Battle Of Saratoga


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Battle Of Saratoga

  1. 1. Battle of Saratoga
  2. 2. <ul><li>Turning point of war </li></ul><ul><li>Proved to France and other European countries that the Patriots could win </li></ul>
  3. 3. Who fought it for the British? <ul><li>3,300 red-coats </li></ul><ul><li>3,900 Hessians </li></ul><ul><li>Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>Indians </li></ul>
  4. 5. What were the 2 major engagements? <ul><li>Battle of Freeman’s Farm </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Bemis Heights </li></ul>
  5. 6. Battle of Freeman’s Farm <ul><li>The British were past Saratoga nearing Albany </li></ul><ul><li>They ran into American forces in a clearing in the woods at Freeman's Farm, 10 miles south of Saratoga </li></ul><ul><li>General Benedict Arnold ordered Colonel Daniel Morgan and his 400 sharpshooters to “assault and harass” the British while they were still advancing through the woods </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan charged aggressively and inflicted severe casualties before being forced back across the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Arnold sent forward the brigades to support Morgan. </li></ul><ul><li>The British sent forces to attack the Americans across Freeman's Farm. </li></ul><ul><li>Arnold's reinforced line repulsed the British attack with heavy losses. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the battle the British and German troops had repulsed one last attack from the Americans, and Arnold was relieved of command. </li></ul><ul><li>Although they had to relinquish the field, the Americans had halted Britain's advance and inflicted losses the British could ill afford. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Freeman’s Farm
  7. 8. Battle of Bemis Heights <ul><li>Britains made plans to assault the American troops and drive them from the field. </li></ul><ul><li>The main assault would be made by the Hessians against the American forces on Bemis Heights. </li></ul><ul><li>American forces held their fire until the Hessians were well within range, devastating the British in the first attack and routed the survivors in a counter attack. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonel Morgan and his sharpshooters attacked and routed the Canadian infantry and began to engage British regulars. </li></ul><ul><li>British forces began to rally, and Benedict Arnold arrived on the field (despite his prior dismissal) and ordered Morgan to concentrate his fire on the officers, particularly the generals. </li></ul><ul><li>One of Morgan's sharpshooters fired and mortally wounded the British leader </li></ul><ul><li>As the battle raged on, Arnold fell wounded. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Battle of Saratoga <ul><li>Decisive American victory </li></ul><ul><li>Result – France entered the conflict on behalf of America </li></ul>
  9. 11. Strategies <ul><li>Americans learned to mix sharpshooters with trained men armed with muskets and bayonets. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpshooters shot well over 200 yards, but were unable to reload quickly </li></ul>
  10. 12. Surrender <ul><li>Burgoyne's troops were disarmed and should have been paroled (returned to Britain on the condition that they engage in no further conflict with America), a common 18th century military practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, the Continental Congress refused to ratify the &quot;convention&quot; (the document detailing the terms of surrender agreed to by Gates and Burgoyne). </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the British and German officers were eventually exchanged for captured American officers </li></ul><ul><li>Some were held captive in camps in New England, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, until the end of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Another serious difficulty encountered was that Charles I, Duke of Brunswick, did not want his soldiers back, fearing they would hinder future recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Hessians did not appreciate this and deserted in large numbers; of 5,723 Brunswick troops, only 3,015 returned. Most became Americans. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Benedict Arnold at Bemis Heights
  12. 15. Who was Benedict Arnold? <ul><li>A Traitor </li></ul><ul><li>Arnold was to later switch sides and became a British general after offering to deliver West Point to the British for cash. </li></ul>
  13. 16. The Boot Monument <ul><li>The Boot Monument on the battlefield commemorates the heroism of Benedict Arnold in the conflict when he was wounded in the foot. </li></ul><ul><li>According to legend, Arnold, as a British general, asked an American captive in Virginia what the Americans would do with him. The reply was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;We would cut your leg off and bury it with full military honors for your work at Quebec and Saratoga. The rest of you we would hang.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The monument is dedicated to &quot;the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army&quot;, but does not mention Arnold by name. </li></ul>