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Proposal       Widener Universitys Graduate program in Human Sexuality offers our group a unique andpromising opportunity ...
Preliminary campaign ideas are a multi-media display to take to these national conferences, fullcolor brochures, a public ...
Prospectus>Brief HistoryThe Human Sexuality Graduate Program originated at The University of Pennsylvania but permanentlym...
descriptions, which are sent out to prospective students after they contact Widener. There wasinformation about the progra...
- raising the profiles of unknown organizations       - effectiveness of printed materials (magazine articles)>Production ...
not on undergrads that are currently attending Widener, encouraging word-of-mouth and creatingconsumer advocates assisted ...
creating. These posters and brochures, was also distributed at Graduate Programs Day and somecommunity health events we wa...
Literature Review      The Human Sexuality Graduate Program at Widener University was unique in that itwas the only progra...
necessary training for graduate students in psychology in relation to human sexuality. Thearticle mentioned Widener’s dual...
graduate degrees in psychology or sociology, but were not trained in human sexuality, maynot readily adaptable to the vast...
White enrollment level which virtually stayed unchanged. Also more women were in graduateschool compared to men, 1-2% more...
study presented the idea that students choose schools and campuses based on the facilitiesand resources present. Higher ed...
>Decisions, Decisions       All of this research and history means nothing if we cannot understand how ourcurrent and futu...
and/or a negative image.       Values were factored into every decision, whether or not it was realized. Valuesshould stat...
recalled by an outsider when speaking of an organization. Desired Future Image was whatthe organization want to have both ...
Advertising appeals help to create an engaging campaign theme, or a product themeor even a poster or TV commercial. The be...
>Human SEXuality. Sex as a Possible Appeal         Sex as an appeal for Human Sexuality. You knew there was a high chance ...
the desires, but through the use of their intelligence and criteria, the same response will notgained so easily as it was ...
over the course of a few years. After the advertising, the researchers found that the number ofvasectomies the clinic perf...
Focus Group Analysis>Background       The Human Sexuality Department of Widener University was going through some challeng...
The participants for the focus group was by Dr. Dyson (Department Head of the HumanSexuality Program). We were aiming for ...
>Focus Group Breakdown       The first question asked of the participants was if they are going to attend graduate school ...
The discussion then led to what medium influences the choices made or being made aboutgraduate school. A website was said ...
Focus Group 2: Analysis       The second focus group was held on February 27, 2007 in Lathem Hall. The focus groupconsiste...
collegiate atmosphere that they would like us to convey. The group also felt that a lack of outdoor shotshurt the photogra...
Center on that day in order to write about the events. Which of course we did and gathered pictures andsome information on...
Findings & Discussion       Our client needed materials that would help increase the awareness of the Human SexualityGradu...
Sexuality Graduate Program a positive reputation through the use of an accessible logo.       The logo has a few different...
match the school’s colors exactly. The half circle that runs vertically across the front cover was used tolead the viewer’...
photograph was chosen for the back cover because the “W” represents the word “Widener,” whichfurther helps to create brand...
of the rest of the article. The article was kept short due to the standard length of a newspaper article.The article was w...
info. It will have a gallery slide but it wont be of the same quality delivery as the InteractivePowerPoint will have. The...
Conclusion       After a long year filled with its ups and downs, we finally reached the end of the project. It beena long...
groups felt about certain materials wasn’t always the same as what our client wanted. By keeping inclose contact, it allow...
will still hand out brochures to interested patrons who visit the Widener booth at conferences, however,there is now a fla...
Works CitedAchrol, Ravi S. (1991) Evolution of the Marketing Organization: New Forms for Turbulent       Environments. Jou...
Roering, Kenneth J., Ruekert, Robert W., Walker, Orville C. (1985) The Organization of Marketing       Activities: A Conti...
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Enrollment Campaign for the Human Sexuality Graduate Program at Widener University

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Table of Contents: http://goo.gl/7w2qG

Senior Project for Widener
University in 2007. As an Advertising/P.R. major, my team and I had to create a full-scale campaign to boost enrollment in the Human Sexuality program at Widener University. It was a year-long project that culminated with a presentation to Widener students and faculty (Dr. Don Dyson being included) to present our findings and suggestions.

