<ul><li>Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly in warm, moist climates and involves a change in chemical composition of the rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical weathering occurs most rapidly in cold, moist climates due to frost action. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Air moves clockwise and outward around a high pressure system. </li></ul><ul><li>Air moves counterclockwise and toward the center of a low pressure system. </li></ul>
<ul><li>As temperature increases, air pressure decreases. (Indirect) </li></ul><ul><li>As moisture increases, pressure decreases (Indirect). </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure decreases with altitude. </li></ul>
47. High pressure is cool and dry; low is warm and wet!
<ul><li>Winds are due to air pressure differences. 49. Wind blows from areas of high pressure to low pressure </li></ul>
50. Wind is named from the direction it is coming!
52. The closer the air temperature and dew point temperature the greater the chance of precipitation (increased humidity).
53. Weather moves from West to East in the United States.
54. Cold Front 57. Cold fronts move the fastest! Cold fronts force warm air up and are associated with short narrow bands of heavy precipitation and thunder/lightning in advance of the front!
55. Warm Front Warm fronts ride up the back of cold air and produce longer periods of steady rain and occur both in front of and behind the advancing front.
69. Gravity is the primary force behind ALL erosional agents!
<ul><li>70. Streams are the number one agent of erosion. B/C there is so much of it on Earth! </li></ul><ul><li>Stream velocity depends on slope and discharge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in slope = increased velocity and increased discharge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>72. Velocity is fastest on the outside of a meander bend. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Heavy, round and dense particles settle out first (Graded bedding). </li></ul><ul><li>Bedding (vertical sorting): biggest sentiments are on bottom! </li></ul>Horizontal Sorting – Biggest is located near the shore
<ul><li>Sedimentary rocks – strata – flat layers – most likely to have fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Igneous rock : cools fast, small crystals; cools slow, big crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic – banding, foliation or distorted structure </li></ul>
<ul><li>Mineral properties depend on internal atomic arrangement. - it will determine the hardness, cleavage </li></ul>
82. Mid-ocean ridge – new earth being created – sea floor spreading.
83. Trenches – earth being destroyed – subduction zone
<ul><li>P waves travel faster than S waves. </li></ul><ul><li>P waves travel through liquid and solids – S waves only travel through solids. </li></ul><ul><li>Three (3) seismic stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In undisturbed strata – the bottom layer is the oldest LAW OF SUPERPOSITION </li></ul>
88. Intrusion and faults are younger than the rock they cut across!
89. Unconformity means erosion followed by deposition.
90. Arid landscape: steep slopes with sharp angles.
91. Humid landscape: smooth with rounded slopes.
92. When in doubt…. See if the reference tables will help! <ul><li>Uranium 235 dates old rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon 14 dates recent living objects. </li></ul>
95. Convection currents in the mantle move plates.
99. Be familiar with this chart: 16 hours (longest daylight) 71.5 o Rises N. of east + sets N. of west Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2 o N) June 21 (Summer Solstice) 12 hours 48 o Due east + Due west Equator March 21 (Vernal Equinox) 8 hours (shortest daylight) 24.5 o Rises S. of east + sets S. of West Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½ o S) Dec. 21 (Winter Solstice) 12 hours 48 o Due east + Due west Equator Sept 21 (Autumnal Equinox) Length of Daylight Altitude of noon sun Direction of sunrise and sunset Lat. of Sun’s direct rays Date
97. When a rock is broken into smaller pieces, surface area increases and weathering increases.
<ul><li>Relax!!.... You’ve already completed ¼ of the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>103. Take your time! You have 3 hours! </li></ul>
104. Read introductory paragraphs and study diagrams before looking at questions. Look for helpful key words like always, never, none, except, most, least . Underline or hi-light key words!!
105. Draw diagrams to help you visualize the questions being asked – where possible!
106. Use a straight-edge to read graphics, to mark points on a graph and to measure distances.
107. If certain words cause confusion, cross them out and substitute a different word, then read the question again. <ul><li>Example: substitute the word “spin” for rotate or “orbit” for revolution. </li></ul>
108. Don’t leave any questions blank! Mark an answer for every question. You may lose credit by guessing incorrectly, but an unanswered question will cost you credit automatically.
Try to supply your own answer to a multiple choice question before you look at the alternatives. Then choose the response closest to your own answer.
If all else fails and you have to guess an answer, then and only then consider this advice: If two choices are very similar choose neither. If two choices are opposite, choose one of them. The most general alternative is frequently the right answer. Don't change your original answer unless you're completely sure it's wrong.
111. Ask yourself: Is it in the reference tables, or can the reference tables help me?
112. Check your test a second time, but only change an answer if you find an obvious mistake. Your first choice is usually correct!
113. Look up formulas, even if you think you know them. Substitute information from the question into the formula (Front page of ESRT).
114. Skip over hard questions that are stumping you. Go back to them later. Something else in the test may give you a clue to the harder problems.
Be Prepared!! Your exam is this Friday June 17 at 12:00 pm <ul><li>Bring pens (2) and pencil, hi-lighter, ruler and calculator (4 function only) </li></ul><ul><li>You are not allowed to use your graphing calculator </li></ul><ul><li>Do not bring any electronic devices to the exam </li></ul><ul><li>All other materials (ESRT, Scrap paper, test booklet and answer sheet) will be supplied </li></ul>