Textile student workbook 2

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Student workbook for textiles

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Textile student workbook 2

  1. 1. Name: Grade: Emerald State High School 2010
  2. 2. 1). Lights and fans not switched on 2). Windows are closed 3). Electrical cords on the floor - loose 4). Students being too loud 5). Sewing too fast 6). A cluttered walkway 7). Pins/needles on the floor 8). Water bottles near the machine 9). Fire extinguisher 10). Exits are blocked or locked 11). Iron not in an upright position or left on when not in use 12). Overloaded power point 13). Fabric rolls stacked randomly 14). Frayed electrical cord 15). Walking inappropriately through the room with sharp objects 16). Running in the room 17). Talking when others are talking 18). Posture at the machine and placement of the machine 19). Not following directions 20). Not watching what you’re doing at the machine Design a poster depicting the hazards that could occur in a sewing room. List what should and should not happen. This poster should be simple, eye catching and easy to read.
  3. 3. Safety first activity In this activity you will think about tools, equipment and machines, and how to use them safely. A tool is something that you use such as pins, needles, scissors............. An example of a piece of equipment is the iron. A machine is something that takes electricity and has parts that move independently. Anything that carries the risk of injury is an HAZARD. It can cause harm to people around it or to people using it. 1. EXPLAIN how and why you should operate in a safe way when using the tools and pieces of equipment found in a sewing room. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. DISCUSS the statement: Accidents can be prevented if you become aware of a hazardous situation. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ CLUES: What does hazardous mean? What can happen when too many students crowd around in one place? What can happen when students run in the classroom? What could happen if you turn away from your work, especially when you’re using a sewing machine or piece of equipment? What could happen if you try to work too quickly? What could happen if you don’t follow instructions, especially when dealing with tools, equipment and machines?
  4. 4. Safety in the sewing room. For each of the sentences fill in the missing words from the list below.  Do not ________________________ or slide in the room.  Handle scissors and other ____________________ objects with care.  Avoid ____________________ cords on all electrical appliances.  Do not put ___________________ into the cord.  Keep cords well away from ___________________________ objects and never cut the cord.  If any kind of accident occurs, do not attempt to touch anything concerned with the accident-tell _________________________ first.  Make sure the plug/s on the machine is/are fully plugged in before switching ___ .  Do not operate any electrical outlets or switches with wet ____________.  When machining, guide material from the ________________ do not place ____________________ in front of the pressure foot.  Attend to your _________ work during lessons.  Give _____________________ machine needles to your teacher and get a replacement needle.  Be sure _________________________ is switched ________________ before disconnecting the iron or sewing machine.  Switch off the machine when ___________________.  To remove the ____________________ -grasp the plug firmly; do not pull it out by the cord.  __________________ off the iron when finished and pull out the plug.  After use, empty water from the iron ________________________ to avoid scalding.  Students must at all times be wearing closed in ____________________ when working in the sewing room.  AFTER YOU LESSON ALWAYS LEAVE THE ROOM NEAT AND ____________ FOR THE NEXT CLASS. Shoes, teacher, plug, trailing, pins, sides, carefully, finished, fingers, on, off, run, hands, broken, sharp, sharp, tidy, , power, switch, own
  5. 5. 3. 2. 4. 5. 14. 7. 10. 11. 12. 1. 15. 16. 13. 9. 8. 6. Upper tension regulator Thread take -up Thread guide Spool pin Balance wheel Bobbin winder Stitch width regulator Stitch length regulator Power switch Foot control Bobbin case/bobbin Feed dogs Throat plate Presser foot
  6. 6. Parts and use of a sewing machine Let’s Identify Machine Parts MACHINE PART FUNCTION 1. Power switch 2. Presser foot 3. Presser foot lever 4. Throat plate 5. Feed dogs 6. Needle 7. Thread take up 8. Upper tension regulator 9. Thread guide 10.Spool pin 11.Bobbin winder 12.Balance wheel 13.Stitch length regulator 14.Stitch width regulator 15.Bobbin case/bobbin 16.Presser foot control