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Enrollment Campaign for the Human Sexuality Graduate Program at Widener University

  1. 1. Proposal Widener Universitys Graduate program in Human Sexuality offers our group a unique andpromising opportunity for our Senior Capstone project. The director of the program, Dr. Don Dyson,feels that the program needs more exposure to increase enrollment. The program currently finds 150students enrolled in masters and doctoral classes. Most of the student body was drawn fromprofessionals outside the Widener community, from as many as ten different countries. This tells usthat the program had a great reputation, it just needs more exposure. The Human Sexuality programwas started at University of Pennsylvania, but moved exclusively to Widener University in 1999.Widener provides graduate students the opportunity to obtain joint degrees with the sociology andpsychology departments. The Widener program offers three tracts of study within this program,including clinical (for training counselors) and educational (teachers and community leaders). The opportunity to work with Dr. Dyson was unique for two reasons. First and foremost, theprogram is the only nationally accredited program of its kind. Only two other schools offer the samedegrees in the country, and they are not only geographically far from Widener, (California and Florida)but are only regionally accredited. The second unique reason was the program currently had extremelyfew promotional materials. The Human Sexuality program has class information to mail out atpotential students requests and some information on Wideners website that was fairly hidden andnondescript. They relied heavily on yearly conferences where they had display tables, thrown byprofessional organizations such as SSSS, SIECUS, AASECT and SSTAR. These are organizations wecould target as potential target markets. Therefore, we had the opportunity to create a promotionalcampaign virtually "from scratch". Human Sexuality Graduate Program 1/37
  2. 2. Preliminary campaign ideas are a multi-media display to take to these national conferences, fullcolor brochures, a public relations special event and improvements to the website, plus articlesprepared for the department and sent to various news outlets. Each member of this group had different strengths that will add to this project. Paris will focuson creative design choices and the analysis of statistical research. Theresas strengths lie in promotionsand event planning. Scott had much of his focus on the writing we use for this campaign, including afeature article "pull-out" for Widener Magazine. Overall, this project had enormous potential for our Capstone project. Dr. Dyson was helpfuland easy to talk to, and we are looking forward to beginning this project. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 2/37
  3. 3. Prospectus>Brief HistoryThe Human Sexuality Graduate Program originated at The University of Pennsylvania but permanentlymoved to Widener University in 1999. The Program offers students three (3) tracks of study they canpursue: 1) The Clinical track, which provides training for people who will pursue "hands-on" careers in therapy as counselors 2) The Educational track, which caters to people furthering their careers in teaching and community outreach programs 3) The Research track which prepares statisticians and researchers for advancement in their field. The Human Sexuality Graduate Doctoral Program at Widener University was in a uniqueposition. In comparison to the general population of graduate programs, the program that WidenerUniversity has is the only accredited Human Sexuality graduate program in the country. However, fewpeople know of its existence. The program attracts people worldwide who are interested in garnering anaccredited doctorate degree in Human Sexuality. Despite this, the number of currently enrolled studentshovers around 150. Even students who attend Widener University have no idea what resources areavailable within the Widener community. This was the biggest and most glaring challenge (out of twomain challenges) faced by the Human Sexuality community at Widener. The first challenge was to remedy the minimal exposure and the second was the lack ofpromotional materials. The only materials available about this graduate program are the class Human Sexuality Graduate Program 3/37
  4. 4. descriptions, which are sent out to prospective students after they contact Widener. There wasinformation about the program on Wideners website, but it was purely about enrollment and classes.There was nothing descriptive or enticing about the page, and it was hidden amongst the pages ofGraduate Admissions. The Human Sexuality Graduate Program at Widener makes annual appearances at conferencesheld by organizations in the field. Examples of these groups include The Society for the ScientificStudy of Sexuality (Quad-S), the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States(SIECUS), the American Association of Sexuality Educators Counselors and Therapists (AASECT)and the Society for Sex Therapy and Research (SSTAR). The only materials Dr. Dyson had to reachpeople at these events was the course descriptions. These are too bland to attract potential students inany setting. As we have learned in campaigns classes, information alone does not move product. Therefore, our group must create materials and events to create awareness andincrease enrollment in this graduate program. It was an unparalleled opportunity for our Capstonegroup to create an original Integrated Marketing Promotion project.>Planning We have already investigated the available materials, which include class descriptions andenrollment requirements, and the Widener web page that the program had.The areas we have to research to determine what steps to take next include the following: - enrollment management - human sexuality graduate programs - decision making process - graduate enrollment (both demographics and appeals) - effectiveness of multimedia in presentations Human Sexuality Graduate Program 4/37
