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ANXIETY: 
Causes, symptoms, and treatments 
LUCIA MERINO, LCSW 
November 2014
ANXIETY DISORDERS BASED ON DSM-5 
Separation anxiety disorder 
Selective mutism 
Specific phobias 
Social anxiety disorder...
TODAY WE FOCUS ON TWO OF THEM 
PANIC DISORDER 
Involves repeated episodes of sudden 
feelings of intense anxiety and fear ...
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ANXIETY (1) 
ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS 
Trauma from events such as abuse, 
victimization, or t...
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ANXIETY (2) 
SUBSTANCE USE AND ABUSE 
It is estimated that about half of patients who 
utilize mental h...
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ANXIETY (3) 
BRAIN CHEMISTRY 
Research has shown that people 
with abnormal levels of certain 
neurotra...
LOVE THESE QUOTES
FUNNY STUFF
Segway to TREATMENTS FOR ANXIETY
TREATMENTS FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS 
MEDICATION 
PSYCHOTHERAPY 
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY 
SELF-TREATMENT
MEDICATION 
Medical treatments for anxiety utilize several types of drugs. 
BENZODIAZEPINES: 
Anxiety historically has bee...
PSYCHOTHERAPY 
Psychotherapy consists of talking with a trained mental health professional, 
psychiatrist, psychologist, s...
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT) 
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aims to recognize and change the patient's 
thinkin...
COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING 
When you change the way you look at things, the things that you look at change. 
Your words and t...
LIST OF COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL –EXPOSURE 
For example, a patient undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder 
might w...
SELF TREATMENTS 
Bibliotherapy 
Affirmations 
Meditation 
Guided Imagery 
Workbooks 
Breathing 
Massage 
Self-care 
Health...
HOW IS ANXIETY PREVENTED? 
Although anxiety disorders cannot be prevented, there are ways to reduce your risk and 
methods...
IN SUMMARY:
TO MANIFEST YOUR GOAL OF A HAPPY, 
MEANINGUL AND FULFILLING LIFE!
I WILL LEAVE YOU WITH A LAST MESSAGE 
about how to cope with anxiety: http://youtu.be/CT-4Nxu2F1Y
SOURCES: 
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/anxiety/what-causes-anxiety.php 
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/anxie...
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Anxiety: causes, symptoms and treatments

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Presentation delivered at Women in Transition: a weekly support group offered at Kaiser Permanente Adult Psychiatry. Cupertino, California. Presented by Lucia Merino, LCSW.
Pyschotherapist.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Anxiety: causes, symptoms and treatments