  7. 7. Word Puzzle Machine Part What it Does 1. ____________________ Holds the reel of cotton 2 . ____________________ Guides the thread from cotton reel to the needle 3. ____________________ Takes up the excess thread and locks the stitch 4. ____________________ Regulates the amount of thread used 5. ____________________ Controls the movement of the thread take-up lever 6. ____________________ Holds the needle in place 7. ____________________ Mechanism for filling the bobbin on 8. ____________________ Regulates the length of the stitch 9. ____________________ Alters the width of the stitch 10. ____________________ Prevents the needle from moving 11. ____________________ Switches on light 12. ____________________ Carries the fabric as it is being sewn 13. ____________________ Holds the fabric while it is being sewn 14. ____________________ Raises and lowers the presser foot 15. ____________________ Pushes and pulls the thread through the fabric 16. ____________________ Cuts the thread
  8. 8. Terms used to describe parts of the sewing machine Head - The complete sewing machine without cabinet or carry case. Bed - The flat surface of the sewing machine. A flat bed machine has one level to sew on. A free-arm bed has a removable U-shaped part of the bed to reveal an arm or tub used for sewing hard-to-reach areas like a pant cuff or sleeve. Hand wheel - the wheel located on the right side of the sewing machine. This wheel is driven by the motor, but may be turned by hand to adjust needle height. Bobbin Winder - Mechanism used to wind bobbins. Bobbin - Low spool that provides the lower thread. Thread take-up - Arm that pulls up slack in thread. Thread guide - Device which carries thread to a certain location. Upper tension - Mechanism which controls delivery of upper thread. Lower tension - Provided by the bobbin case, controls delivery of the bottom thread. Bobbin Case - Device which hold the bobbin and provides tension to the lower thread. Pressure Foot - Foot that presses down on fabric to stabilize its movement. Feed Dog - Mechanism which controls motion of the fabric. Needle Plate - Plate under pressure foot with slots to allow feed dog to reach fabric and opening for the needle to move up and down. Hook - Device which picks the thread off of the needle. Feed drop - Adjustment used to take the feed dog out of play for free hand work. Stitch length - Adjustment used to determine length from front to back of the stitch. Stitch width - Adjustment which allows a variety of widths from side to side.
  9. 9. Machine skills STEPS FOR BECOMING A SUPER SEWER! Learning how to use the sewing machine to gain a satisfactory skill level is an important aspect in sewing, in this lesson you will learn:  The parts of the sewing machine and their functions.  How to thread the machine.  How to sew straight and curved lines.  How to set the machine to do a variety of stitches.  Show you can control and use a threaded sewing machine well.  Show how to act responsibly within the sewing environment. You will not move onto further activities until you are competent with the above tasks. Design  Design your own sewing sampler using a square piece of material.  You must be able to demonstrate the following techniques: • Sew straight and curved lines. • Reverse stitch. • Turn corners. • Sew a variety of stitches by changing the machine stitch settings. • Follow the guides on the presser foot plate to sew a straight line. Evaluate your sampler. Was it easy to accomplish the finished product? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Did it help you to learn the different techniques? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Would you be able to perform these techniques successfully on a different product, what item could you make with these newly formed techniques?
  10. 10. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________
  11. 11. Use and care of a sewing machine General rules for care of the machine  Cover the machine when not in use to protect it from dust.  Thread the machine correctly.  Oil and clean themachine regularly – or as directed.  Do not leave a blunt needle in the machine.  Make sure the needle is inserted properly. Check that it is pushed up into the machine as fas as it will go, and screwed in tightly.  Use the same weight thread on the top of themachine as you do for the bobbin.  Guide the fabric as it feeds through the nmachine. Do not pull it throuogh or hold it back.  Make sure the presser foot is lowered when machining. Hey Miss .... My machine is not working properly! Before you call your teacher to your machine try these trouble -shooting hints. Broken threads may be caused by:  Incorrect threading.  Incorrect tension.  Needle in wrongly.  Blunt or bent needle.  Thread caught around the spool. Puckering may be caused by:  A blunt needle.  Tension too tight.  A needle that is too thick. Looped stitches may be caused by:  Bobbin threaded incorrectly.  Tension is too loose.  Top and bottom tension uneven. Skipped stitches may be caused by:  Needle incorrectly fitted  Needle too fine for thread.  Blunt needle Needle unthreading may be caused by:  Too short a thread through the needle  Needle incorrectly inserted To turn a corner. Sew slowly when you are approaching the corner. Make sure the needle is in the fabric at the correct place. Raise the presser foot. Turn the material so that it is ready to sew the next row of stitching. L;ower the presser foot. Continue sewing.