  5. 5. - raising the profiles of unknown organizations - effectiveness of printed materials (magazine articles)>Production Our IMC campaign did include multi-media displays, full-color brochures, news articles, logos,brand awareness outreach, and special events. The main task was to establish an identity for theProgram that people will come to recognize in the future. Creating brand awareness will pave the wayto increasing enrollment. Our first objective was to create a logo unique to the program, within the confines of Widenersregulations. It was used on all promotional materials for the program, helping to create brandawareness. Also important to our goals was seeing the materials that the program currently uses atnational conventions. Since these conventions are not close to home, the multimedia display was haveto be user-friendly and easy to pack for travel. We also would like to use promotional give away itemssuch as pens and stickers, to further ensure spreading the brand we are creating. Dr. Dyson mentioned that his program had sponsored award dinners at past conventions. Ourgroup gathered pictures and information about these dinners to begin a press folder. Creating this presskit began to establish the programs history, and give the department something to send to anynewspaper, organization or prospective applicant interested in the program. Though our main goal was awareness, we are not trying to attract students on campus, asmall table during Graduate Day would help spread knowledge of the Program throughout Widenerscommunity. This added to the value of the brand we are creating. A student can just glance over at thetable for a mere ~7 seconds and walk away; it was still enough to evoke recognition of the brand. Astudent can pass by the table at least twice if they are set up in the UC Lobby (going in and out oflunch). Those 14 seconds of exposure to a single student could spark an interest. While our focus was Human Sexuality Graduate Program 5/37
  6. 6. not on undergrads that are currently attending Widener, encouraging word-of-mouth and creatingconsumer advocates assisted us in achieving our overall goal. Our primary target audience was the student who was looking for graduate programs in HumanSexuality but not finding one that fits his or her schedule and/or provides an education that isworthwhile. A simple brochure targeted to reach this audience was effective because there was nothingavailable right now to lure potential applicants. Since this program draws students from many othercountries, we used pictures of the Widener campus that are aesthetically pleasing to give futurestudents an idea of what this area looks like. Someone interested in the program from Arizona might beswayed to get more information about Widener if they saw brochure of our campus in the fall. Withthe rise in use of PDF files, our basic brochure can be stored as a PDF file, allowing anyone in theworld to view it without changing fonts or losing colors or design choices. The Internet is a great assetthat allows us to send a message with a high yield/low cost ratio. Another method we focused on is a magazine pull out. This had the same layout and designchoices as the brochure, to keep the brand we are creating consistent. It was along the lines of anadvertisement. It was not be a text heavy pull out, but instead contain high-resolution pictures. It wasbe attention getting, to help create name recognition for this brand.>Distribution We plan to have our multimedia presentation distributed at the biannual conferences Dr. Dysonattends to promote the program. Also, our updates to the web page was be incorporated into theprograms current web page. The magazine article we wrote was published in the Widener DomeNewspaper. Brochures and posters was be placed in the psychology and sociology departments here atWidener, since the human sexuality program offers joint degrees with these departments. Knowledgeof this program around Widener will help with name recognition and spreading the brand we are Human Sexuality Graduate Program 6/37
  7. 7. creating. These posters and brochures, was also distributed at Graduate Programs Day and somecommunity health events we want to see the program involved with.>Evaluation We propose that after one year of implementing our IMC Campaign, the Human Sexuality program will enjoy: - enrollment increased by 5% - recognition in the Widener community Human Sexuality Graduate Program 7/37
  8. 8. Literature Review The Human Sexuality Graduate Program at Widener University was unique in that itwas the only program of its kind in the entire country, yet there were only 150 studentscurrently enrolled in the program. The goal of our project was to raise the awareness of theprogram and thereby increase enrollment in the program. In order to raise the awareness of the program within the Widener community andincrease enrollment of the Human Sexuality Graduate Program, we had to create a campaignthat involves the creation of multimedia displays, brochures, news articles, logos, brandawareness outreach, and special events. The following lists the various ways that we marketed and advertised the program. Westudied what others have already done, and found the best way to effectively market theprogram so that more students enroll. There were seven key areas that we have researchedthat was used in our campaign: enrollment management, human sexuality graduateprograms, the decision making process, graduate enrollment, effectiveness of multimedia inpresentations, raising the profile of unknown organizations, and effectiveness of printedmaterials.>Human Sexuality in the World “...Psychologists who had no prior AIDS education, one component of sexualityeducation, were more likely to hold negative attitudes towards gay individuals and personswith AIDS.” (Maguire) This dissertation, written by a Widener graduate student, discussed the lack of Human Sexuality Graduate Program 8/37
