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Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Industrial Stormwater BenchmarksIndustrial Stormwater Benchmarks ––...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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OutlineOutlineOutline
• Background – Historical Context
• EPA Indus...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Key Historical EventsKey Historical EventsKey Historical Events
• 1...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Key Historical EventsKey Historical EventsKey Historical Events
• 1...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Group Permit OptionGroup Permit OptionGroup Permit Option
• Offered...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationT...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationT...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationT...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationT...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationT...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Group Permit OptionGroup Permit OptionGroup Permit Option
• Selecte...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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1995 Group Data1995 Group Data1995 Group Data
• Divided in similar ...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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MPCA BenchmarksMPCA BenchmarksMPCA Benchmarks
• All industrial sect...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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MPCA BenchmarksMPCA BenchmarksMPCA Benchmarks
NC State standards
12...
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Distribution of Data:Distribution of Data:Distribution of Data:
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Distribution of Data:
Normal Distribution
Distribution of Data:Dist...
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Distribution of Data:
Log Normal Distribution
Distribution of Data:...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Comparison of All Sector Data
To MPCA Benchmarks
Comparison of All ...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Comparison of All Sector Data
To MPCA Benchmarks
Comparison of All ...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Individual Sector DataIndividual Sector DataIndividual Sector Data
...
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Total Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended Solids
...
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Total Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended Solids
...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Total Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended Solids
...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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BODBODBOD
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
A B D E E F F G I K M O P P Q S U U U ...
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BODBODBOD
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
A B D E E F F G I K M O P P Q S U U U ...
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CODCODCOD
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB
%of...
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CODCODCOD
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB
%of...
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Total PhosphorusTotal PhosphorusTotal Phosphorus
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%...
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Total ZincTotal ZincTotal Zinc
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
A
1
A
3 B D E4 E1...
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Total IronTotal IronTotal Iron
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
9...
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Total IronTotal IronTotal Iron
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
9...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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Influence of On-Site MaterialsInfluence of OnInfluence of On--Site ...
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Stormwater Results For TRI and
Non-TRI Facilities
Stormwater Result...
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What is the probability a facility
will meet its benchmarks?
What i...
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Example 1995 Dataset: TSS
Sector P. Transportation/Warehousing
Exam...
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Two Possible TSS BenchmarksTwo Possible TSS BenchmarksTwo Possible ...
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Monte Carlo Simulation
Randomly draw four samples, then calculate m...
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ResultsResultsResults
19%34%Existing data set
% facilities meeting
...
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Scenario 2: Cut-off High
Concentrations
Scenario 2: CutScenario 2: ...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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ResultsResultsResults
33%44%Limit high values
(<500 mg/L)
19%34%Exi...
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Scenario 3: Resample
Take two additional samples
Scenario 3: Resamp...
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ResultsResultsResults
21%36%Two extra samples
33%44%Limit high valu...
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ConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
• Benchmarks more likely to be ex...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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ConclusionsConclusionsConclusions
• Certain industrial sectors are ...
Caltha LLPCaltha LLP
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QuestionsQuestionsQuestions
Loren Larson
Caltha LLP
Minneapolis, Mi...
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Comparison of Industial Stormwater Benchmarks To Historical Industrial Sector Monitoring Results

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This analysis demonstrates the impact of using "mean" versus "median" values when utilizing these types of data to set regulatory action levels.

Technical analysis of historical industrial sector stormwater monitoring data compared to current benchmark values being used in State general discharge permits. Data source is primarily from monitoring results collected through the US EPA Group Permitting initiative. Results identify key benchmark parameters for industrial sectors.

Published in: Engineering

Comparison of Industial Stormwater Benchmarks To Historical Industrial Sector Monitoring Results

