Oil Spills, Ethics, and Society:   How they intersect andwhere the responsibilities reside            W.C. Rusty Riese    ...
#1 Gulf War, 1991                    • Location:                          Kuwait                    • Gallons / bbls (mill...
#2 Ixtoc 1 Oil Well, 1979                            • Location:                              Bay of Campeche, Mexico     ...
#3 Atlantic Empress, 1979                        • Location:                          Trinidad and Tobago, West           ...
#4 Fergana Valley, 1992                          • Location:                            Uzbekistan                        ...
#5 Nowruk Oil Field, 1983                        • Location:                          Persian Gulf                        ...
#6 ABT Summer, 1991                      • Location:                        Off the coast of Angola                      •...
#7 Castillo de Bellver, 1983• Location:  Off Saldanha Bay,  South Africa• Gallons / bbls:  78.5 / 1.9• Cause:  Shipboard f...
#8 Amoco Cadiz, 1978                       • Location:                         Off Brittany, France                       ...
#9 Odyssey Oil Spill, 1988                         • Location:                           700 miles off                    ...
#10 M/T Haven Tanker, 1991                       • Location:                         Genoa, Italy                       • ...
None of these spills has had long term, lasting impact
Deepwater Horizon, 2010                      • Location:                        Gulf of Mexico                      • Gall...
The Deepwater Horizon oil spillwill have had no lasting environmental impact: “Ultimately mother nature will handle it…”  ...
Constituencies...                 Regulatory           Courts                  Agencies                              Media...
CorporationsWhen a spill occursProvide protection to peopleClean up and restore the environmentInvestigate and fix the cau...
Corporations             Before a spill      Train and maintain skills        Maintain equipmentEstablish clear management...
"While the oil companies are turning the American consumer upside downat the pump, shaking out every last cent, the White ...
LegislaturesInvestigate when appropriate     Listen to testimony  Minimize sensationalism Formulate laws thoughtfully
Regulatory                                    Agencies Perform oversight diligently    Investigate thoroughlyModify regula...
Was Anderson Cooper digging too deepwhile reporting on the BP oil spill?According to a government report on theDeepwater H...
BP Sand Shark Hunts Tarball Prey On Devastated Gulf Coast Beaches
Media                Deliver informationDifferentiate opinion and advocacy from reporting               Avoid sensationali...
Only 25% of Americans were scientifically literate              in a 2008 survey.      (Jon Miller, Professor, Michigan St...
Only 53% of adults know how long it takesfor the Earth to revolve around the Sun.Only 59% of adults know that the earliest...
Public            Become educated            Become informed                 QuestionUnderstand the full societal context ...
Professional                                 Communities     Perform work diligently Perform work without prejudiceIdentif...
Constituencies...                         SOCIETY                 Regulatory           Courts                  Agencies   ...
The commercial case for clean energy        has never been stronger                                 Demand growthRising cl...
Stabilization Wedges          Billions of Tons  16                                                                 16 GtC/...
Examples of stabilisation wedges        Wedges                       Detail                                              F...
Efficiency    Double fuel efficiency of 2 billion cars             from 30 to 60mpg      600 million cars in the world tod...
Fuel Switchingeplace 1400 coal plants with gas facilities  adding an amount in 2054 equal to            oday’s gas usage) ...
Carbon capture and storage    apture and store emissions from         00 coal electric plants               wedge =      5...
Nucleardd double the current global nuclear capacity       o replace coal-based electricity          00 nuclear plants tod...
Windncrease wind electricity capacity by 50 times,    or a total of 2 million large windmills                  wedge =    ...
Solar     se 40,000sq kms of solar panels to      roduce hydrogen for fuel cell cars                  wedge =olar panels c...
Natural sinks     liminate tropical deforestation ANDreate new plantations on non-forested land to      uintuple current p...
World Proved Gas ReservesTrillion cubicfeet                                                                               ...
US demand for hydrocarbons is        projected to continue growingSaudi Arabian demand for it’s own production           m...
Ultimate responsibilities for oil spills lie within   a mix of competing demands and expectations           The mix is far...
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg
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Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg

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  • So because of these significant factors the commercial case for clean energy has never been stronger
  • This table shows 7 possible strategies to complete the stabilization wedges and examples to show the real world implications of implementing each strategy. Mention Bio Fuels for BP Reduction in our Flaring and Venting Fuel Switching Clean Fuels Clean Lubricants Hydrogen demonstration Carbon Sequestration Lower carbon products Bio fuels Hydrogen Solar Wind
  • Similar to oil, natural gas reserves are highly concentrated in one region of the World, while natural gas demand is highly concentrated in another region. North America (incl. MX) holds 4.9% of the World's proved gas reserves but accounts for 27.8% of World natural gas demand. (from BP Stats Review). Consumption outside of North America is growing, being led primarily by China and other emerging markets. Worldwide natural gas consumption dropped 2.1% between 2008 and 2009 due to the Global economic downturn. Total World Proven Gas Reserves – 6,621 Tcf (2009) Total Global Demand – 284.5 Bcfd (2009) vs. 290.5 Bcfd (2008) Middle East holds 41% of the World’s proved gas reserves but accounts for 11.7% of World natural gas demand. North American natural gas consumption grew to 79.3 Bcfd in 2008, dropping to 78.5 Bcfd in 2009 due to the recession. For 2009, Japan natural gas demand accounted for approximately 17.6% of total Asia Pacific consumption (8.5 Bcfd out of 48.0 Bcfd), being surpassed in 2009 by China for the first time which accounts for approximately 17.9% of Asia Pacific demand (8.6 Bcfd out of 48 Bcfd). In 2000, China’s gas consumption was 2.3 Bcfd.