  1. 1. ANXIETY: Causes, symptoms, and treatments LUCIA MERINO, LCSW November 2014
  2. 2. ANXIETY DISORDERS BASED ON DSM-5 Separation anxiety disorder Selective mutism Specific phobias Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Panic disorder Agoraphobia Generalized anxiety disorder Substance-induced anxiety disorder Anxiety disorder due to a medical condition Specified anxiety disorder and unspecified anxiety disorder
  3. 3. TODAY WE FOCUS ON TWO OF THEM PANIC DISORDER Involves repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks). You may have feelings of impending doom, shortness of breath, heart palpitations or chest pain. GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER Includes persistent and excessive anxiety and worry about activities or events — even ordinary, routine issues. The worry is usually out of proportion to the actual circumstance, is difficult to control and interferes with your ability to focus on current tasks. It often occurs along with other anxiety disorders or depression.
  4. 4. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ANXIETY (1) ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS Trauma from events such as abuse, victimization, or the death of a loved one Stress in a personal relationship, marriage, friendship, and divorce Stress at work Stress from school Stress about finances and money Stress from a natural disaster Lack of oxygen in high altitude areas MEDICAL FACTORS anemia, asthma, infections, and several heart conditions. Some medically-related causes of anxiety include: Stress from a serious medical illness Side effects of medication Symptoms of a medical illness Lack of oxygen from emphysema, or pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung)
  5. 5. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ANXIETY (2) SUBSTANCE USE AND ABUSE It is estimated that about half of patients who utilize mental health services for anxiety disorders such as GAD, panic disorder, or social phobia are doing so because of alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence. More generally, anxiety is also known to result from: Intoxication from an illicit drug, such as cocaine or amphetamines Withdrawal from an illicit drug, such as heroin, or from prescription drugs like Vicodin, benzodiazepines, or barbiturates GENETICS It has been suggested by some researchers that a family history of anxiety increases the likelihood that a person will develop it. That is, some people may have a genetic predisposition that gives them a greater chance of suffering from anxiety disorders.
  6. 6. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ANXIETY (3) BRAIN CHEMISTRY Research has shown that people with abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain are more likely to suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. When neurotransmitters are not working properly, the brain's internal communication network breaks down, and the brain may react in an inappropriate way in some situations. This can lead to anxiety.
  7. 7. LOVE THESE QUOTES
  8. 8. FUNNY STUFF
  9. 9. Segway to TREATMENTS FOR ANXIETY
  10. 10. TREATMENTS FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS MEDICATION PSYCHOTHERAPY COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY SELF-TREATMENT
  11. 11. MEDICATION Medical treatments for anxiety utilize several types of drugs. BENZODIAZEPINES: Anxiety historically has been treated with a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. Diazepam (Valium) Alprazolam (Xanax) Lorazepam (Ativan) Clonazepam (Klonopin) However, not recommendable due to its addictive nature. May lead to dependence. ANTIDEPRESSANTS: Serotonine Selective Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). Sertraline (Zoloft) Paroxetine (Paxil) Fluoxetine (Prozac) Escitalopram (Lexapro) Citalopram (Celexa) Venlafaxine (Effexor) Others types of antidepressants: Tricyclics, MAOIs, Beta-blockers, and buspirone.
  12. 12. PSYCHOTHERAPY Psychotherapy consists of talking with a trained mental health professional, psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, or other counselor. Sessions may be used to explore the causes of anxiety and possible ways to cope with symptoms.
  13. 13. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT) Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aims to recognize and change the patient's thinking patterns that are associated with the anxiety and troublesome feelings. This type of therapy has two main parts: a cognitive part designed to limit distorted thinking and a behavioral part designed to change the way people react to the objects or situations that trigger anxiety.
  14. 14. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING When you change the way you look at things, the things that you look at change. Your words and thoughts create your future. http://youtu.be/3LeONMkIfdo
  15. 15. LIST OF COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS
  16. 16. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL –EXPOSURE For example, a patient undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder might work on learning that panic attacks are not really heart attacks. Those receiving this treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder for cleanliness may work with a therapist to get their hands dirty and wait increasingly longer amounts of time before washing them. Post-traumatic stress disorder sufferers will work with a therapist to recall the traumatic event in a safe situation to alleviate the fear it produces. Exposure-based therapies such as CBT essentially have people confront their fears and try to help them become desensitized to anxiety-triggering situations.
  17. 17. SELF TREATMENTS Bibliotherapy Affirmations Meditation Guided Imagery Workbooks Breathing Massage Self-care Healthy friendships Pets Rituals Spirituality
  18. 18. HOW IS ANXIETY PREVENTED? Although anxiety disorders cannot be prevented, there are ways to reduce your risk and methods to control or lessen symptoms. Recommendations include: Reducing caffeine, tea, cola, and chocolate consumption. Checking with a doctor or pharmacist before using over-the-counter or herbal remedies to see if they contain chemicals that may contribute to anxiety. Exercising regularly. Eating healthy foods. Keeping a regular sleep pattern. Seeking counseling and support after a traumatic or disturbing experience. Avoiding alcohol, cannabis.
  19. 19. IN SUMMARY:
  20. 20. TO MANIFEST YOUR GOAL OF A HAPPY, MEANINGUL AND FULFILLING LIFE!
  21. 21. I WILL LEAVE YOU WITH A LAST MESSAGE about how to cope with anxiety: http://youtu.be/CT-4Nxu2F1Y
  22. 22. SOURCES: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/anxiety/what-causes-anxiety.php http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/anxiety/anxiety-treatments.php http://thrivedynamics.ca/post/56608922097/the-rhetoric-of-living http://youtu.be/3LeONMkIfdo http://youtu.be/CT-4Nxu2F1Y

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