreed by the government’s Construction Leadership Council. The charter sets out 11 fair payment commitments, including to reduce supply chain payment terms to 30 days from January 2018. The introduction of the payment terms will be staggered; with 45 days in effect from June 2015, and 60 days with immediate effect. Other commitments include not withholding cash retentions, not delaying or withholding payment, making payments electronically, and the use of project bank accounts on central government projects. There is also a pledge for a “transparent, honest, and collaborative approach when resolving differences and disputes.” Companies represented on the Construction Leadership Council that have agreed to sign up to the charter include; Barratt Developments, Berkeley Group, British Land, Imtech UK, Kier, Laing O'Rourke, Skanska, Stanford Industrial Concrete Flooring and Stepnell. Peter Hansford, the government’s chief construction advisor, said: “This charter signifies the Construction Leadership Council’s commitment to small and medium-sized business, and the important role they play in the construction industry. Through the council, the government is working very closely with industry to give businesses of all sizes the confidence to invest — securing high skilled jobs and a stronger economy for everyone.” Kevin Louch, president of the National Specialist Contractors Council, said: “We want to see 30-day payment terms on all construction projects, but we recognise that it will take time for large businesses to adjust their business models over the next few years.” The payment charter is part of a body of work to reduce initial and whole life costs by 33% by 2025. The council is also looking to reduce the delivery time of construction projects by 50%, and greenhouse gas emissions in the built environment by 50% in the same timeframe. Approval for kit anti-theft system The Survey Association has approved an anti-theft scheme for surveying equipment. The police-approved security identification system, from Datatag ID, uses overt warnings and a number of covert markings to make total stations a less attractive target for thieves. Each item will be marked with an unremovable chemical ‘DNA’ fingerprint that will make it traceable by the police, and it will be impossible to remove the security tags without leaving signs that it has been tampered with. Research from TSA has shown that in the last 18 months, 30 total stations have been stolen from London’s Crossrail project alone, with one recovered in Russia and one traced to Iraq. ICES fellow and TSA president Graham Mills said: “Some of our members have been threatened with knives and have even had equipment wrestled from them in broad daylight. Personal safety must be the main consideration, but we know the knock-on impact can be great. Downtime and delay leads to losses in revenue and some insurance providers may set restrictions or decline cover if site risks are seen as too great.” Prices start from £49.99 (TSA member) £64.99 (non TSA) for the full system and £19.99 for the tripod kit when purchased with a full security system www.datatag.co.uk The (CES) social network #Surveying Shipston sports club for changing room refurb. Will miss that heady mix of sweat, deep heat etc for a while. @hooksurvey 3D laser scanning survey at a mock junction at the Top Gear track - cant see Mr Clarkson anywhere!! Craig Simmonds The UK government’s BIM Task Group will be wound down from the end of this year, prompting fears of a lack of central government support for public sector bodies adopting BIM level two ahead of the government’s 2016 deadline. What do you think? BIM Experts Pleased or annoyed. Lost a job today by £25! (less than 1% of the total value). Should I be pleased we are very competitive or annoyed it was by such a small ammount? R L Surveys A project currently nicknamed the “China-Russia-Canada-America” line has China looking into plans for a high speed train between Beijing and the U.S. Interesting Engineering We're finally getting a new sign put on our office building. Everyone who has ever tried to find us via Sat Nav will appreciate this ;) @MetConsGroup At the airport. People who don't know how to travel swiftly through security should not be allowed to travel. @JohnAmaechi When An Engineer Goes to MacDonalds pic.twitter.com/MGfl8gbnE1 @WonderfulEngr Oh God I think I'm an introvert #wtrends14 @SuButcher And in the 1940s they thought #Asbestos was important. @Veritas_Office Here it is: the London tube map goes beautifully circular. bit.ly/1eswRYx @simongarfield PAS1192-3: 60 minutes of my life I'm never getting back. @NigelPDavies
  11. 11. The Richard Carter Prize Geospatial Engineer 2014 Nomination Procedures Open to members and non-members of ICES The closing date for nominations is 30 June 2014 Visit the website for full details www.cices.org/awards *includes accommodation and dinner costs for the winner Cheque for £500 Commemorative certificate Richard Carter Prize will be presented to the winner at the institution dinner*
  12. 12. Farewell to Cockcroft’s Follies Decommissioning of the last Windscale chimney at the Sellafield nuclear site has reached the half-way point. The 530 tonne filter gallery is currently being demolished before work can begin to dismantle the 110m tall chimney. High performance filters were fitted in the chimneys in the 1940s at the insistence of the Nobel prize-winning physicist John Cockcroft. Because the chimney barrels had been designed and partially built, they produced bulges at the top of the structures, which became known as Cockcroft’s Follies. The filters, however, worked as they had been designed to during a fire at Windscale Pile One in 1957 and prevented much of the radioactive contamination escaping to the local area. Over half the filter gallery has been demolished and it is estimated that 172 tonnes of steelwork, 66 tonnes of brick and 150 tonnes of concrete have been brought down so far — over 5,000 tonnes of materials in total is to be removed during full demolition to ground level. The waste is monitored to check for any contamination and most of it has been found to be suitable for disposal at the Sellafield landfill. Jeremy Hunt, Sellafield’s head of decommissioning projects, said: “The challenges posed by the pile chimney are unique and no other structure in the world provides the same complexity in terms of both radiological and conventional decommissioning constraints. There’s no instruction manual for the job and we have to prove the decommissioning techniques chosen can be used 100% safely on the congested Sellafield site.” It is expected the filter gallery will be fully dismantled by October 2014. Overground options for HS2/Crossrail WSP has been appointed by Transport for London to develop and recommend options for a London overground station to link to the proposed HS2/Crossrail interchange at Old Oak Common. WSP is to provide railway engineering and infrastructure services for a Grip 3 study of three options. Architect Farrells is to provide masterplanning and architectural support. Project director Dave Darnell said: “This is a hugely exciting scheme that has the potential to create a major new regional transport hub, taking some of the demand off existing overloaded routes by providing links to HS2 from the west and southwest without travelling into central London, and offering better access into the area of Old Oak Common for existing and future residents.” Solar role to play in biodiversity Guidance on how to turn solar farms into biodiversity havens has been launched at Kew Gardens. Solar farms typically take up less than 5% of the land they are on and the guidance urges solar farms to be planned to enhance existing designated habitats and develop corridors to improve space for wildlife. Research by the guide’s author, Dr Guy Parker, shows that solar farms demonstrably increase biodiversity compared to farmed or neglected land. One of the case studies in the study features a partnership by Solarcentury and the Bumblebee Conservation Trust to boost bumblebee populations, which have been in significant decline in recent years. Around 2.5GW of solar farms have already been delivered in the UK. The Solar Trade Association wants to see around 10GW by 2020 which would require around 0.1% of UK land. The guidance, published by BRE, has been developed in partnership with numerous ecology organisations including the National Trust, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Bumblebee Conservation Trust, Eden Project, and the Solar Trade Association. Water contract for Balfours Balfour Beatty has been awarded £115m of work by Anglian Water as part of its £1.3b Asset Management Plan 6 period from 2015 to 2020. Balfour Beatty will be providing design and construction services focused on clean water infrastructure (water mains), and wastewater pipes and non-infrastructure projects, including treatment works. Balfour Beatty will be part of an alliance being put together by Anglian Water and will be based at an integrated office in Peterborough.
