Dan Wehnes, Loren Schwappach, Tom Thede     EE600: Modern Solid State Devices       Colorado Technical University         ...
Presentation Overview   HAL 9000     System Description     Input / Output Requirements     Performance Requirements  ...
System Description       HAL 9000 Computer                           3
System Description   HAL – (H)euristically Programmed    (AL)gorithmic Computer (Robot Hall of Fame, 2003)   Brain of th...
Primary Input / OutputRequirements                Inputs                                Outputs          Auditory EM Waves...
Performance Requirements   Ensure Mission’s Success At Any Cost   Perform Advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI)    Funct...
Test Procedures / System Responses   Set Up     Scenario-Based Testing at System Level – Mission      Success Defined   ...
Test Procedures / System Responses   Reaction     System Level - Response to All Inputs from Spacecraft & Humans     Co...
9
Inverter Selection – CriticalCharacteristicsCritical Factors (Importance From Greatest toLeast): Performance:     Clock ...
Schematic  0                           0                                        0      Vdd1                        Vdd2   ...
DC Analysis – Output Slope                                   Using                                 Slope =-1              ...
DC Analysis – Threshold Voltage                                 Using                             Slope =1 (line)         ...
DC Analysis – Noise Margins                              Noise Margins                                 Results            ...
DC Analysis – Power Used                                Power Used                                  Results               ...
Frequency Analysis                     Corner Frequency                       Results (f3dB)                          CMOS...
Propagation & Time Delays                                     CMOS                             Propagation Delays         ...
Propagation & Time Delays                                  BiCMOS                            Propagation Delays           ...
Propagation & Time Delays                                      TTL                            Propagation Delays          ...
Comparison of CMOS, BiCMOS, TTL     Evaluation                        Ideal   CMOS BiCMOS        Lab 2d                   ...
ConclusionsAnalysis Results: Performance:     Clock Speed –Fast Switching Speeds (GHz / THz)      ○ WINNER: TTL     Noi...
Questions            22
ReferencesNeamen, D. (2007). Microelectronics: Circuit Analysis and Design (3rd ed.). New   York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Robot Ha...
References[Illustration of a Pilot at Console of Discovery Spaceship]. (n.d.). Retrieved       September 15, 2011, from:  ...
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Ee600 lab3 hal9000_grp

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  • Introduce the presentation and speakers.
  • Today we’ll go over the following topics.
  • Heuristic (experience-based) and Algorithmic are two primary processes of intelligence programmed into the Hal 900 system
  • The HAL 9000 system level capabilities are shown to include capabilities that were learned using artificial intelligence (i.e., lip reading)
  • Inputs:Speech from humans – speech recognitionAuditory recognition – can hear sounds and process themVisual recognition – ID of crewlip reading abilityEnvironment – is aware of its surrounding environments, such as life support systems and meteor detectionInformation systems – information about the crew’s missionHuman emotions – aware of human emotionsOutputs:Mechanical functions – controls the spaceshipSpeech – has its own voice used to interact with the crewDisplay of information – displays to crewRed eye – representation of actionProcessed information – takes appropriate action to a given command or situationReproducing emotion – has psyche similar to humans, fear of death
  • Top-level system performance requirements for the HAL 9000 were defined so they can be used in lower level component evaluations
