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The Classical
Philosophers and
Philosophies
and Their Implications on
Business
1. Socrates (469-399 BCE)- “The Gad-fly
at the Marketplace” is one of the few individuals
whom one could say have shaped the cultural
and intellectual development of the world for
without him, history would be profoundly
different. This is Socrates’s philosophical idea:
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Socrates pointed out that human choice was
motivated by the desire for happiness.
A gadfly is a person who interferes with
the status quo of a society or
community by posing novel, potentially
upsetting questions, usually directed at
authorities. The term is originally
associated with the ancient Greek
philosopher Socrates in his defense
when on trial for his life.
Socrates thought of the Entrepreneurs. The
Socratic Method is a way of thinking that
allows individuals to define their own purpose
of learning and exploring its purpose through
open-minded questioning of what they hold to
be true. Socrates insisted on a right to think of
ourselves by introducing the philosophical
concept, “Dare to Disagree”.
7
2. Plato – “The Philosopher-King” is one of
the world’s best known and most widely read
and studied philosophers. He was the student of
Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He wrote
in the middle of the 4th Century BCE in ancient
Greece. This is Plato’s philosophical idea:
“Good people do not need laws to tell them to
act responsibly, while bad people will find a way
around the laws.”
Plato maintains a virtue-based
eudemonistic conception of ethics.
That is to say, happiness or well-
being (eudaimonia) is the highest aim
of moral thought and conduct, and the
virtues (aretê: excellence) are the
requisite skills and dispositions
needed to attain it.
3. Aristotle – “All or Nothing” (384-322 BCE)
is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy,
contributing to logic, metaphysics, mathematics,
physics, biology, ethics, politics, agriculture,
medicine, dance, and theater. These are some
of Aristotle’s philosophical ideas:
“Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of
life, the whole aim, and end of human
existence.”
“Let people seek fulfillment.”
The word happiness in ethics is a translation of
the Greek term “eudaimonia” which connotes
success and fulfillment. For Aristotle, this
happiness is our highest goal. In relation to
business, Aristotle concludes that the role of
the leader is to create an environment in which
all members of an organization can realize their
potential.
4. Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). “Duty based
Ethics”. He is one of the most influential philosophers
in the history of Western Philosophy. He was not
concerned with the consequences of one’s actions or
the harm caused to one’s individual interests. Instead,
he is focused on motives and the willingness of
individuals to act for the good of others, even if the
action might result to personal loss. Doing
something for the right reason was more important
to Kant than any particular outcome.
For example, business ethics is
littered with cases of companies that
have suffered damaging crises due to
their leaders’ lack of commitment to
act based on goodwill and about what
benefits others.
5. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart
Mill- “Utilitarianism” revolves around the
concept of “the end justifies the means”. It
believes that outcomes, as a result of an
action have a greater value compared to
the latter.
Utilitarianism is a philosophy or belief suggesting that
an action is morally right when the majority of
people benefit from it. Also, the doctrine that an
action is right as it promotes happiness, and that
the greatest happiness of the greatest number
should be the guiding principle of conduct.
Utilitarianism is a moral theory that advocates actions
that promote overall happiness or pleasure and reject
actions that cause unhappiness or harm. A utilitarian
philosophy, when directed to making social, economic,
or political decisions, aims for the betterment of
society.
18
A. Directions: Write the business
philosophies of each philosopher in
the table below. The first one is done
for you. Write your answers on a
separate sheet of paper.
19
Philosophers Business Philosophies
1. Socrates The unexamined life is not worth
living.
2. Plato
3. Aristotle
4. Immanuel Kant
5. Jeremy Bentham
and John Stuart Mill
20
Directions: Complete the sentences below and write your
answers on a separate sheet of paper.
1. I have learned that Aristotle’s philosophy influences
business practices in
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
________
2. I have learned that Plato’s philosophy influences business
practices in
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
21
3. I have learned that Socrates’ philosophy influences
business practices in
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
________
4. I have learned that Immanuel Kant’s philosophy influences
business practices in
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
________
22
5. I have learned that Jeremy Bentham and John
Stuart Mill’s philosophies influence business
practices in
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
______________________________________
23
Correctness of answer 4 points
Clarity of explanation 4 points
Mechanics 2 points
10 points
Directions: Identify whose philosophy is
described in each number. Choose your
answers from the box. Write the letter of your
answers on a separate sheet of paper.
a. Aristotle
b. b. Plato
c. c. Socrates
d. Immanuel Kant
e. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
____1. Motives and the willingness of
individuals to act for the good of others,
even though that action might result to
personal loss.
____2. The role of the leader is to create
an environment in which all members of an
organization can realize their own potential.
____3. Happiness or well-being is the highest
aim of moral thought and conduct.
____4. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that
advocates actions that promote overall
happiness or pleasure and rejects actions that
cause unhappiness or harm.