  13. 13. First aid planned for Bertha Bertha, the tunnel boring machine that broke down on the Alaskan Way viaduct project in Seattle, is to resume digging in March 2015. Construction began last month on an access pit to reach Bertha and carry out repairs, which include replacing the main bearing, installing a more robust seal system and adding monitoring equipment. Testing of the repaired TBM is expected to commence in February next year, with the resumption of tunnelling set for the following month. The updated construction timeline delays tunnel boring by up to 16 months, but contractor Seattle Tunnelling Partners hopes to recover up to four months to meet the revised tunnel opening date of November 2016. Kazakhstan views the world Kazakhstan’s first Earth observation satellite has been placed successfully in orbit. KazEOSat-1 was launched last month from the European Spaceport in French Guiana. The satellite, built by Airbus Defence and Space, weighs 900kg and has an imaging resolution of 1m. It is expected to provide Kazakhstan with a complete range of civil applications, including monitoring of natural and agricultural resources, the provision of mapping data, security applications, and support for rescue operations. KazEOSat-2, a medium resolution sister satellite, is now being built by SSTL, while Airbus Defence and Space is building Peru’s first Earth observation satellite. Monitoring a 600-year-old roof Sensors have been installed in London’s Westminster Hall to monitor the effects of temperature and humidity on the roof. Built in 1097, Westminster Hall is the oldest building on the Parliamentary estate. Its hammer-beam roof, commissioned in 1393 by Richard II, is the largest medieval timber roof in northern Europe, measuring 21m by 73m and 30m tall. Caption Data Limited supplied a number of battery powered wireless sensors to be installed throughout the roof structure. The base station, located out of sight, will automatically transmit data via the mobile phone network to the cloud. In addition to the sensors inside the hall, there will be a weather station on the roof which will measure wind speed, rain, sunshine, temperature and humidity, and correlate this data with that collected internally. The Parliamentary Estate’s directorate involved in the conservation project will be able to view trends of data online to establish the best conservation treatments for the internal stonework and roof timbers. In brief: CMS-Geotech has launched a new operations base in Lowestoft, Suffolk, specialising in geotechnical equipment hire, surveys and seabed sampling, specialist vessel charter and marine survey consultancy support services. • Skanska has begun building the first railway tunnel in Norway constructed with a tunnel boring machine. The £130m tunnel, part of the large railway extension at Arna-Bergen, is due to be completed in summer 2021. • The new €265m domestic terminal at Izmir Adnan Menderes International Airport in western Turkey has opened. Mott MacDonald acted as technical advisor to a consortium of lenders on the project. • Turner & Townsend has been appointed by National Grid to provide professional management services across the gas, electricity and non- regulated businesses. The consultancy has been awarded a three to five year framework with subconsultants QEM Solutions and PCS Hyder. • Hydro International has released a guide to surface water treatment in sustainable drainage systems. The HX Guide to Surface Water Treatment is available at www.hydro-int.com • Nick Zembillas has joined Subscan as executive director. • Environmental Scientifics Group has been awarded an intrusive ground investigation contract by Scottish Water, including land-based and overwater work to improve water quality in the River Clyde. Midlands councils opt for civil engineering framework A new national framework with an anticipated value of between £1b and £1.5b is being procured by local council conglomerate Scape to support clients in delivering civil engineering and infrastructure projects. Scape, comprising Derby City, Derbyshire County, Gateshead, Nottingham City, Nottinghamshire County and Warwickshire County councils, will operate the framework nationwide but deliver services locally. Mark Robinson, Scape chief executive, said: “The framework will be able to deliver on large-scale, high profile projects such as associated infrastructure around HS2, however it will meet the immediate need of the large number of public sector bodies carrying out projects such as flood defence work, footbridges, public realm and local road network improvements. This new framework will obviate the need for expensive individual OJEU tenders and will bring the benefits of a client collective.” Scape envisages a single provider will be awarded the framework, but expects this to be a consortium formed to bid for the deal. A prior information notice in the Official Journal of the European Union has been published.
  14. 14. Same tune, different song Name: Daniel Coates ICES grade: Member Occupation: Project Manager Company: Goodwin Midson, Brisbane Whilst the core principles of surveying remain the same, there are different legislations and regulations to adhere to. What encouraged you to join the construction industry? In some ways it was not a planned decision — more of something that developed. I was always looking for a career that would encompass a balanced lifestyle and allow for travel opportunities. What academic or professional qualifications do you have? I have a degree in geography, surveying and mapping science from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. In addition to being a member of ICES, I am also a full member of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. What does a typical day involve? My current role involves the management of complex projects, with the day to day supervision of survey staff. Additionally, I liaise with local governments, government agencies and clients to ensure projects are running on schedule. Can you give an example of any recent projects you have been working on? Recent projects have included large residential subdivisions and civil construction. Two key projects have been Riverstone Rise, a 3,000 lot masterplanned community development in Boyne Island, central Queensland and the Yarwun residual management area, a civil construction project relating to the raising of a dam wall to increase capacity. What are the good bits and bad bits about your job? The good part about my job is being able to travel and visit sites that many people don’t know exist. You get to see a vast array of locations and develop skills through interacting with different professionals. There aren’t many bad parts to working in the surveying profession however it has certainly become more challenging since the global financial crisis, with projects becoming more cost sensitive and surveyors having to look at ways to diversify and become more efficient without losing quality. If you were to recommend your job to someone else, what would you say? Surveying is not a typical nine to five job; however it provides opportunities to use the latest technologies in a good working environment. There is a great mix of outdoor and indoor work and there are the opportunities to travel. What’s been your biggest career challenge? Relocating to Australia has certainly been a challenge in many aspects. There has been a lot to learn and many new skills to develop. Whilst the core principles of surveying remain the same, there are different legislations and regulations to adhere to. However, so far it has been a good adventure. If you could change one thing about the construction industry, what would it be? The nature of the construction industry means it can be sometimes be a high pressured environment with everyone wanting something at once from the surveyor. Lead in times and priorities can change very quickly so you have to be on the ball and sometimes educate the client to give them a better understanding of what they require and when. Where would you like to take your future career? Currently I am working towards becoming a registered surveyor with the Surveyors Board of Queensland. I will then look to obtain a cadastral endorsement in order to become a licenced surveyor. What encouraged you to join ICES? I believe ICES has an important role to play in the geospatial industry, especially through the promotion of legislation and services, and the development and training of professionals. Have you had any involvement with the ICES regions, committees or panels? Prior to emigrating to Australia I had started becoming more involved in the institution, especially helping to develop approved development schemes. What are your hobbies and interests? I enjoy playing music and have been in bands for longer than I have been surveying! I have played guitar since an early age and whenever possible I will be doing something musical.
