History module 4_sinaunang_panahon2[3]


Published on

Published in: Technology

History module 4_sinaunang_panahon2[3]

  2. 2. PHILIPPINE GEOGRAPHY, CLIMATE AND SETTING• Land surface: 114, 830 square statute miles• Length from north to south: 1,854 kms.• Width from east to west: 1,107• As a whole, the country has 1,294, 450 km2 (land sea)• 7, 107 islands
  4. 4. TopographyThree large Mountain Ranges: 1. Cordillera 2. Caraballo 3. Sierra MadreLarge River Systems:1. Rio Grande de Cagayan2. Agno Grande (Benguet, N.Ecija, Pangasinan , Tarlac)3. Abra River (Lepanto, Bontoc and Abra)4. Rio Grande de Pampanga (N. Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan)5. Rio Grande de Mindanao
  5. 5. Autonomous Regions• 1. Cordillera Administrative Region• 2. Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao
  6. 6. Cultural and Ancestral LandsCordillera Muslim Mindanao
  7. 7. Cordillera Administrative Region
  8. 8. Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao • 1. Basilan except Isabela City • 2. Lanao del Sur • 3. Maguindanao • 4. Sulu • 5. Tawi-Tawi
  9. 9. Climate• Habagat: southwest • Intertropical monsoon which covers Convergent Zone: the the weather from June meeting of the north to October and south winds that• Amihan: northeast resulted as a main monsoon also known as source of rain from June winter monsoon from to December December to March
  10. 10. Evolution and Evidences based on Archaeological and Anthropological ResearchPrehistory: covers the • Protohistory: refers to period where there was the period in Philippine the formation of the history when there was archipelago starting the beginning of the from having the development of material evidences in cultures from 500 BC to the existence of man 16th century AD. from the Pleistocene to 500 BC.
  11. 11. Elements in Understanding Historical Context Panahon (Time) Pook (Milieu) kultura (Culture)
  12. 12. ERA PERIOD EPOCH TIME RANGE FORM OF LIFE QUATERNARY Recent 10,000,000- Homo Pleistocene 2,500,000CENOZOIC TERTIARY Pliocene 12,000,000 Miocene 26,000,000 Grazing and Oligocene 38,000,000 carnivorous Eocene 54,000,000 mammals Paleocene 65,000,000 Cretaceous 136,000,000 Primates, flowering plantsMESOZOIC Jurassic 195,000,000 Birds Triassic 225,000,000 Mammals, dinosaursPALEOZOIC CARBONIFEROUS Permian 280,000,000 Reptiles, Fern Forests Amphibians, Insects Devonian 395,000,000 Silurian 430,000,000 Vascular land plants Ordovician 500,000,000 Fish Cambrian 570,000,000 Shellfish PRECAMBRIAN 700,000,000 Algae 1,500,000,000 Eucaryotic cells 3,500,000,000 Procaryotic cells 4,650,000,000 Formation of the
  13. 13. The Formation of the Archipelago• Mesozoic Period• Alfred Wegener theorized that Philippines was part of the large continent called the Gondwana that will include the Southeast Asia, Australia, Antarctica, Africa and South America 300 million years ago Massospondylus carinatus, a prosauropod from the Early Jurassic of South Africa
  14. 14. Mesozoic to Cenozoic• Mesozoic: continental drift resulting to separation of some continents at spreading of the sea floor• Cenozoic: emergence of pine trees• Rise of mountains from the sea as also shown in the chocolate hills in Bohol
  15. 15. Pleistocene Period (2.5 million years ago)• Quaternary: volcanoes, south glaciers ,rich biological resources, development of geo physical lands Quaternary Period Mammoths, which rose and fell during the Pleistocene epoch
  16. 16. Evolution of ManHomonization Sapientization• About 4 million years • The process of having used ago, human being has the capacity to know, created itself through produce and invent knowledge and culture that instruments for survival. It makes it distinct from was a stage of production animals. This was the instead of mere process of being the consumption. sapiens.
  17. 17. Evolution…Australopithecus• A primate with the closest characteristic of human being, and existed about 4 million years agoAustralopithecus Afarensis excavated by Leakey in 1974 in Ethiopia, estimated to have existed about 3.1 million years ago, and her name was Lucy
  18. 18. Homo Habilis• Considered as first human being existing about 1.8-1.6 million years ago that has a brain with a size volume of 500-800 cc and used stones in hunting
  19. 19. Homo ErectusDuring his time was the height ofpebble culture• Evidences in archaeology:1891- Java man in IndonesiaEstimated 1.8 million-800,000 yearsPeking Man – 500,000- 100,000 years ago discovered in Beijing, ChinaUse of maintenance and core tools, stone flakes java man
  20. 20. Peking Man(500,000 -100,000 years ago)
  21. 21. Homo Sapiens• Higher form of human specie that employed domestication• Larger brain with1500 ccBody built biggerDiscover of Homo Sapiens Neanderthalis in Germany Neanderthal Man, Cro-Magnon Man, estimated to have existed Modern Man 100,000-30,000 years ago
  22. 22. Homo Sapiens Sapiens • Human specie that has a tradition of pottery, burial jars, and advanced domestication