____5. We have the right to think of ourselves.
Directions: Cite some life experiences where
you can relate one of the discussed
philosophies. Write your answers in
paragraph form on a separate sheet of paper.
Rubric:
Unity of ideas 4 points
Clarity of explanation 4 points
Mechanics 2 points
10 points
28
29

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clasical philosophies in business.pptx

  • 1. The Classical Philosophers and Philosophies and Their Implications on Business
  • 2.
  • 3. 1. Socrates (469-399 BCE)- “The Gad-fly at the Marketplace” is one of the few individuals whom one could say have shaped the cultural and intellectual development of the world for without him, history would be profoundly different. This is Socrates’s philosophical idea: “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Socrates pointed out that human choice was motivated by the desire for happiness.
  • 4. A gadfly is a person who interferes with the status quo of a society or community by posing novel, potentially upsetting questions, usually directed at authorities. The term is originally associated with the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates in his defense when on trial for his life.
  • 5. Socrates thought of the Entrepreneurs. The Socratic Method is a way of thinking that allows individuals to define their own purpose of learning and exploring its purpose through open-minded questioning of what they hold to be true. Socrates insisted on a right to think of ourselves by introducing the philosophical concept, “Dare to Disagree”.
  • 6.
  • 7. 7 2. Plato – “The Philosopher-King” is one of the world’s best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He wrote in the middle of the 4th Century BCE in ancient Greece. This is Plato’s philosophical idea: “Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.”
  • 8. Plato maintains a virtue-based eudemonistic conception of ethics. That is to say, happiness or well- being (eudaimonia) is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues (aretê: excellence) are the requisite skills and dispositions needed to attain it.
  • 9.
  • 10. 3. Aristotle – “All or Nothing” (384-322 BCE) is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, contributing to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance, and theater. These are some of Aristotle’s philosophical ideas: “Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim, and end of human existence.”
  • 11. “Let people seek fulfillment.” The word happiness in ethics is a translation of the Greek term “eudaimonia” which connotes success and fulfillment. For Aristotle, this happiness is our highest goal. In relation to business, Aristotle concludes that the role of the leader is to create an environment in which all members of an organization can realize their potential.
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  • 13. 4. Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). “Duty based Ethics”. He is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western Philosophy. He was not concerned with the consequences of one’s actions or the harm caused to one’s individual interests. Instead, he is focused on motives and the willingness of individuals to act for the good of others, even if the action might result to personal loss. Doing something for the right reason was more important to Kant than any particular outcome.
  • 14. For example, business ethics is littered with cases of companies that have suffered damaging crises due to their leaders’ lack of commitment to act based on goodwill and about what benefits others.
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  • 16. 5. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill- “Utilitarianism” revolves around the concept of “the end justifies the means”. It believes that outcomes, as a result of an action have a greater value compared to the latter.
  • 17. Utilitarianism is a philosophy or belief suggesting that an action is morally right when the majority of people benefit from it. Also, the doctrine that an action is right as it promotes happiness, and that the greatest happiness of the greatest number should be the guiding principle of conduct. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that advocates actions that promote overall happiness or pleasure and reject actions that cause unhappiness or harm. A utilitarian philosophy, when directed to making social, economic, or political decisions, aims for the betterment of society.
  • 18. 18 A. Directions: Write the business philosophies of each philosopher in the table below. The first one is done for you. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.
  • 19. 19 Philosophers Business Philosophies 1. Socrates The unexamined life is not worth living. 2. Plato 3. Aristotle 4. Immanuel Kant 5. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
  • 20. 20 Directions: Complete the sentences below and write your answers on a separate sheet of paper. 1. I have learned that Aristotle’s philosophy influences business practices in ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ________ 2. I have learned that Plato’s philosophy influences business practices in ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________
  • 21. 21 3. I have learned that Socrates’ philosophy influences business practices in ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ________ 4. I have learned that Immanuel Kant’s philosophy influences business practices in ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ________
  • 22. 22 5. I have learned that Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill’s philosophies influence business practices in __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ ______________________________________
  • 23. 23 Correctness of answer 4 points Clarity of explanation 4 points Mechanics 2 points 10 points
  • 24. Directions: Identify whose philosophy is described in each number. Choose your answers from the box. Write the letter of your answers on a separate sheet of paper. a. Aristotle b. b. Plato c. c. Socrates d. Immanuel Kant e. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
  • 25. ____1. Motives and the willingness of individuals to act for the good of others, even though that action might result to personal loss. ____2. The role of the leader is to create an environment in which all members of an organization can realize their own potential.
  • 26. ____3. Happiness or well-being is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct. ____4. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that advocates actions that promote overall happiness or pleasure and rejects actions that cause unhappiness or harm. ____5. We have the right to think of ourselves.
  • 27. Directions: Cite some life experiences where you can relate one of the discussed philosophies. Write your answers in paragraph form on a separate sheet of paper. Rubric: Unity of ideas 4 points Clarity of explanation 4 points Mechanics 2 points 10 points
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