  15. 15. RUDI KLEIN, president of the NEC Users’ Group, opened the 18th annual seminar on 28 April this year. This seemed a fitting milestone as 2014 is also the 21st anniversary of the New Engineering Contract, the former coming of age as currently adopted, and the latter the correct interpretation to those of us over a certain age. Points of interest noted by Rudi included the launch of the new NEC website in June, the forthcoming publication of NEC building information modelling contracts and the new NEC3 engineering construction contract project manager accreditation initiative. Government projects The keynote presentation was given by Lord Deighton, commercial secretary to the Treasury, and former chief executive of the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG). He recently led the production of the HS2 Growth Taskforce report, High Speed 2: Get Ready. The presentation started by emphasising the Olympic initiative which was a resounding success for both the NEC and government. Lord Deighton set out the government’s commitment to the National Infrastructure Plan to the tune of £375b, albeit the dreaded term PFI (or is that now PF2?) was mentioned as a key element of that plan. Another point was that the current planning regime was often open to abuse and was being made more efficient and effective with, inter alia, a new planning court being introduced. The capability to deliver is obviously a key factor and this is being addressed. For example, independent delivery mechanisms such as HS2 and the Highways Agency are being made more independent. Quality is being made a priority — starting at the top with government and cascading down the supply chain. NEC3 is seen as the mechanism to deliver projects on time and to budget and it is incumbent on the government to progress the National Infrastructure Plan in terms of project driven timelines and not political ones. Whilst Lord Deighton was obviously committed to the points raised, it is still to be seen if government, of whatever colour or conviction, can deliver. Commercial pitfalls Phil Joyce, director of specialist chartered accountancy practice Orange Partnership, spoke about top commercial pitfalls and how NEC3 can help to avoid them. There are several common themes at the root of unpleasant commercial surprises: • Complacency in failing to spot and/or deal with problems, and over-reliance on the pain/gain mechanism, which leads to a lack of policing of procedures and processes and the timely identification of problems. • Different contractual interpretations, such as application of the schedule of cost components; how changes are recorded, evidenced and validated; and the subcontract being adequately documented. • Weakness in reporting; incurred cost reporting and accruals capture; assessment of the effect of changes and earned value in general. • Breakdown in commercial processes; use of early warning notices and mitigation in the event of changes; reporting of subcontractor performance and lack of employer involvement through the supply chain. • Fraud allowed to occur through lack of oversight and/or ownership, and lack of infrastructure to manage, deter and detect it. The primary solution was, perhaps unsurprisingly, to implement competent, independent and risk-focused assurance to highlight and address problems early. Other more fundamental points were to apply the contract, be open to challenge and improvement, and actively manage risks and opportunities. The issues identified are nothing radical, but they are a reminder that it can often be a failure to address the basics that can lead to less than acceptable contract performance. Is NEC coming of age? Steven Williams LLDip DipBar DipArb FRICS FCIArb CArb FCInstCES, Director, SDW Commercial Management Steven Williams on the latest views and news of the New Engineering Contract as it celebrates its 21st birthday
  16. 16. The Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors is a registered educational charity. Contact: ICES Publishing Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors +44 (0)161 972 3110 mmhw@cices.org www.cices.org Managing with the MMHW An examination of the use of the Method of Measurement for Highway Works Hamish Mitchell FCInstCES A book that is long overdue. It is well researched and written by one of the most experienced highway quantity surveyors in the UK, Hamish Mitchell. This book will help practitioners and students alike understand highway measurement in a much more structured way than was previously possible. Highway measurement is not just measurement A new book from ICES covering the background, development and usage of the MMHW. Author Hamish Mitchell presents case studies and examples to help readers understand the practicalities of highway measurement. £19.95(Free postage UK, £6.95 overseas) Available now
  17. 17. The Manchester experience Stephen Williamson, commercial manager of Manchester City Council, has worked as the commercial leader for the £170m refurbishment of the Manchester Town Hall complex for the last four years. He spoke about the challenging programme for the Town Hall extension and library. Both were designed by E Vincent Harris in 1927, completed in 1938, and are now Grade 2* listed and part of a civic complex of world class status. The programme was to transform both the way in which city council services are delivered and the working environment, whilst creating an innovative and contemporary design embedded in a historic setting to enable the buildings to continue to function as a library and the administrative centre for Manchester City Council. The nature of the project with its potential for change in response to unforeseen, and indeed unforeseeable, problems lends itself to the use of option C. A key aspect of the council’s approach to the successful use of NEC3 was to ensure everyone, from employer down through the supply chain, acted as one team. The success of that approach was evidenced by the following statistics. The contract was NEC3 option C with minor amendments, delivering the project by the completion date and within the authorised budget and with the final account agreed four weeks prior to completion. This was achieved despite 1,051 early warnings, 560 project manager generated compensation events and 210 notifications of compensation events. The following points of added value were also achieved (none of which was a contractual requirement); 80 long term apprenticeships, 75 work placements, 85% of the budget spent within Greater Manchester and 100% of the supply chain paid within 30 days (without use of a project bank account). The Hong Kong experience Wai Tsui, deputy director of the Hong Kong Drainage Services Department, reported that he currently has five NEC projects under construction and a further 20 planned. The first NEC project was the Fuk Man Road Nullah improvement in Sai Kung, which commenced in August 2009 and was successfully completed in May 2012 — six months ahead of programme and with a 5% cost saving. Prior to this, the Hong Kong government procured work under the General Conditions of Contract (GCC), a family of contracts for various types of works based on the Institution of Civil Engineers conditions. Following publication of the Construction Industry Review Committee report in January 2001, Construct for Excellence, which recommended the integration of partnering and alternative payment methods (such as target cost, pain-gain share), the government introduced non-contractual partnering under adversarial contract forms. In 2006, the government decided to take the process one significant step further by adopting NEC and contractual partnering. The Drainage Services Department was chosen for the pilot trial — the Fuk Man Road project that commenced some three years later. The challenges to the introduction of NEC were outlined and generally associated with maintaining the