Erikson, Horney, Jung Stages of Psychosocial Devt with example
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy, 0-1.5 yrs. old)
- The emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving
care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact
- develop a healthy balance between trust and mistrust if
fed and cared for.
-Abuse or neglect or cruelty will destroy trust and foster
- we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have
basic confidence in the future.
- feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust
of the world in general.
- basic virtue: Hope
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Early Childhood 1-3 yrs.
-Autonomy = self-reliance (independence of thought, and confidence to
think and act for oneself.
- child begins to assert their independence (walking away from their
mother, picking which toy to play with and choosing what they like to
wear, to eat)
- The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile.
- Child needs to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills
- If child is not given the opportunity to assert
themselves = feeling inadequate in their ability to
survive (dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and
feeling of shame/doubt in their own abilities.
-Success leads autonomy, failure = in feelings of shame
- basic virtue: Will
3. Initiative vs Guilt (3-5 yrs. old)
-Child interacts with other children at school.
- Child begins to plan activities, make up games (take
initiative in creating play situations)
- through criticism or control, children develop a sense of
guilt = may feel a nuisance to others and lacks of self-
- preventing a child doing things for themselves because of
time, mess or a bit of risk will inhibit the development of
confidence to initiate, replacing it instead with an unhelpful fear
of being wrong or unapproved.
4. Industry (purposeful/competence) vs. Inferiority (School Age, 6-12
- Child is learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and
- child’s peer group will gain greater significance and becomes source of
the child’s self esteem.
- child feels the need to win approval by society, begin to develop a
sense of pride in their accomplishments.
- If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to
feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals.
- if it is restricted by parents or teacher, the child feels inferior (doubting
his own abilities) and may not reach his/her potential.
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence, 12-18
- adolescence is a stage at which we are neither a child nor
an adult (role-confusion)
-begin to look at the future in terms of
career, relationships, families, housing, etc.
- Young people struggle to belong and to be accepted and
- can also develop strong devotion to friends and causes.
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood 18-40 yrs. old)
-share ourselves more intimately with others.
- explore relationships leading toward longer term
commitments with someone other than a family member.
- Successful completion of this stage can lead to comfortable
relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care
within a relationship.
- Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships
can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression.
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle
Adulthood, 36-65 yrs. old)
- establish our careers, settle down within a
relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense
of being a part of the bigger picture.
-raising our children, being productive at work, and
becoming involved in community activities and
- failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant
and feel unproductive.
Case Study 1: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Melissa. Mellissa's parent are both physicians. In
college she majored in French, spending a
semester in France studying art and culture. Upon
graduation she surprised her parents by
announcing that she had applied to medical school.
A close relationship with a hospice nurse and a
summer job as a hospital volunteer had helped her
arrive at the decision.
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Late
-slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired
- contemplate our accomplishments
- Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as
unproductive, feel guilt about our pasts, or feel that we did
not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with
life and develop despair, often leading to depression and
Case Study 2: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Lynn's mother is a professor of women's studies who is deeply
involved in feminist issues. Lynn very much admires her
mother, a strong woman who, as a single parent, struggled to
provide for her daughter while establishing her own career.
Lynn believes that she will be a strong and independent
woman. She avoids people (esp. men) who either don't see
her in that light or try to bring out her feminine nature. Lynn's
college grades are very high, and her course selections reflect
an interest in psychology, politics, and women's studies.
-psychic disturbance brought by fears and defenses
-an individual having trouble with coping and handling
certain psychosocial environmental stressors resulting
in problems within their selves
-Feelings and attitudes
- driven by emotional forces
1. The Neurotic Needs for Affection and Approval
2. The Neurotic Needs for a Partner Who Will Take
Over One’s Life
3. make things more simpler by having no routine or
rules, avoid confrontation that may add to their
4. needs to have control and power over others.
5. has a need to be recognized socially, extremely
concerned with appearance and popularity
6. has a need for others to admire their inner qualities.
7. need personal accomplishment, want to be leader of
everyone, number one at everything.
8. need independence, refuse help from others. They
rather have all the attention focused on them
9. needs perfection
1. Moving Toward People.
-Children move toward people in order to seek help and
- These people have an intense need to be
liked, involved, important, and appreciated.
2. Moving Against People.
-trying to force your power onto others in hopes of feeling good
- with this personality style come across as
bossy, demanding, selfish, and even cruel.
- 'get them before they get me.‘ mentality
3. Moving Away From People
-indifference to others.
- don't get involved with others, they can't be hurt by them.
- protects them from emotional pain of relationships = it also
keeps away all positive aspects of relationships.
- feeling alone and empty.
Myra is always diligent in cleaning her house and
tidying its yard and garden. She takes pride in the
appearance of the house. She loves other people’s
compliments. She is neat and everything is well
arranged in its place and she gets upset if things are not
in their places. Once grass went flying into her garden
from a neighbor’s while mowing as a result Myra did not
talk to the neighbor for two years.
The family rarely spends money on anything
except the necessities. Myra is always concerned
about money; so she is keen on saving it by
keeping almost everything beyond the usual life
span. Once she got agitated when someone
borrowed fifty cents for a soda and did not return
it. She prefers to spend all her time and energy
working on her house and yard.
She sometimes criticizes people to their faces.
Her complaints are based on the idea of her
superiority to them as being cleaner, better, quieter
than them. She often complains about how other
people do not know how to clean anymore and that
her neighbors do not take care of their property as
well as she does.
- concerned with and interested in one's own mental life
- take pleasure in solitary activities
- preference for a quiet, more minimally stimulating environment
- choose a worthy companion
- common modern perception: who are reserved and less outspoken in
-not identical to being shy
- lack confidence in relation to people and things
- tends to be unsociable, shy & hesitant
- concerned with gratification from what is outside the self
- enjoy human interactions
- take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings
- likely to enjoy time spent with people
- energized when around other people
-dependence on making a good impression
- easily making and breaking relationships
- lacking self-criticism
- prone to boredom by themselves
Jamie is a straight A student from a state college in
USA. When interviewed he said that he excelled through
the help from his friends. He gave tips to fellow students
on how to excel like the way he did. He tells them that it is
more effective to study in groups so that a lot of people
can help you in studying and that there is collaboration and
teamwork in excelling the fields we were studying.
Obviously, Jamie is an extroverted person.