Faculty Standard needed: Different Schools have minor variations in punctuation styles Link to information on plagiarism Students find the plethora of sources very confusing Complexity of source material – much harder to reference Cite them right Covers basic information about referencing and plagiarism Information clearly laid out and covers wide range of material Definitive source for students Inexpensive to buy Multiple copies available in the libraries Substantial changes only when guide goes into new edition Shortened version Available in all Student handbooks Available on the web: print or on-line use Can be easily updated and different formats included if required Can be made available to students on all modules via Blackboard CMS
Thorny issues in licensing: an institution's view
Thorny issues in licensing: aninstitution’s viewLouise ColeSenior Information Advisor (Collections)Kingston UniversityJIBS-Eduserv Seminar, Wednesday 16 June 2010
SummaryWhat do licenses do?Partnerships: franchisedand validatedJoint coursesCommercial partnershipsAlumniWalk-in usersDistance learnersSite definitionsCollaboration betweennon-commercial partnersInteraction with ERMStoring licensesHistorical informationIssues of interpretationSome trends in howuniversities operateIn the future …
What do licenses do?Set rules for who can use… what they can do andhow they can do it… what they can’t doProvide an agreedcontract for use betweenboth partiesModel licenses generallyhave the same basic listof clauses:• Licensor responsibilities• Licensee responsibilities• Security (who can use andhow)• Payment• Terms and termination
Who …Current teaching, research and support staff on theUniversity payroll or on honorary contractsTeaching staff teaching franchised or validated courses atother institutionsSupport staff (e.g. librarians) supporting students onfranchised or validated programmes of studyStudents who are based at other institutions and followingfranchised or validated programmesUK or non-UKAlumni, start-up companies, commercial partnerships,academic partnerships, NHS …
PartnershipsFranchisedWhere the University hasdesigned a course andagrees that a partner college orother organisation can deliver iton their behalfStudents are registered at theawarding institution but whollyor partly taught elsewhereHave access to all theresources of the institution towhich they are registeredValidatedWhere the University agreesthat a course designed anddelivered by a partner collegeor other organisation meets thestandards required for theaward of a UniversityqualificationStudents are registered at thepartner college or organisationNo access to awardinginstitution resources (except aswalk-in users)
Joint coursesUniversity may co-run a course with one or moreinstitutions (sometimes another HE institution, or one inFE, or some other scheme)Some examples exist where courses are shared betweenmore than one institution (and students are ‘home’ at oneand have rights as student at the others); or even wherea faculty is jointly operated between two institutionsWhere are students registered for licence purposes andwhat is their status?
Commercial partnershipsDelivery of a course to a particular group of people insome form of industry or service outside of aneducational establishmentCourses or collaborations which are sponsored by moneyfrom commercial companiesStudents on placement in industryDefine commercial – many academics have botheducational and commercial interests
Alumni• Students who have graduated but who are stillaffiliated to the university as external paid members• No longer ‘our students’• Opportunities to offer them resource access as part oftheir membership and raise money …• … have licenses evolved to take account of this?
Walk-in usersBy far the largest group – and one covered by mostlicences as long as the user is within University or librarypropertyCan be anyone from a member of the NHS or a localcollege to a visiting member of the publicUniversities need to ensure authentication controls havebeen implemented to prevent access to material notlicenced for walk-in users
Distance learnersStudents who are based wholly or partly away from thehome institutionMay be based within the UK or abroadUsually taught within the home institution for a shortperiod of time; otherwise taught by staff local to theinstitution in which they are basedStudents who are part-time and otherwise working withina variety of sectors including hospitals, schools andcommercial companies
Site definitions …UK: Oxford University Press:“In most cases, Oxford Journals definea site as being within one metropolitanboundary i.e. within a city. So if all ofyour institutions buildings are withinone city, you can apply for ourinstitutional site license”.UK: BMJ Journals:“We define a single site as onegeographic location (academic or non-academic) that is under a singleadministration”.US: American Academy ofPediatrics:“An “Institution” includes all parts of asingle organization that are locatedwithin the same city and administeredcentrally”.US: IEEE:“Institutions that have more than onephysical location located more than five(5) miles from another location, mayincur additional charged to access thelicensed products. Groups of buildingsthat share the same campus or arelocated within five (5) miles of eachother will be counted as a single site”.
… and authorised usersOUP:“All members (employees, faculty, staffand students) of the subscribinginstitution site are entitled to onlineaccess … includes visitors …accessingvia terminals located on the site andunder the control of the subscribinginstitution … includes members usingtheir home computers … authenticatedby the institution via passwordcontrolled access to an institutionalproxy server, or via Athens”.AAP:“persons with a current, authenticatedaffiliation to the subscribing Institution…includes full- and part-time studentsand employees …plus other individualswho have permission to use the publiccomputers …”IEEE:“Authorized Users” are (a) personsaffiliated with Licensee as students,faculty or employees of Licensee; (b)persons physically present inLicensees facilities; or (c) such otherpersons as IEEE may, at the request ofLicensee and in IEEE’s sole discretion,authorize in writing to access theLicensed Products”.BMJ:means full and part-time employees, staff,independent contractors and studentswho are officially affiliated with theLicensee at the Location valid InternetProtocol (“IP”) address(es) provided bythe Licensee to Licensor or via remoteaccess …
Interaction with ERMsMost electronic resource management systems (ERMs) allow licenseinformation to be input and shared with users through a publicinterfaceLicenses should be made available in a more machine-readableformatLicenses should be less legalese and more user-friendly: after all,many institutions do not have legal specialists dealing day-to-daywith e-resource terms and conditionsReference to license terms should be quick, easy, and searchableModel licensing – is this still the way to go?Inconsistency …
Keeping the historical record …What we had access to in a previous licence (content, perpetualaccess, holdings)Issues around perpetual and/or post-cancellation accessWho had access then (defined authorised user and what happens ifthis definition changes now)From where (on- and off-campus, UK and non-UK)From when (backfile)How could they access (IP, password, Athens, Shibboleth, proxy)If licences are renegotiated which takes precedence?Why …
Issues of interpretationUniversity says ‘these are our students as they are registered withus’; provider says ‘they are not’University says ‘we are single site even though we maintain twocampuses in different cities as they have one administration and oneIP range’; provider says ‘no you are not’University says ‘access is available to staff teaching on our course atanother university’; provider says ‘it isn’t’University says that joint courses should mean joint provision ofresources; provider says ‘it should not’Licenses are grey areas – should there be more clarity?Should licenses’ main focus be to prevent, not allow?
Trends in how universities operateOverseas campusesOverseas partnershipsPartnerships with industryPartnerships across sectors (HE/FE)Joint initiatives linking universities togetherCourses validated in the armed forcesCPD and lifelong learningPartnerships with local businessesPartnerships with public libraries and museums
In the future …As universities compete for students partnershiparrangements will be the way forwardAlumni and other external members will require enhancedaccess to resources (especially in a print to e shift)Every university will explore further innovation in itsstrategic development: will licenses be able to supportthis in terms of resource provision?Will the ‘virtual campus’ become a reality?