status quo. However, the benefits of the use of NEC3 were obviously apparent to the Hong Kong government, as is demonstrated by the expanding programme of current and planned projects. Wai Tsui offered further examples such as the Happy Valley underground stormwater storage scheme which encountered a conflict with HEC cables that threatened progress and would have had an unacceptable impact on the horse racing calendar, given its status as a local passion. The partnering approach allowed a solution to be found and implemented that allowed the horse racing to proceed without hindrance. Amendments to NEC3 were touched upon and, whilst the majority were in response to the specific nature of the market and environment, for example the inclement weather provisions under clause 60.1(13), one notable amendment removes positive cashflow from the contract, with clause 11.2(29) referring to payments made by the contractor at the current, rather than subsequent assessment, date. What route will HS2 take? Richard Mould, head of corporate procurement at HS2 Ltd and former head of procurement of LOCOG, looked at the use of NEC3 for the successful procurement within HS2. The key statistics for HS2 are 330 miles of new track; nine HS2 stations (four new) and a budget of £42.6b (including £14.4b contingency). The procurement strategy is to be: • Tunnels: £2,900m in four main packages of work, adopting early contractor involvement (ECI) based on NEC3 using an employer prepared preliminary design and an integrated contractor and designer team appointed under an incentivised two-stage contract with a break point between the stages. • Surface route: £2,700m in three to six main packages of work, adopting the same ECI approach. • Stations: £2,600m in four main packages (one main per station, subject to rationalisation), adopting the same ECI approach. • Enabling works: £600m with a new framework agreement established. • Railway systems: £1,500m in four to six route-wide packages, adopting either the same ECI approach, or design and build. • Design services: £350m in multidisciplinary packages, adopting a framework approach based on NEC3. • Rolling stock: £200m+ in a single package, adopting a bespoke contract. The current market engagement phase is examining the work packaging approach under several topics to arrive at an updated procurement strategy and a supply chain conference later in 2014. The current supply chain involvement in the process includes 400 suppliers taking part as a direct result of the market engagement; seven seminars arranged with umbrella trade associations and eight local enterprise partnership seminars arranged. It is worth noting that NEC3 is to be a basis for the work package contracts, so it is to be seen if HS2 follows other infrastructure clients by amending the standard form out of all recognition. Risk An eclectic panel of experts from employer to insurance broker and risk management adviser, responded to questions posed by the session chair, Tiffany Kemp and the audience. The issue of risk transfer was raised in the context of early contractor/subcontractor involvement to identify, quantify and manage risk prospectively. This was supported by all members as a useful initiative. Another issue was the greater use of blame-free multi-party risk cover on projects, rather than the usual trend of each party at all levels of the supply chain taking responsibility for defined elements, providing insurance cover and defending its position in the event of an incident. There was some debate and consensus that the balance of power within the supply chain is shifting downwards as the economy is recovering, i.e. subcontractors and contractors can begin to be more selective about the projects they bid for and at what price. This was a thought invoking and interesting event. One aspect that struck me was the close-knit group that was present at the event, it was obvious that a large proportion of delegates were long-standing colleagues and acquaintances that facilitated an atmosphere of a convivial gathering of like-minded professionals. Steven Williams FCInstCES, SDW Commercial Management Ltd Steven Williams is the chair of the ICES Contracts and Dispute Resolution Panel sdwilliams@ricsonline.net www.sdwcm.co.uk
  18. 18. NOT all maps are geographically accurate. Most of the maps that form part of our cultural heritage are geographically inaccurate; Mappa Mundi, Harry Beck’s Tube map, the Catalan Atlas... Not to undervalue the work of national mapping agencies throughout the world, but Ordnance Survey’s Explorer series isn’t necessarily something our descendents will be going to a gallery or museum to see. Thank heavens for cartography as art. Gareth Wood, going by the name Fuller, has recently completed his map of Bristol. It is a hand-drawn depiction of a city he has lived in for four years. It has taken him 500 hours and countless architectural pens to produce the work on a 900mm x 900mm archival mount board. It has taken three years to complete — a part-time undertaking in addition to his full-time work as a video and film producer. Fuller’s work isn’t to scale physically, but it does represent the city’s personality. The buildings that are included are ones that have left their mark on the artist and those he has come into contact with through his everyday life in Bristol. It’s a personal map appealing to the personal experiences of those who are viewing it. It is a cartographical love letter to Bristol. With Bristol now complete, another cityscape will be slowly handcrafted back to life. Fuller plans to bring his unfinished map of London out of storage. Abigail Tomkins Fuller’s Map of Bristol is to go on display at It’s All 2 Much in Bristol from 31 May 2014. www.fullermaps.com Imagery © Luke Thornton, www.lthorntonphotography.co.uk Fuller mapping
  19. 19. BEAUTIFUL Science is the name of the first exhibition you come across on entering the British Library. It’s a celebration of how graphical and pictorial representations of data can help people understand the science behind them. Looking through the library’s antiquarian map collection, it’s a perfect description of how civil engineering surveyors work. Maps and drawings are often a pictorial way of showing past achievements in the built environment or how you envisage future glories to be. It is these two categories that make up the bulk of the 4 million maps included in the collection. Despite the beauty and care that goes into these, the real finds are, according to antiquarian map curator Tom Harper, the working maps in the middle — the ones that get thrown away. You can understand why this happens. Maps serve a function and when that ceases, they become obsolete. The velum becomes more valuable than the figures drawn on it. Many important and valuable maps have been found living a recycled life as book bindings. One working map that has survived is Gregory King’s sketch of the area around St Katharine Docks after the Great Fire of London. Dating back to 1680, Tom Harper describes it as a ‘miracle in its survival’. The squares of buildings sitting alongside a wonky river are a physical link to the hand that drew them. Making it more endearing are the diary notes scribbled to the side that include: “Friday, survey afternoon sans assistance” You can almost hear the frustration at his assistant failing to turn up for work that day. Gregory King never intended this sketch to be looked at in 2014. He would probably Behind the scenes at the map museum Darrell Smart, Editor, and Abigail Tomkins, Deputy Editor, with Tom Harper, Curator of Antiquarian Mapping, British Library A pick of some of the best maps celebrating civil engineering available at the British Library A copper engraved print of Bonsignori’s map of Florence: Nova Pulcherrimae Florentiae Topographia accuratissimé delineata. Bonsignori is pictured in the bottom centre, surveying his work.