  • HAL 9000 has system-level performance requirements that need to flow down to each component in the system (decomposition) and then tested appropriately at each level Focus of this project is the gate selection and evaluation process; therefore, allocated requirements need to be tested and evaluated prior to use in the system The lab environment has to take care of basic component requirements like power and grounding while taking into account launch and spaceflight qualifications during the test process Seeing the HAL 9000 is responsible for the overall operations of the spacecraft and its environment, it must be able to respond appropriately to maintain the mission – for the inverter, this means that negative consequences do not occur if the incorrect control signal is received – using components with high noise margins will improve its susceptibility to errors Overall system must be able to react to any system input and provide an appropriate response because of the changing space environment and unlimited inputs from the humans – for the inverter, that means that it properly inverts an incoming signal with a high level of confidence – inputting a variety of signals and evaluating the response during modeling will address this area Under the pass/fail criteria for the system, support for the humans and success of the mission should be the ultimate goals of the system; however, to support component level testing, lower level pass/fail criteria must be established to properly evaluate the system and arrive at the correct solution (minimize probability of selecting incorrect component) which lead to the critical characteristics of the lower level components identified on the next slide
  • HAL 9000 has system-level performance requirements that need to flow down to each component in the system (decomposition) and then tested appropriately at each level Focus of this project is the gate selection and evaluation process; therefore, allocated requirements need to be tested and evaluated prior to use in the system The lab environment has to take care of basic component requirements like power and grounding while taking into account launch and spaceflight qualifications during the test process Seeing the HAL 9000 is responsible for the overall operations of the spacecraft and its environment, it must be able to respond appropriately to maintain the mission – for the inverter, this means that negative consequences do not occur if the incorrect control signal is received – using components with high noise margins will improve its susceptibility to errors Overall system must be able to react to any system input and provide an appropriate response because of the changing space environment and unlimited inputs form the humans – for the inverter, that means that it properly inverts an incoming signal with a high level of confidence – inputting a variety of signals and evaluating the response during modeling will address this area Under the pass/fail criteria for the system, support for the humans and success of the mission should be the ultimate goals of the system; however, to support component level testing, lower level pass/fail criteria must be established to properly evaluate the system and arrive at the correct solution (minimize probability of selecting incorrect component) which lead to the critical characteristics of the lower level components identified on the next slide
  • The evaluation process for determining the best logic inverter for the HAL 9000 are provided in the following slides
  • The critical characteristics listed on this slide will be used as part of the evaluation criteria to ensure the correct inverter component is selected for the HAL 9000 system Some of these characteristics are based on normal operating parameters for inverters with the remainder of the characteristics based on the launch and spaceflight environments that the component is going to have to operate in during its lifetime
  • Schematics for each of the integrated circuits evaluated are shown on this slide
  • This slide provides a comparison of the DC characteristic of output slope for each of the integrated circuits evaluated. Color coding and text boxes were used to show the results clearly and differentiate between the different circuits evaluated
  • This slide provides a comparison of the DC characteristic of threshold voltage for each of the integrated circuits evaluated
  • This slide provides a comparison of the DC characteristic of noise margins for each of the integrated circuits evaluated
  • This slide provides a comparison of the DC characteristic of power used for each of the integrated circuits evaluated
  • This slide provides a comparison of the frequency analysis for each of the integrated circuits evaluated
  • This slide shows the propagation and time delays for the CMOS circuit
  • This slide shows the propagation and time delays for the BiCMOS circuit
  • This slide shows the propagation and time delays for the TTL circuit