  23. 23. Austronesians (10,000 BC-9,000 BC)• Horticulture or farming • Hoabinhian – the tradition that• Two theories of their origin: spread and brought by• 1. Malay Peninsula to Indonesia Austronesians then to Philippines then to Pacific and Madagascar• 2. Taiwan or Formosa
  24. 24. Peopling in the Philippines• Austronesians based on • Otley Beyer – theorized flora and fauna in 1947 the Waves of• Linguistic similarities Migration• Spread of farming and • Solheim – Filipino horticulture archaeologist who and iron technology (F. theorized that the Landa Jocano), and country was inhabited theorized how Filipinos through land bridges as engaged trading with shown in the evidences Hindu in Cagayan and Tabon caves
  25. 25. Early Philippine Society, Economics, Religion and Culture• Spread of Islam in Southern Philippines• Mudum: the Arabian scholar who laid the foundation of Islam in Malay Peninsula in 14th century• Raja Baginda: about 1390 he was the ruler of Menangkabaw, Sumatra who arrived in Sulu and converted the place in Islam
  26. 26. Islamic Influence…• Abu Bakr: in 1450, after the death of Raja Baginda, he exercised his powers as sultan establishing a government patterned after the sultanate of Arabia thereby allowing Second figure to the left is an image of Abu-Bakr the spread of Islam
  27. 27. Islamic…• Serif Kabungsuan: he propagated Islam, and became the first sultan of Mindanao• Datu Marikudo: the legend in Maragtas about 13yh century AD he sold Panay Is. To the ten Bornean datus for a gold of salakot and long necklace for his wife Marikudo agreed in exchange for a golden Maniwantiwan salakot.
  28. 28. EARLY CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES Clothing in general• Kanggan – male upper attire that has blue or black collarless jacket• Bahag – male lower atire consisted of a strip of cloth wrapped about a waist passing down between the thighs• Visayans were most tattooed people and often called Pintados, and their tattoo was a sign of courage in defending the community• Putong: male headgear
  29. 29. Clothing• Baro or Camisa: woman’s dress in upper section• Saya or Patadyong: woman’s dress in the lower part (the illustration below came from Boxer Codex)
  30. 30. Social ClassesIn general: Tagalogs:• Nobles • Maginoo• Freemen • Timawa • Alipin• dependents The Maginoo usually has a title of a Gat or Lakan as in Lakan Dula or Gat Maitan
  31. 31. Tagalog Slaves• Aliping Namamahay: served • Aliping Sagigilid: had no his master only during property of his own, lived harvest and planting, rowed with his master and could for him, helped in the not even marry without the construction of his house latter’s consent and served his visitors
  32. 32. Causes of Slavery• 1. punishment of a crime• 2. prisoner of war• 3. Inheritance• 4. debt
  33. 33. Visayan Social ClassesSocial Classes Types of slaves• 1. datu • 1. tumatabon: worked only• 2. timawa when summoned• 3. oripun • 2.tumarampok: worked only for one day • 3. ayuey: worked for three days
  34. 34. Socio-Political and Economic Practices and Customs• Barangay: basic unit of • Usually one barangay or government consisting of tribe will have an alliance by 30-100 families means of a blood compact(derived from a boat) • Laws could be customary orCaracoa is a bigger boat written - the paying of tributes was in • Umalohokan: the public the form of crops announcer who will summon, and call the subjects of the datu by ringing the bell furiously
  35. 35. Socio-political economic…• Kaingin: system in which land was cleared by burning the shrubs and bushes• Barter: type of economic system at that time• Alibata: early form of writing• Type of ethnic and ecological relations:1. Ilawud: coastal communities2. Iraya: highland communities
  36. 36. Trial by Ordeal• 1. dip hands in boiling water • 3. plunging into the river and get the stones with lances and the one• 2. giving candles and the that came first is guilty one that died first is guilty • 4. chew uncooked rice and the saliva which is thickiest is guilty
  37. 37. Religion• Bathala: the superior gods of all the deities• Likha or larawan: carving of idols made of stone, gold or ivory to commemorate their dead relatives• Anito: Tagalog’s term for idols• Diwata: Visayan version of idols In the beginning, Lakapáti dwelled in heaven with her husband, Bathala
  38. 38. Spanish Chroniclers about the Early Philippines• Antonio Pigafetta – • Francisco Alcina – Historia chronicler of the Magellan de las Islas de Bisayas expedition• Juan de Plasencia – wrote the Customs of the Tagalogs• Antonio de Morga – Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas in 1609 in Mexico, annotated by Rizal in 1890
  39. 39. General Characteristics of the Archipelago during the Period• 1. barangay/balangay as • 4. various context in the use one political unit of resources and land• 2. predominance of ownership ecological principles • 5. collegial leadership• 3. ethnic relations • 6. social stratification • 7. rich tradition and heritage
  40. 40. Food for Thought:“A WINNER is a DREAMER who never gives up” Nelson Mandela