  20. 20. cringe when he thought that this, amongst all of his life’s work, was part of his lasting testament. But, again, that’s part of the beauty. Sometimes seeing a scrap of paper 350 years old with annotations in the margin that are just like those you write today is just as exciting as a copper engraved print of a mapping masterpiece. And there are plenty of those in the collection. The British Library holds one of the handful of remaining original prints of Stefano Bonsignori’s map of Florence from 1584. Spread out over nine sheets, it was produced to celebrate the civil engineering feats in the city over the last few decades; to revel in civic pride. It is a bird’s eye view, based on a detailed measured plan of the city, and Bonsignori draws himself, sitting on an imaginary rocky outcrop, quadrant in hand, surveying the work he has surveyed. It is beautiful. And yet there is a constant reminder of its primary use as a functional object. At some point in its 430 year old history it’s been cut into pieces and stuck to a linen sheet to make storage that bit easier. The inclusion of the surveyor on his own work isn’t so unusual. Many of the large estate maps feature intricately drawn motifs that identify the surveyor by their style. Tagging as it were. The fusion of art and surveying is clear in a collection of maps drawn for Henry VIII. It is a collection brought together by Sir Robert Cotton in Elizabeth I’s time. It forms part of the royal collection now cared for by the British Library. The maps are full of military plans for forts and harbours to protect the vulnerable south coast of England. These are maps that were hand- drawn for the king and had far-reaching consequences. The seas are filled with battle ships and bare-toothed monsters. As Tom Harper says: “It’s very hard to reconcile what is to us a very attractive artful map with its practical purpose. But if you’re producing something for very important people, you make it look nice.” The draining of the Fens — one of the major civil engineering projects of the 17th century — warranted maps that were equally attractive. The Duke of Bedford’s project sought approval from Charles I. The British Library is lucky to have an original drawing of the area and a 1625 map based on that drawing. You can see the similarity of the sketched survey, and the pimped up plan for the king. The use of maps in propaganda isn’t a new concept and the library’s collection reinforces there is nothing new under the sun. For example, a map that shows a (Top left): One of the earliest maps in the British Library’s collection. Dating from the 13th century, it celebrates a new watercourse carrying water from local springs to Waltham Abbey. (Top right): A coloured chart of Falmouth Haven and the river Fal up to Truro; drawn in 1597. Part of Sir Robert Cotton’s royal collection. The cartographer is unknown. (Above): A coloured plan of Dover Harbour and town, showing Lord Cobham's plan for a second sluice to the pent. Drawn in 1582 by Thomas Digges using ink and pigments on vellum.
  21. 21. proposed new rail line through leafy Tory supporting Buckinghamshire was used to drum support before a public meeting. This map is from 1874 and relates to the proposed (and successful) extension of the Metropolitan Line. Another 150 years and Tom Harper’s successor will be presenting similar material relating to the proposed (and successful?!) HS2 to the editors of Civil Engineering Surveyor. There are too many gems in the collection for there to be any one standout item in the British Library. The collection is open to anyone who wants to see it. The map reading room has especially large tables for the purpose. It could be the 13th century map of a watercourse built to supply Waltham Abbey, and found bound within the manuscript collection of the 1st and 2nd Earls of Oxford, that leaves the deepest impression; or it could be Edmund Crocker’s notebook from the early 1800s detailing his work for Ordnance Survey; or maybe Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s plans for the rail line on Portishead Pier. The maps tell a story — not just in what they were created for, but in the journey they have taken to find a safe home at the British Library. Many have travelled across continents; suffering wars, great fires, floods and frosts. Tom Harper’s antiquarian remit of anything older that 100 years means his charge is ever changing, but will it eventually cease to be a source of new material? Will the British Library’s digital map curator become an e-antiquarian? Are rumours of the death of printed maps greatly exaggerated? Tom Harper’s answer is: “I think people should relax a bit more. At the end of the day, it doesn’t really matter what form maps take. The map won’t die. Maps are ways of organising our minds.” Tom Harper, Curator of Antiquarian Mapping, was with Darrell Smart and Abigail Tomkins at the British Library, Euston Road, London tom.harper@bl.uk Tweet @tw_harper www.bl.uk Tweet: @blmaps http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/magnificentmaps/ All images ©The British Library (Top and middle): Map accompanying a printed letter to landowners from a committee at High Wycombe. The letter requests opinions on a proposed railway to link the town to the Metropolitan Railway. (Bottom): A chart of the Fens between Lynn Regis, Denver Sluice and Wisbich. Drawn in 1610 by the cartographer William Hayward, using ink and tempera on parchment. Professional Engineering Institutions Defence Lecture: The Drawdown of UK Support and Influence in Helmand Province 02 June 2014: London, UK www.ice.org.uk Bentley LEARNing Conferences 02-04 June 2014: Birmingham, UK 17-18 June 2014: Arizona, USA 15-16 July 2014: Pennsylvania, USA 29-30 July 2014: Maryland, USA, 09-10 September 2014: North Carolina, USA 06-07 October 2014: Mainz, Germany 08-09 October 2014: Mainz, Germany www.bentley.com/en-US/Training GeoDATA 03 June 2014: Brussels, Belgium 05 June 2014: Amsterdam, Netherlands 04 November 2014: Glasgow, UK 20 November 2014: Belfast, UK 04 December 2014: London, UK www.geoinformationgroup.co.uk HxGN Live 02-05 June 2014: Las Vegas, USA www.hxgnlive.com Geo: The Big 5 — BIM and Asset Management 05 June 2014: Bristol, UK www.agi.org.uk ICE Bridges 2014 05 June 2014: London, UK www.ice-conferences.com Sea Work International 2014 10-12 June 2014: Southampton, UK www.seawork.com FIG Congress 2014 16-21 June 2014: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia www.fig.net 10th Brunel International Lecture 17 June 2014: London, UK www.ice.org.uk Contracts & Dispute Management 24-25 June 2014: London, UK 10% saving with VIP code: FKW82468CICL www.ibclegal.com/FKW82468CICL Asset Information & Data Management for Rail 26 June 2014: London, UK www.railassetinformation.com CIArb Four Ball Scramble Challenge 27 June 2014: Enniskerry, Ireland www.arbitration.ie ICE Rail 2014 01 July 2014: London, UK www.ice-conferences.com Government Construction Summit 2014 02 July 2014: London, UK www.governmentconstructionsummit.co.uk AfricaGEO 01-03 July 2014: Cape Town, South Africa www.africageo.org Charting and Mapping the Pitcairners 06-10 July 2014: Norfolk Island, NZ www.fig.net Construction Law Summer School 01-04 September 2014: Cambridge, UK 10% saving with VIP code: FKW82466CICL www.ibclegal.com/FKW82466CICL CTBUH International Conference 16-19 September 2014: Shanghai, China www.ctbuh.org Geo: The Big 5 — Big Data 18 September 2014: London, UK www.agi.org.uk ICES Dinner 19 September 2014: Droitwich Spa, UK www.cices.org/events Geo: The Big 5 — Policy 09 October 2014: Cardiff, UK www.agi.org.uk
  22. 22. Membership Application and Upgrade Surgeries Are you thinking of upgrading your membership? Do you know anyone interested in applying for membership? Do you want your employees to develop their professional skills? If you answer yes to any of the above, then these free half-hour surgeries are designed to make applying to upgrade or applying directly for membership as simple as possible. Surgeries cover eligibility, application documents and the membership review interviews. They are equally suitable for applicants wishing to become technical members, members or fellows. Surgeries are informal and the aim is to ensure that you understand if you are eligible to apply, how to write-up your documentation and interpret the competencies. Plus, find out how to make the most of your review interview. Surgery Calendar 2014 10 June 10am-4pm Cambridge 23 June 10am-4pm Sale 25 June 10am-4pm London 21 July 10am-4pm Sale Bookable 30-minute sessions with the ICES membership team. To book visit www.cices.org/events Enquiries: Membership Coordinator Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors +44 (0)161 972 3100 membership@cices.org Dates are subject to change and are dependent on sufficient numbers attending. *For UAE workshops contact ices.uaeregion@gmail.com The Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors is a registered educational charity.