  12. 12. Let’s do construction techniques. SEAM CONSTRUCTION: The line of stitching joining pieces of fanric together is called a seam. It is important that you are aware of the various seam types, their application to different fabrics, and their desired effect. Consider the folloing points before deciding which seam type to use:  What type of article is to be made.  Is the fabric light or heavy.  How will the fanric stand wear and tear.  Is the fabric likely to fray?  Is the fabric woven or knitted?  Do you wish to emphasise the seam line? SEAM TYPES: Some basic seam techniques are illustrated for you here.
  13. 13. Flat seam A simple way of joining 2 pieces of fabric together with a single row of stitches. • Place the fabric pieces; right sides together, matching the raw edges. • Pin, tack, and stitch, 1.5 cm in from the raw edges. • Work a few stitches in reverse at each end to secure. • Press the seam allowance open. Gathering Gathering is used to add frills. A frill before it is gathered needs to be at least 1.5 times its finished length, but making it twice as long gives a much better effect. When gathering on a sewing machine, use a heavy-duty thread on the bobbin for extra strength and loosen the upper tension slightly. • Work 2 rows of stitches, 0.25" (6 mm) either side of the seam line and knot the threads at one end. • Gently pull the bobbin threads from one end feeding the fabric evenly down the gathers. • Wind the threads in a figure of eight round a pin at the side when the required length is achieved. • Instead of machine stitches a small running stitch can be used especially when a long length is to be gathered. It may take longer but there is less chance of the thread breaking.
  14. 14. You have successfully shown that you know:  The parts of the sewing machine and their functions.  How to thread the machine.  How to sew straight and curved lines.  How to set the machine to do a variety of stitches.  Can control and use a threaded sewing machine well.  Can act responsibly within the sewing environment. This is your license to sew; but be careful, too many warnings will result in a fine and your privilege to sew will be withdrawn!
  15. 15. The design formula. A harmonious design may be achieved when the elements and principles of design work together. When they don't work together, a design can appear peculiar or difficult. The following design formula shows us how a harmonious design can be achieved. Elements + Principles = Harmonious design. The elements of design are: Line Direction Shape Size Colour Value Texture A line is a series of points joined together. When we draw a line, we start at one point and finish at another. Lines may be long or short, straight or curved. They may be thick or thin and they may run in different directions. Lines can create illusions and symbolise meanings. Direction of these lines is also a very important element of design because it can also create an illusion. There are three main line directions- horizontal, vertical and diagonal. Wavy lines symbolise softness Thin lines seem delicate Thick lines appear bold A down turned line looks sad An upturned line has the appearance of happiness Horizontal lines generally increase width Diagonal lines from the shoulder to waist cut height Vertical lines increase height, giving the appearance of thinness Draw some lines or pictures next to the above descriptions, for example a smiley face for an upturned line.
  16. 16. The design formula. A _______________________ design may be achieved when the _________________ and ___________________ of design work together. When they don't work together, a design can appear __________________ or difficult. The following design __________________ shows us how a harmonious design can be achieved. _________________ + ___________________ = Harmonious design. The elements of design are:        Line & Direction: A ____________ is a series of points joined together. When we draw a line, we start at one ______________ and finish at another. Lines may be ____________ or____________, _______________ or _____________________. They may be ___________ or ____________ and they may run in different directions. Lines can _________________ illusions and symbolise meanings. _______________________ of these lines is also a very important element of design because it can also create an illusion. There are three main line directions- _________________, ________________ and ___________________. Wavy lines symbolise softness Thin lines seem delicate Thick lines appear bold A down turned line looks sad An upturned line has the appearance of happiness Horizontal lines generally increase width Diagonal lines from the shoulder to waist cut height Vertical lines increase height, giving the appearance of thinness Draw some lines or pictures next to the above descriptions, for example a smiley face for an upturned line.
  17. 17. Activity Find between four and six pictures in the magazines provided that show the distinct use of line and direction in their designs. Attach them to your workbook. Under each picture describe how the designer of each item you chose has used the elements of line and direction to create a desired effect.
  18. 18. Shape A shape is formed when a line begins and ends at the same point. Shapes are unlimited and can be created in numerous forms. Shapes can also symbolise different meanings. For example: · Flared, full hemlines cut height and can camouflage a large bust or wide shoulders. · Straight skirts give an illusion of height and therefore taller proportion. · A narrow, rectangular silhouette is slimming. Size Size refers to the amount of space that an object takes up. Size is a proportional element of design, meaning that an object’s size is determined by what is being compared with. For example, a cat is small compared with an elephant, but large compared with an ant!