  • This table provides a comparison of the operating parameters for each circuit evaluated with the best value highlighted in green and the ideal value shown in blueAs displayed by the table, the CMOS has the best power characteristics while the TLL has the best speed characteristics with the BiCMOS having values in between the other two circuits evaluated
  • Based on the critical characterstics evaluated for each circuit, the TTL was the best choice of the three circuits evaluated; however, other technologies need to be analyzed before making a final design on the best logic inverter for the HAL 9000 system
  • Are there any questions ?
  • Referencesforthepresentation are shown
  • Ee600 lab3 hal9000_grp

    1. 1. Dan Wehnes, Loren Schwappach, Tom Thede EE600: Modern Solid State Devices Colorado Technical University 15 September 2011 1
    2. 2. Presentation Overview HAL 9000  System Description  Input / Output Requirements  Performance Requirements  Test Procedures / System Responses Analysis of HAL 9000 Inverters  Critical Characteristics  Schematic  DC Analysis  Frequency Analysis  Propagation & Time Delays  Comparison Conclusion 2
    3. 3. System Description HAL 9000 Computer 3
    4. 4. System Description HAL – (H)euristically Programmed (AL)gorithmic Computer (Robot Hall of Fame, 2003) Brain of the Space Ship Discovery in 2001: A Space Odyssey (Robot Hall of Fame, 2003) Robot that Controls/Uses Mechanical, Sensing, and Information Systems of the Spaceship (Robot Hall of Fame, 2003) Capabilities (Robot Hall of Fame, 2003):  Controls/Communicates with All Systems onboard Spaceship Discovery  Speech Output and Speech Recognition  Natural Language Understanding  Lip reading  Thinking Faster and Better than Humans 4
    5. 5. Primary Input / OutputRequirements Inputs Outputs Auditory EM Waves Capable of Life-Like Human Speech (Allows Speech Recognition) Visual EM Waves Visual Identification / Recognition (Allows Visual Recognition and Lip of Crew / Discovery’s Systems and Reading) Exterior Objects. Uses: Red Camera Eye Discovery’s Interior (Environmental) Controls all of Discovery’s Conditions Environmental and Life Support Systems Discovery’s Exterior (Space-Time) Can Control all Mechanical Conditions Systems/Vehicles that are part of Discovery Discovery’s System Outputs Controls All of Spaceship Discovery’s Functions to Include Electronics and Navigation 5
    6. 6. Performance Requirements Ensure Mission’s Success At Any Cost Perform Advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) Functions (Such as Decision Making and Emotional Awareness) Operate in a Variety of Environments Process Information at High Speeds Control all Interior/Exterior Spaceship Functions 6
    7. 7. Test Procedures / System Responses Set Up  Scenario-Based Testing at System Level – Mission Success Defined  Component Level ○ Power and Grounding Requirements, Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) Protection ○ Lab Environment with Extreme Temperatures (space) ○ Durability – Shake, Rattle and Roll (Launch Simulation) Action  System Level – Reaction to Anomalous Situations (asteroid belt)  Component Level - Switch Control Signals and Evaluate 7
    8. 8. Test Procedures / System Responses Reaction  System Level - Response to All Inputs from Spacecraft & Humans  Component Level - Correct Outputs Based on Inputs Pass/Fail Criteria  System – Supportive of Humans and Their Directions  Clock Speed Measurements – Response Times to Inputs  Operating Region Evaluation – Controlled/Non-Controlled Environment  Environmental Testing – Entire Range of Launch and Space Environment  Failure Modes and Effects – Triple Redundancy for Human Space Flight  Power Usage Evaluation – Total vs. Allocated per Component  Use of Allocated Space and Weight on Discovery Spacecraft 8
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. Inverter Selection – CriticalCharacteristicsCritical Factors (Importance From Greatest toLeast): Performance:  Clock Speed –Fast Switching Speeds (GHz / THz)  Noise Immunity-NM  Minimum Power Usage Reliability:  Resistance to Electrostatic Discharge (Ionization effects)  Minimal Repair Capability and Human Space Flight Rated – NASA and AFIT Certified Robustness:  Maximum Durability 10
    11. 11. Schematic 0 0 0 Vdd1 Vdd2 Vdd3 5Vdc 5Vdc 5Vdc CMOS Circuit BiCMOS Circuit TTL Circuit R1 R2 R4 PMOS PMOS2 4k 1.6k 130 MbreakpPMOS MbreakpPMOS W = 14u W = 14u L = 1u L = 1u Q1 Q5 Q2N3904 Q2N3904 CMOS_Out BiCMOS_Out Q4 Q2N3904 D1 Q3 D1N4002 NMOS C1 NMOS2 Q2N3904 MbreaknNMOS 90p MbreaknNMOS C2 TTL_Out W = 24u W = 24u 90p L = 1u L = 1u C3 Q2 Q6 90p Q2N3904 Q2N3904 R3 1k 0 Vin Shared 0Vdc Input Source 11