  23. 23. QATAR is a compelling commercial proposition for the UK construction sector. In turn, arbitration appears to be a necessary proposition for conducting business there, but there may be problems in enforcing arbitration awards, especially those carried out under Qatari rules. The problem came to light when a controversial decision was rendered by the Qatari Court of Cassation in 2012, where a domestic award (not foreign) issued under the auspices of the Qatar International Centre for Conciliation and Arbitration was declared null and void because it failed to state that it was issued in the name of His Highness the Emir of Qatar. The court determined that the wording of the constitution and state law required this wording to be included in any judgment for it to be valid. It further held that there was no distinction between a court judgment and an arbitral award under state law; therefore, any failure of an arbitral award (which was deemed to be akin to a judgment) to include this wording would render it null and void and contrary to public order. By way of general background, arbitration in Qatar is dealt with under articles 190 to 210 of the Qatari Civil and Commercial Code of Procedure (law no. 13 of 1990). Article 205 of the civil procedure code treats arbitral awards as though they were court judgments and arbitral awards are therefore subject to appeals. Article 63 of the Qatari constitution states: “Judicial authority shall be vested in the courts in the manner prescribed in this constitution and judgments shall be issued in the name of the Emir.” Further, article 69 of the civil procedure code provides that: “Judgments are issued and executed in the name of HH the Emir of the State of Qatar.” Article 204 provides that arbitrators’ judgments are not enforceable unless an order of execution is granted by the president of the court with whose clerk the original judgment was registered, upon request of any of the concerned parties. This execution order is granted after consideration of the judgment and the arbitration agreement, and after confirmation that there is no obstacle against its enforcement, the execution order shall be endorsed on the original judgment. The enforcing judge has jurisdiction over all questions relating to enforcement. Finally, we need to also take account of article 207 according to which a party may request the setting aside of arbitrators’ judgments if the award breaches any rule of public order or morality. A recent judgment of the Qatari Court of Cassation (the highest court in Qatar) has overturned lower court decisions and reinstated an International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) award issued in 2012 by a sole arbitrator seated in Doha. The arbitrator had found in favour of a Qatari subcontractor in its claim against Qatar arbitration: Be careful Hamish Lal FCInstCES, Partner and Head of Construction, Jones Day Hamish Lal on problems in enforcing arbitration awards under Qatari rules
  24. 24. a locally incorporated joint venture between Qatari and foreign companies. The arbitration and the underlying contract were governed by Qatari law. A Doha court of first instance had set aside the award in April 2013, with that judgment upheld by the Doha Court of Appeal. At both instances, the courts relied on the 1990 Qatari civil procedure law, which does not distinguish between domestic and foreign arbitral awards. The earlier courts’ decisions had caused concern. One tangible concern was that certain arbitrators abroad were not willing to render awards in the name of a head of state such as an Emir. The Court of Cassation’s reasoning in overturning the judgment made by the lower courts is interesting and may not be as encouraging as first assumed. This is because whilst the arbitration in question was seated in Qatar, between Qatari entities, in respect of a Qatari project and with Qatari law governing, the arbitral proceedings were under the ICC rules. This latter fact allowed the Court of Cassation to treat it as a foreign award such that the New York Convention should apply for enforcement purposes. The court said there was no defect with the award and the award was sent back to the Court of Appeal for reconsideration. It remains to be seen whether the lower Qatari courts will follow the Court of Cassation’s interpretation. In practice, much will turn on whether the award can be construed to be foreign, if so, there will be more pressure on the Qatar courts to enforce under the New York Convention. If it is not, then one may find that the courts continue to apply a strict interpretation to article 63 of the Qatari constitution and/or to article 69 of the Qatari civil procedure code which state, respectively that “judicial authority shall be vested in the courts in the manner prescribed in this constitution and judgments shall be issued in the name of the Emir” and that “judgments are issued and executed in the name of HH the Emir of the State of Qatar.” There is tangible uncertainty in this area and it appears that some practitioners are seeking to make sure that arbitrations with any Qatari entities contain an arbitration agreement that says that the award shall be deemed to be foreign and, in any event, the award should be rendered in the name of the Emir. Hamish Lal, Partner Head of Construction, Jones Day hlal@jonesday.com www.jonesday.com The problem came to light when a domestic award was declared null and void because it failed to state that it was issued in the name of His Highness the Emir of Qatar. ULTRA SYSTEMEXPERT UTILITY TRACING AND LOCATING
  25. 25. THE 2013/2014 winter storms were some of the most severe recorded in southwest England. During this period, Plymouth University’s School of Marine Science and Engineering has been using vibration monitoring equipment from Caption Data to measure the dynamic structural response of Eddystone Lighthouse’s tower under various stress loads. The equipment is more commonly found monitoring construction and groundworks near sensitive buildings and structures around tunnelling or pipelines, but is also in use on other iconic structures such as the Thames Barrier and the Ta’ Bistra catacombs in Malta. The lighthouse Eddystone Lighthouse was built on a dangerous rocky reef 13 miles southwest of the city of Plymouth over 130 years ago. The current structure is the fourth to be built on the site. The first and second were destroyed by storm and fire, and the third, best known for its influence on future lighthouse designs, was dismantled in the 1870s. Before the first lighthouse was built on Eddystone Rocks, sea merchants would sail around the Channel Islands or to the French coast for fear of being wrecked on the reef. Research Plymouth University, in collaboration with General Lighthouse Authorities of the United Kingdom & Ireland (specifically Trinity House), has been engaged in research to characterise the environmental loads on the granite structure of Eddystone Lighthouse. The project is the first in a wider study, with implications across the population of rock based lighthouses in the UK. This is an area of research that has been neglected for Monitoring wave induced shocks at Eddystone Lighthouse Jon Penn, Managing Director, Caption Data Jon Penn on researching the effects of stormy weather on rock-based lighthouses Figure 1 (left): Eddystone Lighthouse built on a treacherous rocky reef southwest of Plymouth. The stump of one of its three previous incarnations stands next to it. Figure 2 (right): Images capture wave run up at Eddystone Lighthouse using a CCTV system specifically designed by Plymouth University.