  • Oil spills, ethics, and society v.4 21-12 aapg

    1. 1. Oil Spills, Ethics, and Society: How they intersect andwhere the responsibilities reside W.C. Rusty Riese AAPG Distinguished Ethics Lecturer 2011 - 2013
    2. 2. #1 Gulf War, 1991 • Location: Kuwait • Gallons / bbls (millions): 240 - 336 / 5.7 – 8.0 • Cleanup: Close wells & pipes 25 miles of boom 21 skimmers • Long term damage: Little to coral & local fisheries (Unesco)
    3. 3. #2 Ixtoc 1 Oil Well, 1979 • Location: Bay of Campeche, Mexico • Gallons / bbls (millions): 140 / 3.4 • Cause: Pressure, explosion, well blowout • Cleanup: Junk shot, dispersants, burning
    4. 4. #3 Atlantic Empress, 1979 • Location: Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies • Gallons / bbls (millions): 88.3 / 2.1 • Cause 2-tanker collision • Cleanup Firefighting, dispersants, towing, explosion, sinking
    5. 5. #4 Fergana Valley, 1992 • Location: Uzbekistan • Gallons / bbls (millions): 87.7 / 2.1 • Cause: Well failure (largest inland ever reported) • Cleanup: Soaked into ground leaving nothing for crews
    6. 6. #5 Nowruk Oil Field, 1983 • Location: Persian Gulf • Gallons / bbls (millions): 80 / 1.9 • Cause Tanker collision with platform during war, left for 7 months • Cleanup: Booms and skimmers
    7. 7. #6 ABT Summer, 1991 • Location: Off the coast of Angola • Gallons / bbls (millions): 80 / 1.9 • Cause Shipboard explosion • Cleanup Sinking after burning • Impact None known due to sinking, burning and dispersion by high seas
    8. 8. #7 Castillo de Bellver, 1983• Location: Off Saldanha Bay, South Africa• Gallons / bbls: 78.5 / 1.9• Cause: Shipboard fire• Cleanup: Breakup and sinking; minimal dispersants; 1500 birds, no fisheries impact
    9. 9. #8 Amoco Cadiz, 1978 • Location: Off Brittany, France • Gallons / bbls (millions): 68.7 / 1.6 • Cause: Steering failure in storm, ran aground • Cleanup: Some dispersants, vacuum trucks, by hand
    10. 10. #9 Odyssey Oil Spill, 1988 • Location: 700 miles off Nova Scotia, Canada • Gallons / bbls (millions): 43 / 1.0 • Cause: Ship broke up, sank • Cleanup: Natural dispersion
    11. 11. #10 M/T Haven Tanker, 1991 • Location: Genoa, Italy • Gallons / bbls (millions): 42 / 1.0 • Cause: Poor maintenance and explosion • Cleanup: Attempt to tow to shore, sank (largest shipwreck in the world); barriers and vacuums
    12. 12. None of these spills has had long term, lasting impact
    13. 13. Deepwater Horizon, 2010 • Location: Gulf of Mexico • Gallons / bbls (millions): 185 / 4.3 • Cause: Blowout, fire • Cleanup: Dispersants, skimmers, burnoff, barriers, by hand, cap well, relief wells
    14. 14. The Deepwater Horizon oil spillwill have had no lasting environmental impact: “Ultimately mother nature will handle it…” (Edward B Overton, Professor Emeritus, LSU, 2011)
    15. 15. Constituencies... Regulatory Courts Agencies Media Public Corporations Professional Legislatures Communities
    16. 16. CorporationsWhen a spill occursProvide protection to peopleClean up and restore the environmentInvestigate and fix the causeMaintain a transparent flow of information
    17. 17. Corporations Before a spill Train and maintain skills Maintain equipmentEstablish clear management systems
    18. 18. "While the oil companies are turning the American consumer upside downat the pump, shaking out every last cent, the White House is defendingunnecessary giveaways and tax breaks to big oil, Representative EdwardMarkey, a Massachusetts Democrat who heads the House SelectCommittee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, said in an e-mailed statement.“…if we are going to allow giant oil companies like BP to deplete our ocean energy resources, we will take a small sliver of their massive profits and deposit it into a conservati…”
    19. 19. LegislaturesInvestigate when appropriate Listen to testimony Minimize sensationalism Formulate laws thoughtfully
    20. 20. Regulatory Agencies Perform oversight diligently Investigate thoroughlyModify regulations appropriately Restore operations timely
    21. 21. Was Anderson Cooper digging too deepwhile reporting on the BP oil spill?According to a government report on theDeepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Yes.In particular, the report accuses AndersonCooper of intentionally seeking out peoplethat were upset with the governmentresponse to the disaster:“Journalists encouraged state and localofficials and residents to display their angerat the federal response, and offeredcoverage when they did. Anderson Cooperreportedly asked a Parish President tobring an angry, unemployed offshore oilworker on his show. When the ParishPresident could not promise the workerwould be “angry,” both weredisinvited.”