    12. 12. DC Analysis – Output Slope Using Slope =-1 Points CMOS Vin(low) = 1.364 V Vin(high) = 2.078 V BiCMOS Vin(low) = 1.922 V Vin(high) = 2.494 V TTL Vin(low) = 606 mV Vin(high) = 1.437 V 12
    13. 13. DC Analysis – Threshold Voltage Using Slope =1 (line) CMOS VThreshold = 1.854 V BiCMOS VThreshold = 2.316 V TTL VThreshold = 1.393 V 13
    14. 14. DC Analysis – Noise Margins Noise Margins Results CMOS NMH = 2.759 V NML = 1.018 V BiCMOS NMH = 1.734 V NML = 990 mV TTL NMH = 3.305 V NML = 583 mV 14
    15. 15. DC Analysis – Power Used Power Used Results CMOS At Vin=0V: 25 pW At Vin=5V: 25 pW At Vin=1.88V: 216 uW BiCMOS At Vin=0V: 453 pW At Vin=5V: 453 pW At Vin=2.34V: 17.5 mW TTL At Vin=0V: 5.38 mW At Vin=5V: 16.8 mW At Vin=1.43V: 165 mW 15
    16. 16. Frequency Analysis Corner Frequency Results (f3dB) CMOS 6.09 kHz BiCMOS 68.55 kHz TTL 5.86 MHz 16
    17. 17. Propagation & Time Delays CMOS Propagation Delays tPLH = t3-t1 = 1.232 us tPHL = t7-t5 = 230 ns tP = tPLH + tPHL = 1.462 us Rise & Fall Times tR = t4-t2 = 2.869 us tF = t8-t6 = 565 ns Max Frequency Fmax = 1/(TR+TF) = 291.2 kHz 17
    18. 18. Propagation & Time Delays BiCMOS Propagation Delays tPLH = t3-t1 = 74 ns tPHL = t7-t5 = 23 ns tP = tPLH + tPHL = 97 ns Rise & Fall Times tR = t4-t2 = 212 ns tF = t8-t6 = 46 ns Max Frequency Fmax = 1/(TR+TF) = 3.876 MHz 18
    19. 19. Propagation & Time Delays TTL Propagation Delays tPLH = t3-t1 = 268 ns tPHL = t7-t5 = 3 ns tP = tPLH + tPHL = 271 Rise & Fall Times tR = t4-t2 = 35 ns tF = t8-t6 = 5 ns Max Frequency Fmax = 1/(TR+TF) = 25 MHz 19
    20. 20. Comparison of CMOS, BiCMOS, TTL Evaluation Ideal CMOS BiCMOS Lab 2d Parameter Procedure Inverter Inverter Inverter TTL Transfer VThreshold 2.5 V 1.854 V 2.316 V 1.393 V Characteristic NMH 2.5 V 2.759 V 1.734 V 3.305 V Noise Margins NML 2.5 V 1.018 V 990 mV 582 mV P @ Vin = 0 V 0W 25 pW 453 pW 5.38 mW Power Used P @ Vin = 5 V 0W 25 pW 453 pW 16.8 mW PMax 0W 216 uW 17.5 mW 165 mW tPDHL 0s 230 ns 23 ns 3 ns Propagation tPDLH 0s 1.232 us 74 ns 268 ns Delays tP 0s 1.462 us 97 ns 271 ns Rise Time tR 0s 2.869 us 212 ns 35 ns Fall Time tF 0s 565 ns 46 ns 5 ns 3dB Corner f3dB inf. 6.09 kHz 68.6 kHz 5.86 MHz Frequency Max Frequency fMax inf. 291 kHz 3.88 MHz 25 MHz 20
    21. 21. ConclusionsAnalysis Results: Performance:  Clock Speed –Fast Switching Speeds (GHz / THz) ○ WINNER: TTL  Noise Immunity ○ WINNER: CMOS  Minimum Power Usage ○ WINNER: CMOS Reliability:  Resistance to Electrostatic Discharge (Ionization effects) ○ WINNER: TTL Robustness:  Maximum Durability ○ WINNER: TTLOur Conclusion: Although TTL Won the Majority of CriticalRequirements We Will Need to Analyze Additional TechnologiesBefore Making a Final Decision 21
    22. 22. Questions 22
    23. 23. ReferencesNeamen, D. (2007). Microelectronics: Circuit Analysis and Design (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Robot Hall of Fame. (2003). 2003 Inductees: HAL 9000. Retrieved September 15, 2011 from: http://www.robothalloffame.org/hal.html2001 Space Sounds. (2003). 2001 A Space Odyssey Internet Resource Archive. Retrieved September 15, 2011 from: http://www.palantir.net/2001/sounds.htmlMovie Sounds. (2003). 2001: A Space Odyssey. Retrieved September 15, 2011 from: http://www.moviesounds.com/2001.html[Illustration of a HAL 9000]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2011, from: http://bugtraq.ru/library/underground/.keep/compscifi.hal9000.jpg[Picture of Dave, 2001 A Space Odyssey]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2011, from: http://www.google.com/imgres?q=2001+a+space+odyssey&hl=en&biw=1020& bih=891&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=aV_lO0M1jkRAFM:&imgrefurl=http://proverbs ofhell.tumblr.com/post/1982878211/inspcollection-2001-a-space-odyssey- dave&docid=Rh2O6pBSIEt57M&w=1920&h=1080&ei=CVtyTvenD7KmsQLrtITfCQ &zoom=1 23
    24. 24. References[Illustration of a Pilot at Console of Discovery Spaceship]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2011, from: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_7J_WGI7Jygw/S45l1Tq6wPI/AAAAAAAAEtk/gddgrGL NXKw/s1600/2001%2BA%2BSpace%2BOdyssey%2BPic%2B046.jpg[Illustration of a Man in Discovery Spaceship’s HAL Memory Array]. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2011, from: http://wodumedia.com/wp-content/uploads/HAL- 9000-is-about-to-get-his-hard-drive-fried-by-a-seriously-pissed-off-Dave.jpg 24

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