  26. 26. generations and is made difficult by the remoteness and low power availability. Plymouth’s research is led by associate professor Alison Raby and has followed a triple sequence approach, with (i) finite element analysis models; (ii) a 1:100 physical scale model used in the wave flume of the Coastal, Ocean and Sediment Transport Laboratory of Plymouth University; and (iii) field measurements on the lighthouse itself using a shock monitoring system and geophone sensors. In addition, CCTV cameras have been developed by the university to monitor wave impacts and run-up at the lighthouse. These have the ability, via date and time stamping, to synchronise images of waves to specific vibration data from the shock monitoring system to validate results. Field measurements The RDL//Vibe shock monitoring system was chosen because it is autonomous, robust (including an IP66 rated enclosure), reliable, simple to install, and sensitive enough to monitor wave induced vibration in the structure. It is optimised for low power usage, is battery powered by a lithium D-cell and can also accommodate an external power supply. The system constantly monitors vibrations and shocks at user selected frequencies from 10-500Hz. It has inputs from two tri- axial geophone sensors typically with low frequency response down to 4.5Hz. Minimum trigger levels are 0.18mm/s while maximum sensor levels are 43.4mm/s. Alarm thresholds can be set to alert any number of recipients by email or text when predefined limits are exceeded. It also uses a fully roaming SIM to lock onto the most appropriate GSM network at any given time. Data is available online from Caption Data’s web portal, where the settings of the RDL//Vibe are managed. As well as receiving graphical interpretation of events, raw data can be downloaded for further analysis, and derived parameters such as peak particle velocity, displacement and acceleration are available online. This means there is an online, uneditable audit trail that logs every event and alarm that is sent. Winter storms The winter storms of 2013/2014 saw a catalogue of wave induced damage along the coast of southwest Britain, from the washing away of rail lines at Dawlish to the demolition of a Victorian shelter on the promenade in Aberystwyth, Wales. Nearer to Eddystone Lighthouse, the famous Kingsand Clock Tower was left facing demolition but has since had £100,000 of repairs. Eddystone Lighthouse, of course, stood firm throughout, and with the benefit of remote monitoring, the research team from Plymouth University was able to see exactly the effect on the structure of these immense natural forces. During the period from 15 December 2013 to 28 February 2014 there were 3,090 events logged by the remote monitoring system; typical data from an event is shown in Figure 3 and represents velocities from the tri-axial geophones installed 28m above sea level on the structure. The ability to remotely access live motion data from Eddystone Lighthouse, and to be able to change the threshold at which such data is acquired has been a tremendous asset for the research project. During daylight hours it was possible to correlate vibration data with CCTV images of wave strikes. Future research Plymouth University has purchased further RDL//Vibes and geophones in order to equip the Eddystone Lighthouse with measuring points at differing heights on the structure. In addition, further research is due to commence using geophones with a low frequency response of 0.3Hz. Research is also being planned to monitor a number of other rock based lighthouses around the UK. Jon Penn, Managing Director, Caption Data Limited jon@captiondata.com www.captiondata.com Acknowledgements The research work has been funded through a Plymouth University School of Marine Science and Engineering PhD studentship and from the GLA who has provided equipment and helicopter access. As well as Alison Raby, Associate Professor, PhD student Davide Banfi and a host of experienced technicians at the School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Ron Blakeley principal civil engineer at Trinity House, and Martin Bransby from the General Lighthouse Authorities of the UK & Ireland have had pivotal roles in creating and supporting the team involved in this research work. Figure 3 (right): Graph data relates to the event pictured by CCTV footage in Figure 2. Figure 4 (far right): The RDL//Vibe and a single tri-axial geophone. Figure 5: The research team on the helipad at Eddystone Lighthouse. From left to right, Dr Alison Raby, Ron Blakeley and Prof Geoff Bullock.
  27. 27. you can trrust oring, setting out, trust names s leading supplier of surveying equipment withe the UK’SCCS ar mapping, surveying and survey eq el:TTe 01480 404888 .sccwww supplied and supported by the co innovative solutions in monito e.quipment hir .co.ukcssurvey ompany you can t
  28. 28. IN March 2010, I came across the historian Scott Doody looking for the grave site of a decorated World War I veteran who was killed in the infamous, but now largely forgotten, Herrin Massacre of 1922. He was searching for a single marker erected by the Veterans of Foreign Wars to honour Anton Malkovich, but it had vanished. This chance meeting in Herrin City Cemetery in Illinois led to one of the greatest challenges of my life. The search for Malkovich’s grave site would eventually become a four-year interdisciplinary project that would locate the unmarked graves of other men killed in the Herrin Massacre. Although the story of the massacre was well documented, the event was so atrocious that it was not spoken of for generations. In time, the locations of the unmarked graves of the men killed were forgotten. 23 men were killed in the massacre. Seven bodies were immediately claimed by relatives. The bodies of the remaining 16 men were buried in the potter’s field — an area of the cemetery reserved for the indigent, the unknown, and the unidentified. Within four months, five of the bodies in the potter’s field were disinterred and claimed by relatives. On 3 October 1922, Ignatz Kubinetz, who had been injured in the massacre, died of his wounds and was also buried in the potter’s field. This brought the total of unmarked grave sites from the Herrin Massacre to 12. GIS v witching Nearly a century later, Scott Doody and I joined a team of geospatial scientists, historians and forensic anthropologists — all coming together in an attempt to locate these lost burial sites. Could the long- forgotten graves of the victims of the Herrin Massacre be found by applying GIS techniques? The cemetery’s long-held secret would be revealed not by mapping what was on the surface, but what lay beneath. The team relied on hundreds of maps, animations, 3D renderings, charts, graphs and figures. For the first time, integrative methods and geospatial technology would be used to find the massacre victims’ locations. Additional help was offered to the team. Some local residents claimed the men were buried in a location outside the cemetery. Others said they could find the graves by ‘witching’. Psychics offered to speak to the dead on our behalf. All these offers were politely declined. To create, store, manage, analyse and distribute the data the team had assembled, a custom enterprise geodatabase model was implemented and deployed on Microsoft SQL Server 2008. By versioning the data, the team could work on the model and the attribution of the many sections, blocks, lots, spaces and markers. Data and maps were shared by publishing numerous services via ArcGIS for Server. Taking an old, hand-drawn paper map, they built a GIS model of the cemetery’s At rest Finding the victims of the Herrin Massacre Steven M Di Naso, Director, Geographic Information Sciences Center, Eastern Illinois University, with Scott Doody, Historian How surveying techniques are being used in the quest to find the lost victims of an American tragedy Looking for the forgotten 12: (front row) Vincent Gutowski, Steven Di Naso, Grant Woods, (back row) Roy Music, Scott Doody, Bill Sizemore, Trevor Barham, John Bauernfeindj, Robert Corruccini, and John Foster. ©Steven M Di Naso Scan of the cemetery viewed in Leica’s TruView.