  19. 19. Activity: Show what you mean by the term ‘size’ by drawing and labelling ten different objects in your workbook. Find between two and four textile items in magazines that show the distinct use of shape and size in their designs. Attach them to you workbook. Describe how the designer has used the design elements, shape and size to create a desired effect.
  20. 20. Colour Colour is a wonderful element of design. In many cases, colour is the first thing people notice when looking at a design. Colours can be used to symbolise different meaning and are classified into three groups. Red, Yellow and Blue are the primary colours. These are the three basic colours that are used to mix all hues (shade of colour). Orange , Green and Purple are the secondary colours. They are achieved by mixing two primary colours together. Tertiary colours are more subtle colours that are achieved by mixing a primary and a secondary colour. Make a list of Make a list of different colours and next to them place a word or object that this colour reminds you of. COLOUR WORD OR OBJECT Eg: Dark green Leaves of a tree
  21. 21. After you have completed the colour wheel use the same techniques to colour the images below.
  22. 22. After you have completed the colour wheel use the same techniques to colour the images below.
  23. 23. After you have completed the colour wheel use the same techniques to colour the images below.
  24. 24. Texture Texture describes the way something feels, such as soft, hard, smooth or rough. It can also describe the way something looks, such as shiny, crumpled, bubbly or dull. Texture adds a three dimensional effect to designs. Texture can also create illusions. For example, smooth, shiny textures can appear bigger, newer and more expensive than rough, dull textures. Texture can also be used to change a person’s appearance. · Clinging fabrics emphasise rounded curves and bumps. · Shiny fabrics reflect more light, so shapes look larger. · Heavy textures add bulk, and increase apparent size. So do stiff, furry, shaggy fabrics. · Dull matt fabrics slenderise, as they do not absorb light. · Lightweight, fine fabrics do not increase size as much as those with a lot of bulk. Activity: Collect samples of different textures and glue into the space below.
  25. 25. Principles of design The principles of design are: 1 2 3 4 5 Balance If a design is balanced, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium. Overall, it has a harmonious effect. Designs can be balanced symmetrically or asymmetrically. Symmetrical balance occurs if one side of a design looks exactly like the other side. This creates a formal effect. Asymmetrical balance occurs when one side of the design looks different from the other side. This creates an informal effect. Symmetrical This shirt is the same on both sides. Asymmetrical Notice this design is slightly different from one side to the other.
  26. 26. Rhythm Rhythm is a continuous flowing movement. In design, rhythm moves the eye from one point to the next. Rhythm deals greatly with the elements of line and direction. Proportion Proportion involves dividing a design into parts and deciding whether a harmonious effect is created or not. Proportion in clothing design is to create different illusions on different body types. Emphasis Emphasis uses the elements of design to draw attention to a certain area. Emphasis means ‘focal point’ or to draw attention to an area or away from an area. Shapes and colours are often used to emphasise parts of a design. Repetition Repetition means over and over again. One or more elements can be used in the same design. This can create a uniform look or a busy look, depending on the designer’s intentions
  27. 27. Principles of design The principles of design are: 1 2 3 4 5 Balance If a design is __________________, it is said to be in a state of ___________________________. Overall, it has a ____________________________ effect. Designs can be balanced_____________________ or ________________________________. ___________________ balance occurs if one side of a design looks____________________ like the other side. This creates a _________________effect. _____________________________ balance occurs when one side of the design looks _____________________________from the other side. This creates an _____________________ effect. Symmetrical Asymmetrical Notice this design is slightly different from one side to the other.
  28. 28. Rhythm Rhythm is a continuous flowing movement. In design, rhythm moves the eye from one point to the next. Rhythm deals greatly with the elements of line and direction. Proportion Proportion involves dividing a design into parts and deciding whether a harmonious effect is created or not. Proportion in clothing design is to create different illusions on different body types. Emphasis Emphasis uses the elements of design to draw attention to a certain area. Emphasis means ‘focal point’ or to draw attention to an area or away from an area. Shapes and colours are often used to emphasise parts of a design. Repetition Repetition means over and over again. One or more elements can be used in the same design. This can create a uniform look or a busy look, depending on the designer’s intentions
  29. 29. Design your own clothes, using different lines.