  1. 1. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Industrial Stormwater BenchmarksIndustrial Stormwater Benchmarks –– Comparison of New Minnesota BenchmarkComparison of New Minnesota Benchmark Concentrations To Historic IndustryConcentrations To Historic Industry--specificspecific Testing ResultsTesting Results Loren J. Larson Managing Partner Caltha LLP, Minneapolis Conference on the Environment | Brooklyn Park, Minnesota | November 9, 2010
  2. 2. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 OutlineOutlineOutline • Background – Historical Context • EPA Industrial Group Sampling • Comparison of MPCA Benchmarks to Past Data • Projection of Future Results • Summary
  3. 3. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Key Historical EventsKey Historical EventsKey Historical Events • 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act » NPDES permit program • 1977-85 NURP Studies » Identified urban runoff as important factor impacting water quality • 1987 Amendment to Clean Water Act » Required stormwater discharge be addressed under NPDES permitting program
  4. 4. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Key Historical EventsKey Historical EventsKey Historical Events • 1990 - EPA promulgates stormwater permit rules » Requires industrial facilities to be permitted by Sept. 1992 » Publishes Group Permit option • 1990-1992 - General permits drafted by EPA and States » 1991 MPCA publishes general permit • 1992 – Most facilities permitted under State or EPA general permit
  5. 5. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Group Permit OptionGroup Permit OptionGroup Permit Option • Offered option to be covered under permit customized for industry sector » Single company with multiple locations » Multiple companies, trade associations • EPA accepted Group Permit applications • Applications required monitoring of stormwater discharge from selected group members » Representative of group » Wide geographic distribution
  6. 6. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring Location
  7. 7. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring Location
  8. 8. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring Location
  9. 9. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring Location
  10. 10. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Typical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring LocationTypical Group Monitoring Location
  11. 11. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Group Permit OptionGroup Permit OptionGroup Permit Option • Selected facilities conducted monitoring and submitted data to EPA • By 1992, most facilities in Groups had State general permits available » State permits were considerable less burdensome • Ultimately Groups disbanded • In Dec. 1995, EPA published Group data and benchmarks in Federal Register
  12. 12. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 1995 Group Data1995 Group Data1995 Group Data • Divided in similar sector designations (A–AC) still used today » More subsectors • Some parameters represented by most sectors » TSS, BOD, COD • Some parameters represented by only a few sectors » TP, metals, toxic organics • Range of number of results for each sector » 10 – 20, up to hundreds
  13. 13. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 MPCA BenchmarksMPCA BenchmarksMPCA Benchmarks • All industrial sectors have one or more benchmarks • All sectors have benchmark for Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
  14. 14. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 MPCA BenchmarksMPCA BenchmarksMPCA Benchmarks NC State standards 12TP Median of NURP Results 0.680.68Nitrate Many based on FAV in State standards Adjusted for hardness Many based on FAV in State standards Adjusted for hardness 120 25 100 2010 MPCA Benchmarks * Sb, Ar, Cd, Cu, Se, Ag, Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Zn COD BOD TSS Detection Limit x 3.18Detection Limit x 3.18 Ambient water quality criteriaAmbient water quality criteria 4x BOD benchmark 120 POTW Secondary Treatment Standards 30 Median of NURP Results 100 Basis for EPA Benchmark 1995 EPA Benchmark * Note: The same benchmarks are used by many States, therefore analysis and conclusions apply across US
  15. 15. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Distribution of Data:Distribution of Data:Distribution of Data:
  16. 16. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Distribution of Data: Normal Distribution Distribution of Data:Distribution of Data: Normal DistributionNormal Distribution
  17. 17. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Distribution of Data: Log Normal Distribution Distribution of Data:Distribution of Data: Log Normal DistributionLog Normal Distribution
  18. 18. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Comparison of All Sector Data To MPCA Benchmarks Comparison of All Sector DataComparison of All Sector Data To MPCA BenchmarksTo MPCA Benchmarks • Combine all 1995 industrial sector data • Compare MEDIAN to Benchmark Median (mg/L) / Benchmark (mg/L)
  19. 19. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Comparison of All Sector Data To MPCA Benchmarks Comparison of All Sector DataComparison of All Sector Data To MPCA BenchmarksTo MPCA Benchmarks 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TSS TP BOD COD Cr Cd Ag Ni Al Fe Pb Cu Zn Median/Benchmark Median of all data = MPCA Benchmark Insuff. data Insuff. data Insuff. data Insuff. data
  20. 20. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Individual Sector DataIndividual Sector DataIndividual Sector Data • Conventional Wastewater Parameters » TSS, BOD, COD, TP • Heavy metals » Fe, Zn • Data expressed as “% of sector individual results that exceed benchmark” » e.g., probability that any one sample exceeds benchmark • Only presenting results for sectors that are assigned that chemical benchmark
  21. 21. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended Solids 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% A1 A3 B D E4 E1 F1 F3 G I K M O P2 P4 Q S U U U U V X Y AA AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark
  22. 22. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended Solids 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% A1 A3 B D E4 E1 F1 F3 G I K M O P2 P4 Q S U U U U V X Y AA AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark A3.Log storage & handling D. Asphalt & paving prod. G. Mining L. Landfills U8. Fats/Oils manufacturing
  23. 23. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended SolidsTotal Suspended Solids 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% A1 A3 B D E4 E1 F1 F3 G I K M O P2 P4 Q S U U U U V X Y AA AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark USPS
  24. 24. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 BODBODBOD 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% A B D E E F F G I K M O P P Q S U U U U V X Y AA AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark
  25. 25. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 BODBODBOD 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% A B D E E F F G I K M O P P Q S U U U U V X Y AA AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark U8. Fats/Oils manufacturing
  26. 26. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 CODCODCOD 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark
  27. 27. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 CODCODCOD 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark U8. Fats/Oils manufacturing A1. Saw Mills
  28. 28. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total PhosphorusTotal PhosphorusTotal Phosphorus 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark
  29. 29. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total ZincTotal ZincTotal Zinc 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% A 1 A 3 B D E4 E1 F1 F3 G I K M O P2 P4 Q S U U U U V X Y A A AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark
  30. 30. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total IronTotal IronTotal Iron 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark
  31. 31. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Total IronTotal IronTotal Iron 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% A C E E F H K N P P S U U U X Z AB %ofSamplesExceedingMPCABenchmark M. Auto salvage F. Foundries
  32. 32. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Influence of On-Site MaterialsInfluence of OnInfluence of On--Site MaterialsSite Materials Compared stormwater results within two subgroups: 1. TRI Reporters – facilities that process larger quantities of chemical 2. Non TRI Reporters - facilities that use small quantities or none of chemical
  33. 33. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Stormwater Results For TRI and Non-TRI Facilities Stormwater Results For TRI andStormwater Results For TRI and NonNon--TRI FacilitiesTRI Facilities 50% 56% 21% 29% 40% 45% 51% 54% 0% 50% 100% TRI Non TRI TRI Non TRI TRI Non TRI TRI Non TRI %ofSamplesExceedingBenchmark CopperCopper AluminumLead Zinc
  34. 34. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 What is the probability a facility will meet its benchmarks? What is the probability a facilityWhat is the probability a facility will meet its benchmarks?will meet its benchmarks? • Benchmarks are not compared to single values • Minimum of four quarterly samples are collected • Mean of all samples is compared to benchmark concentration
  35. 35. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Example 1995 Dataset: TSS Sector P. Transportation/Warehousing Example 1995 Dataset: TSSExample 1995 Dataset: TSS Sector P. Transportation/WarehousingSector P. Transportation/WarehousingY-Axis
  36. 36. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Two Possible TSS BenchmarksTwo Possible TSS BenchmarksTwo Possible TSS BenchmarksY-Axis 65 mg/L Discharges to wetlands 100 mg/L All other discharges
  37. 37. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Monte Carlo Simulation Randomly draw four samples, then calculate mean; 1,000 trials Monte Carlo SimulationMonte Carlo Simulation Randomly draw four samples, then calculate mean; 1,000 trialsRandomly draw four samples, then calculate mean; 1,000 trialsY-Axis Sample #1 Sample #2 Sample #3 Sample #4 …then calculate mean
  38. 38. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 ResultsResultsResults 19%34%Existing data set % facilities meeting 65 mg/L benchmark % facilities meeting 100 mg/L benchmark
  39. 39. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Scenario 2: Cut-off High Concentrations Scenario 2: CutScenario 2: Cut--off Highoff High ConcentrationsConcentrationsY-Axis Limit highest values to < 500 mg/L
  40. 40. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 ResultsResultsResults 33%44%Limit high values (<500 mg/L) 19%34%Existing data set % facilities meeting 65 mg/L benchmark % facilities meeting 100 mg/L benchmark
  41. 41. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 Scenario 3: Resample Take two additional samples Scenario 3: ResampleScenario 3: Resample Take two additional samplesTake two additional samplesY-Axis Sample #5 Sample #6
  42. 42. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 ResultsResultsResults 21%36%Two extra samples 33%44%Limit high values (<500 mg/L) 19%34%Existing data set % facilities meeting 65 mg/L benchmark % facilities meeting 100 mg/L benchmark
  43. 43. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 ConclusionsConclusionsConclusions • Benchmarks more likely to be exceeded are: » TSS » Metals, especially iron • All industrial sectors are equally likely to exceed benchmarks for TSS • For toxic chemicals and metals, volume of use or storage on-site is not a good predictor of meeting benchmarks
  44. 44. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 ConclusionsConclusionsConclusions • Certain industrial sectors are more likely to exceed other benchmarks » Food sector – COD, BOD » Sawmills – COD » Primary metals/foundries – Fe, Cu » Concrete plants – Fe » Salvage yards – Al, Fe • Improving chance of meeting benchmarks requires active prevention program • Resampling without corrective action does not improve chances of meeting benchmarks
  45. 45. Caltha LLPCaltha LLP www.calthacompany.com/?page_id=16 QuestionsQuestionsQuestions Loren Larson Caltha LLP Minneapolis, Minnesota llarson@calthacompany.com (763) 208-6430

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