  29. 29. parcel fabric from known dimensions. It was the conceptual design or ideal layout of the cemetery. Initially it acted as a template for analysis and modelling of interment. Other data was used to produce a single animation that would reveal the location of the potter’s field as a function of the behaviour of its sextons over the cemetery’s long history. The team produced the first accurate GIS inventory of the sections, blocks, lots, spaces, headstones and associated interment records for the 25-acre cemetery. More than 9,600 interment records were modified from an existing genealogical database made available by the Williamson County Historical Society. This comprehensive repository of geographic data, empowered by ArcGIS, became the driving force behind the research. Thousands of news articles from the period were reviewed. These account descriptions offered geographic clues and supported location hypotheses. The city’s cemetery records were studied; county recorder’s office records reviewed; and representative photogrammetry for every decade from 1938 to present, as well as period photographs, were obtained and scrutinised. From these resources, the team produced an accurate compilation of historical data for conducting research. Field surveys In the field, accurate horizontal and vertical control was established using static GPS techniques. The data was processed through the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) online positioning user interface (OPUS). OPUS provides access to high-accuracy National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) coordinates by upload of a data file collected with a survey- grade GPS receiver. The NSRS position for that file is returned via email. OPUS enabled positional precision on the order of millimeters — well above the accuracy and precision required. The team used real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS with a multiple-baseline solution and differential corrections provided by the Kara Company ReIL-Net on the NGS continuously operating reference station (CORS) data to map headstones and acquire photographs of them contemporaneously. In practice, although use of NAVSTAR, the GPS satellite network operated by the US Air Force, generally requires signal acquisition from a minimum of four satellites on any given day to attain a position, there are specific intervals of time throughout the day during which satellite geometry and other factors permit recovery of precise positioning at survey- grade accuracies (i.e. centimetre level) when using RTK GPS. By taking photographs and positions contemporaneously within these short intervals, during which survey-grade positions could be acquired, we ensured the collection of all headstones and attribute The Herrin Massacre In April 1922, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) went on a nationwide coal strike. Eight weeks into the strike, WJ Lester, owner of the Southern Illinois Coal Company in Williamson County, having already released the union workers from their duties, hired non-union workers and armed guards from Chicago. (Whether these men knew they were strikebreakers or not is still a matter of debate.) Union miners from as far as Kansas, Indiana and Ohio had arrived to protest earlier in the week. By 21 June 1922, a steady stream of gunfire had been exchanged between the two factions. By nightfall, two UMWA men had been killed. Miners, farmers and other locals were infuriated. By the morning of 22 June, it was estimated that 1,000 armed men had advanced on the mine. Realising there was no alternative, the non- union men raised a white flag of surrender. With promise of safe passage out of the county, the men were led from the Lester Strip Pit to a wooded area about two miles away, known as the Power House Woods, where many were then killed. In total 23 men were killed over two days in Williamson County and on the streets of Herrin, Illinois. It was the largest mass murder of non-union workers in the history of America, and became known as the Herrin Massacre. Burying the dead. Photographs from the 1922 mass burial of the Herrin victims. Herrin Mayor AT Pace is pictured (in the top foreground) flanked by UMWA officials as they move the body of the first victim. Note the coffin's beveled and chamfered corners. ©Williamson County Historical Society. Originally published in the Chicago Tribune.
  30. 30. data. This strategy permitted the team to include attributes such as first name, last name and date of death (when these were legible in photographs) back at the lab after processing the data. The surface inventory allowed interment records tied to the conceptual model of the cemetery to be compared to actual interment locations in the field. Often, these locations did not agree. Conceptual designs seldom match reality, and the Herrin City Cemetery was no different. Using a high-definition, high-accuracy, long-range 3D scanner from multiple setups, an area encompassing 6.5 acres was scanned and detailed topography, headstone outlines and imagery extrapolated from millions of cloud points obtained. This microtopography, processed using tools in ArcGIS 3D Analyst and visualised in ArcScene, offered insights into the locations of unmarked burial sites by illustrating small changes in slope and highlighting subtle surface depressions. Using this data, dynamic, virtual walk-throughs of the cemetery were created and made available using a simple web browser so the team could visit the cemetery virtually without having to physically go there. A cemetery brought to life The GIS model offered a unique opportunity to locate the potter’s field through an animation of interments over the cemetery’s 108-year history. For example, one lot, 16ft by 20ft, held eight grave spaces. Each grave space was 4ft by 10ft. Despite having interment data that was explicit to the grave-space level, the team decided to create an animation using the first record of interment for each lot to visualise the exponential growth of the cemetery with higher fidelity and without the hyperspecificity of space-level data. The grave spec for any one lot could be used independently over the lifetime of its availability. The simplified animation of the year of first interment in each lot demonstrated a less ambiguous patterning of the cemetery’s growth. The animation was supplemented with a continuous surface model of interments created using an empirical Bayesian kriging interpolation model on the same variable. An animation of interments between 1905 and the present revealed a predictable pattern of burial practices in blocks 1 through 28 with the exception of one block; block 15. The earliest burials (circa 1905) were at the top of a hill in the centre of the cemetery. As new interments followed, these burials were located down-slope and radiating away from the centre, continuing until all blocks were occupied. Block 15 however, was utilised irregularly, with contemporaneous and seemingly dispersed interments throughout its long history in a pattern typical of a potter’s field. Finding the dead. Steven Di Naso and Scott Doody discover the first grave (top) and two further graves — note the distinctive At Rest plates. Forgotten lives One of the victims of the Herrin Massacre was the English-born Robert Marsh. He was born in Workington, Cumbria on 26 January 1889, and went on to spend his childhood in Coatbridge, Scotland. He emigrated to the US, sailing from Glasgow onboard the SS Columbia on 11 October 1910. His occupation was listed as ironworker. He entered the US Army in 1917, and was assigned to the 354th Aero Squadron. After training, the squadron shipped overseas in August 1918 and saw action on the Western Front in France. He returned to the US in June 1919, obtained a job with the Bertrand Employment Agency in Chicago and was sent to Herrin, to cover the work of the striking miners, in June 1922. On 22 June 1922, Robert Marsh was shot and killed by a mob, probably trapped by a barbwire fence in the Power House Woods. On 25 June he was buried in the potter’s field of Herrin City Cemetery as one of the original 16 unknown victims. Before the end of the month, his body had been claimed by his fiancé Myrtle Ritcher. He was exhumed and transported to Chicago. She purchased a burial plot at Rosehill Cemetery, and he is interred here in another unmarked grave. Nobody was ever prosecuted for the massacre. There were two trials, but both ended in aquittals. There are records of a federal lawsuit brought against the UMWA by Myrtle Ritcher and others. The actions were dismissed, but it is recorded that the parties reached an agreement.