  30. 30. What is a fibre?  A fine ____________________of a ______________________or ________________________ material that can be ________________ into yarn. What is a yarn? Strand of fibre  A _____________________________twisted____________________of ______________, _________________, ______________________________ fibre, or material such as _________________ or metal .  Usually_______________________ or _____________________ into fabric.  Sometimes fibres bypass the yarn stage and are _______________________, ___________________ or _________________________ together to form a fabric. What is fabric? Cloth  Any type of cloth made from ____________________, _______________________, ____________________ or_______________________ thread or fibres. Selvedge Selvedge
  31. 31. Textile fibres: where do they come from? Years ago, all fibres used to make fabrics came from natural sources, such as sheep, or cotton plants. Today, many fibres are synthetic-they can be made in a factory, either from natural products, such as woodchips, or from chemicals. Therefore today there are many different types of fibres used on textile production. In the chart below you will see some of them classified, according to their source- that is, where they come from and what they are made of. Natural fibres Man-made fibres Animal • Wool • Silk • Hair (camel, goat etc) Vegetable • Cotton • Flax/Linen • Coconut/coir • Kapok • Sisal Synthetic or chemical base • Nylons • Polyesters (terylene, crimplene, Dacron) Acrylics (cashmilon, orlon. Courtelle) • Spandex Man-modified (A natural product modified or changed by people). • Viscose rayon • Acetate rayon Mineral • Asbestos • Metallic Textile fibres
  32. 32. Textile fibres: where do they come from? Years ago, all _________ used to make _______________ came from ____________ sources, such as __________, or _________ plants. Today, many fibres are ____________-they can be made in a factory, either from natural products, such as ________________, or from ______________. Therefore today there are many different types of fibres used on textile production. In the chart below you will see some of them classified, according to their source- that is, where they come from and what they are made of. Animal • W • S • H Vegetable • C • F • S • J Synthetic or chemical base • N • P Man-modified (A natural product modified or changed by people). • V • A Mineral • A • M
  33. 33. Fabric characteristics People can be identified by their __________________- a person might be short and fat, handsome or cranky, cheerful or dark. You can recognise ______________ by their characteristics also. These fabric characteristics are important when: • Considering ________________ for the home. • When ____________ or __________________ are important. • When________________ or _________ cleaning is necessary. Because of the special characteristics of each ___________ the fabric produced will be more ______________ for some uses than others, for example, ____________ is cool so it is suitable for _____________clothes, _________ is non-absorbent so it is very useful for ______________________. Texture The way a Fabric feels.      Lustre How shiny a fabric is:     Strength How strong a fabric is.      Moisture absorbency. How well the fabric will absorb water.      Elasticity How well a fibre or fabric will stretch and return to its original shape.    Heat conduction How a fabric conducts heat.    Drip dry properties Crease resistant. How well a fabric recovers from creases after washing.  Flammability. How easily a fabric burns.    Colour fastness. How well a fabric keeps its colour.   
  34. 34. Fabric characteristics People can be identified by their characteristics- a person might be short and fat, handsome or cranky, cheerful or dark. You can recognise fabrics by their characteristics also. These fabric characteristics are important when: • Considering furnishings for the home • When climate or performance are important • When washing or dry cleaning is necessary Because of the special characteristics of each fibre the fabric produced will be more suitable for some uses than others, for example, cotton is cool so it is suitable for summer clothes, lycra is non-absorbent so it is very useful for swimwear Texture The way a Fabric feels.  Thick or thin  Harsh or soft  Rough or smooth  Stiff or flexible  Fine or coarse Lustre How shiny a fabric is:  Dull/matt  Shiny (poplin)  Very shiny (satin)  Shiny in one direction only Strength How strong a fabric is.  Weak (wool)  Weak when wet (rayon)  Strong (cotton)  Stronger when wet (cotton)  Very strong (nylon, polyester) Moisture absorbency. How well the fabric will absorb water.  None (waterproof)  Low (nylon and terylene)  Holds a lot, but absorbs slowly (wool)  Very high (cotton) Elasticity How well a fibre or fabric will stretch and return to its original shape.  Low stretch (twill weave, as in denim)  Will stretch, but won’t go back  Stretches and goes back to original length (lycra in swimsuits) Heat conduction How a fabric conducts heat.  Will not conduct heat: Warm to wear (wool in garment traps heat)  Will conduct heat away, therefore cooler (cotton garments in summer) Drip dry properties Crease resistant. How well a fabric recovers from creases after washing?  Poor (pure cotton, rayon)  Average (wool creases, fall out)  Good recovery (polyester, drip dry cottons) Flammability. How easily a fabric burns.  Very easily (cotton, rayon, open weaves, ‘hairy’ fabrics)  Low (polyester and nylon melt)  Average (wool)  Poor (flame proofed fabrics and asbestos) Colour fastness. How well a fabric keeps its colour?  Fades in the sun (cotton)  Fades in sea water and sun (dyes in lycra)  Discolours in the sun (nylon)  Some dyes ‘run’ in hot water or with perspiration