    22. 22. BP Sand Shark Hunts Tarball Prey On Devastated Gulf Coast Beaches
    23. 23. Media Deliver informationDifferentiate opinion and advocacy from reporting Avoid sensationalism Avoid worst case scenario focus
    24. 24. Only 25% of Americans were scientifically literate in a 2008 survey. (Jon Miller, Professor, Michigan State University)
    25. 25. Only 53% of adults know how long it takesfor the Earth to revolve around the Sun.Only 59% of adults know that the earliesthumans and dinosaurs did not live at thesame time.Only 47% of adults can roughlyapproximate the percent of the Earthssurface that is covered with water.*Only 21% of adults answered all threequestions correctly.(California Academy of Sciences, 2009)
    26. 26. Public Become educated Become informed QuestionUnderstand the full societal context of issues
    27. 27. Professional Communities Perform work diligently Perform work without prejudiceIdentify and point out inaccuracies Inform those around us Explain full societal contexts
    28. 28. Constituencies... SOCIETY Regulatory Courts Agencies Media Public Corporations Professional Legislatures Communities
    29. 29. The commercial case for clean energy has never been stronger Demand growthRising climate change concernsEnergy security challenges Oil, gas and coal supply constraints 48
    30. 30. Stabilization Wedges Billions of Tons 16 16 GtC/y Carbon Emitted p” per Year m “ ra = h at Eight “wedges” tp en rr Cu Goal: In 50 years, same global emissions as today 8 Historical emissions Flat path1.6 0 1950 2000 2050 2100
    31. 31. Examples of stabilisation wedges Wedges Detail Feasibility There are 600 million cars in the world today, Double fuel efficiency of 2 billion cars from Projection is 2 billion by 2054.Efficiency 30 to 60 mpg 1 wedge  Double the average fuel efficiency of the fleet. Replace 1400 coal electric plants with 1 wedge  bringing one Alaska pipeline on line natural gas-powered facilities (adding an every year for 50 years; orFuel Switching amount in 2054 almost equal to today’s 1 wedge  50 large LNG tankers docking & world gas usage) discharging / dayCarbon capture Capture AND store emissions from 800 coal 1 wedge  3500 In Salah developments (each electric plants need to last through to 2054)and storage Add double the current global nuclear 400 nuclear plants today, 1 wedge  adding 700Nuclear capacity to replace coal-based electricity more in the next 50 years Increase wind electricity capacity by 50Wind times relative to today, for a total of 2 million 1 wedge  windmills on an area of 372,000 sq mi large windmills Use 40,000 square kms of solar panels to 1 wedge  solar panels covering area an area ofSolar produce hydrogen for fuel cell cars 230,000 sq mi Eliminate tropical deforestation AND create 1 wedge  new plantations with a total area ofNatural sinks new plantations on non-forested land to 2.3 million sq mi quintuple current plantation area
    32. 32. Efficiency Double fuel efficiency of 2 billion cars from 30 to 60mpg 600 million cars in the world today Projection is 2 billion by 2054 1wedge =Double the average fuel efficiency of the fleet
    33. 33. Fuel Switchingeplace 1400 coal plants with gas facilities adding an amount in 2054 equal to oday’s gas usage) wedge =
    34. 34. Carbon capture and storage apture and store emissions from 00 coal electric plants wedge = 500 In Salah developments
    35. 35. Nucleardd double the current global nuclear capacity o replace coal-based electricity 00 nuclear plants today wedge =
    36. 36. Windncrease wind electricity capacity by 50 times, or a total of 2 million large windmills wedge = indmills on an area of 372,000 sq mi
    37. 37. Solar se 40,000sq kms of solar panels to roduce hydrogen for fuel cell cars wedge =olar panels covering an area of 230,000 sq mi
    38. 38. Natural sinks liminate tropical deforestation ANDreate new plantations on non-forested land to uintuple current plantation area wedge =
    39. 39. World Proved Gas ReservesTrillion cubicfeet Middle East 41% Europe & EuroAsia 33.7% 35.9% 27.8% S. & Central Asia Pacific 8.7% Africa 7.9% America 4.3% North America 4.9% 11.7% 16.8% 4.6% 3.2% Global Reserves 6,534 Tcf Global Demand Source: BP Statistical Review 2010
    40. 40. US demand for hydrocarbons is projected to continue growingSaudi Arabian demand for it’s own production may reach 50% by 2035 Economic growth in China and India continues at 7 to 9% per year
    41. 41. Ultimate responsibilities for oil spills lie within a mix of competing demands and expectations The mix is far more complicatedthan most people are aware of or are willing to consider All energy consumers have an ethical obligation to educate ourselves and those around us regarding the consequences of our demands for cheap energy and a preserved environment

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