  35. 35. Match the fibre to the Comment List of Fibres Rayon Silk Polyester Acetate Metallic Asbestos Wool Acrylic Spandex Linen Cotton Polyamide Comments: 1. A natural fibre which is absorbent, lustrous and drapes well: _________________________________________________________ 2. A fibre of cellulosic origin which produces fabrics of a course texture: _______________________________________________________ 3. This is a relatively weak natural fibre, it is also a poor heat conductor and can shrink if laundered carelessly: ____________________________ 4. This regenerated-cellulose fibre is often used for linings and lingerie as it produces fabrics with a deep lustre: ____________________________ 5. This fibre is often used to produce fabrics which look like linen: ________________________________________________ 6. A fire-resistant mineral fibre: _________________ 7. A synthetic fibre often used to imitate wool: _________________ 8. This fibre is thermoplastic: _________________ 9. This is a highly elastic non-absorbent fibre: _________________ 10. Lurex is a trade name for this fibre: _________________ 11. Some examples of this versatile, comfortable fabric are denim, poplin, seersucker: __________________________________________
  36. 36. 12. This strong, low absorbent fibre was once very popular for swimwear and lingerie when knitted into jerseys and two-way stretch fabrics: _________________________________________________
  37. 37. Using all of the elements and principles of design create your own look! Be creative
  38. 38. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What were the functional and aesthetic properties the designers of these clothes had to consider before choosing what fibre/fabric to use?  Absorbency  Durability  Resilience  Flammability  Drape  Lustre  Handle What were the functional and aesthetic properties the designers of these clothes had to consider before choosing what fibre/fabric to use?
  39. 39. What about an astronauts spacesuit? Can you identify all of the different attributes a designer had to consider before proceeding with production?
  40. 40. NOTES _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  41. 41. NOTES _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  42. 42. Experiments for understanding of fibre/fabric characteristics. Worksheet. The following tests provide a comparison of fibres in terms of their properties. Glues in a sample of the fabric to begin. Hypothesise (what you believe) about the physical properties of the fabric samples, and their influences on the clothing, textile industry? Name what garments would be best suited to these fabrics and give reasons for your answers in regards to their characteristics: Strength, drape, abrasion, wind resistance etc: List the names of these fabrics/fibres: Fabric 1 Fabric 2 Fabric 3 What do you think? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  43. 43. Moisture absorbency Fabric Volume of water before wet Volume of water after wetting Percentage absorbed 100 gm/100ml 100 gm/100ml 100 gm/100ml Which fabric is more absorbent? _______________________________________________ How would you relate absorbency to comfort? _______________________________________________________________________________________
  44. 44. Water retained (do this for all fabric samples). Using a set of scales and two (2) bowls: 1. Place a wet sample of fabric in the bowl and record the weight. 2. Using the second bowl, squeeze the fabric sample of all excess water and record the weight. 3. Calculate the amount of water retained. Name of fabric Wet weight Wet weight after squeezing Percentage retained 4. Which fabric retains the most water? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 5. In what circumstance would this create a problem? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Drape (limpness). Cut a 20 cm square of fabric and using an upturned jar and an overhead projector lamp: Measure with a ruler, the amount of shadow cast by the fabric and record your results. Name of fabric Width of shadow Rating 1-5 most to least drape of fabric What kinds of garments or textiles require more drape? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________
  45. 45. Crease resistance Observe what happens after you hold some scrunched up fabric in your hand for 15 seconds. Does it recover? Are some creases visible? Is it very creased? Name of fabric Rating a, b or c Rate the fabric from worst to best recovery What garments or textiles is this characteristic important for? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Developing static electricity. Taking your fabric sample rub vigorously over a pen, and then try to pick up the small pieces paper. Name of fabric Amount of static Eg: no result Rating from most to least static electricity ( 1/5) Which fabric sample created the most static electricity? _______________________________________ Which fabric will attract the most dust, and therefore need to be washed more? _________________________________________________ Which fabric wouldn’t you wear on a windy day? ____________________________________________________
  46. 46. Abrasion resistance Using a rock and a tray, rub the stone in one direction and observe the surface of the fabric. Name of fabric Observation of fabric changes Rating from least to most affected Which fabric would be best suited for extreme sport? ____________________________________________________________ What types of clothing or textiles would this fabric be used for? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ What area of a garment receives the most wear? ____________________________________________________________ Wind resistant fabric Wrap hand in the fabric sample and hold it in front of a fan Name of fabric Rating of resistance Which fabric would we use for winter? ____________________________________________ What fabric is best suited for a hot climate? ____________________________________________________ List some items you would make out of these fabrics and why. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
  47. 47. Burn test observations. Write down your observations below, eg: • Colour of smoke • Odour , what does it smell like eg: burning hair • Residue left behind eg: does it become ash? • Speed at which the fabric burned Colour Odour Residue Speed Which fabric was the most flammable? _____________________________ Which fabric was the least flammable? _____________________________ Do natural fabrics behave differently to synthetic or man-made fabrics? ______________________________________ If yes, in what way? __________________________________________________________________________________________
  48. 48. FIBER IDENTIFICATION Results of the burn test are listed on the following identification charts. NATURAL FIBRES (ANIMAL) Fibre Smell Ember and Flame Wool Burning Hair Small flickering flame, brittle ash, no smouldering (will not burn after flame is removed). Silk Burning Feathers Calm flame, no smouldering. (Will not burn after flame is removed). Black beads, crushable. NATURAL FIBRES (VEGETABLES) Fibre Smell Ember and Flame Rayon (Synthetic) Burning Wood Rapid burning flame, slow burning embers, no ash, no bead. Cotton Burning Paper Flame amber or yellow, slow burning; fluffy greyish ash. SYNTHETIC FIBRES (MAN-MADE) Fibre Smell Ember and Flame Nylon Boiling green vegetables (string beans or celery) Dissolves and forms an effervescent flame; produces a hard, amber-beaded ash. Olefin Asphalt Melts and produces a scorching flame; forms a hard tan bead. Acrilan (Acrylic) Sharp, pungent, unpleasant odour Hard, black residue. Burns quickly. Polyester Sweetish Burns rapidly; produces a black, hard, rounded ash.
  49. 49. Evaluation Unlike your hypothesise at the beginning, use the test results to provide a comparison of fibres in terms of their properties, this time, read through the results carefully and answer the following questions. What can you identify about the physical properties of the samples and their influences on the behaviour of clothing? Name what garments or textiles would best suit what fabric and give reasons for your answers using the data from the tests. Sample1(_______________) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Sample 2( _________________) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Sample 3 ( ____________________) _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________
  50. 50. ON a farm in Wyoming, USA, goats are being milked for their spider webs. And if that sounds bizarre, molecular biologist Randy Lewis claims that within two years, spider silk milked from goats could replace your body's tired or strained tendons and ligaments - maybe even bones. Professor Lewis and his team at the University of Wyoming have successfully implanted the silk-making genes from a golden orb spider into a herd of goats and are now, finally, producing one of nature's strongest products in useable quantities. The technology is cutting edge, but the science isn't. Spider silk has been used for centuries to dress wounds with varying degrees of success, but the problem has until now been how to get it. They spliced the DNA that creates the silk into a female goat's DNA, and then waited for it to give birth and start lactating. "(The splicing) turned out to be relatively easy as there are known gene promoters that only produce expression in the mammary gland during lactation," he said. "Those were hooked up to our spider silk genes." After the milk is collected, it's taken back to a laboratory where the silk protein is filtered out. It solidifies when exposed to air and is wound onto a roller. Prof Lewis said the team collected about four metres of silk for every four drops of protein they gathered. The pure material had a wide range of medicinal applications as sutures and binding agents - including ligament replacement - but its use could extend well beyond our hospitals. "If it works, frankly one of the first applications is maybe fishing line," Prof Lewis said. "I think we will be testing real world applications in less than two years (but) when they reach market is really beyond my control." One day, the burden could be lifted even from goats. Prof Lewis said the technology could have farm applications - he told Science Nation they were developing the same technology for alfalfa.

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