  9. 9. necessary training for graduate students in psychology in relation to human sexuality. Thearticle mentioned Widener’s dual major program, for graduate students that want aneducation doctoral degree with additional emphasis on human sexuality. The peopleinterested in a field of study was our target audience. The lack of curriculum that addresshuman sexuality was evident in this work, the author addressed the fact that people obtaininggraduate degrees in psychology were inexperienced in this area, though they may need toaddress it in their practical experience. The article also discussed the lack of preparedness inthis field, meaning people who pursued graduate degrees were generally unprepared forspecialties in areas regarding human sexuality. When searching for human sexuality graduate programs on-line, which simulated howour target market most likely find Widener’s program, only one relevant article was found thataddresses human sexuality as a curriculum. When we created more press regarding Dr.Dyson’s program, there was more articles available about human sexuality classes,specifically the one’s at Widener. An interesting point of the article was when the authorpoints out that “no single department or disciple can address all aspects of human sexualityand adequately address the material that must covered.” (Leiblum). That accusation was completely untrue, knowing that Widener’s graduate program inhuman sexuality was all-encompassing. However, the program’s lack of awareness washugely evident, since the article seemed to express that the only resource available to peopleinterested in this discipline was one class, and we know that Widener had an entire graduateprogram devoted to training people in this area. Another thing this article stressed was thatpeople who receive training in this class suggest that they were subsequently morecomfortable discussing topics related to human sexuality, and were more tolerant of topicsrelated to this field of study. This was a blatant warning to our project that people who receive Human Sexuality Graduate Program 9/37
  10. 10. graduate degrees in psychology or sociology, but were not trained in human sexuality, maynot readily adaptable to the vastly changing field of therapy and counseling.>Graduates: Our Bread and Butter We located some of the most recent demographics of graduate students. The best wayto create a campaign for a target audience was to determine the factors that created thattarget market, that niche in society we were aiming for. “Parents education does matter for graduate school attendance. 76% of students whoparents didnt have a education level higher than High School didnt attend graduate school,compared to the 62% of the parents that had postgraduate education.” (Goyette). This research discussed attributes of potential graduate students, who they might andthe dynamics of their family situations. That helped us to determine what market was themost beneficial to target. It literally profiled what backgrounds graduate students was going tocome from. Having such information available helped narrow the focus and scope of ourcampaign to better hone in on the target audience. The center of the entire graduate sector focused on the information gathered from asurvey that was done during the Fall of 2004. The goal was to gather specific details relatingto graduate enrollment during that period. 74% of all graduates who enrolled that semesterwere White. 11% were Black. 6% were Asian and 8% were Latino/Hispanic. 1% wereAmerican Indian. (Brown). Race information may have seemed useless, but different racesrespond differently to similar messages and different cultures have different values in life.That knowledge helped us to avoid stepping on the toes of people. Over the time period of1986-2004, the minority enrollment as graduate students increased 5% compared to the Human Sexuality Graduate Program 10/37
  11. 11. White enrollment level which virtually stayed unchanged. Also more women were in graduateschool compared to men, 1-2% more. (Brown) It was the lack of cultural specific messagesbeing targeted at minorities, but research showed something was positively affectingminorities and women. Therefore, any promotional material we created cannot bias itselftowards men or women. As for racial promotions, we created neutral cultural materials, as incommon goals shared by all cultures.>Graduates: Factors Involved Not all of the focus was put on the graduate student or their history. Another studydecided to focus on the factors involved in actually getting into a graduate school. The resultswere ranked from most important to least important. college transcript, completed applicationsforms, GRE Aptitude Test Scores, letters of recommendation from undergraduate faculty, andGRE Advanced Test Scores. (Lehman) The information gleaned from this study concernswhich factors graduate candidates consider most important in their quest for finding the mostappropriate graduate school. This information was crucial in deciding what factors wehighlight when trying to market Dr. Dyson’s program to the outside world. The peopleinterviewed in this study were exactly the type of candidates we were interested in havingapply to this program. This study was helpful in determining what was influencing thesepotential applicants. Another interesting find in this report was that graduate programapplicants seem too concerned with the same factors within sex and age groups, while theirconcerns about graduate programs differed remarkably by ethnic groups. That was a hugefactor in determining our target market and how we reached them. Another factor which was considered in another study was the graduate school itself. A Human Sexuality Graduate Program 11/37
  12. 12. study presented the idea that students choose schools and campuses based on the facilitiesand resources present. Higher education enrollment decisions were greatly influenced by thefacilities that a college provides them. Based on these facilities (or lack there of), studentsdecide to stay or leave a particular higher education campus. A study done by the Associationof Higher Education Facilities Officers proves this. The results stated that participants, “73.6%says that buildings that house their majors were important or very important to them” (June). This research clarifies that we can focus on Kapelski Learning Center [KLC] andAcademic Center North [ACN] when crafting promotional material for the Human SexualityGraduate Program. KLC has a fountain that we can focus on for photos. It was was a uniquefeature on campus that was one of the ways of separating Kapelski Learning Center from theother structures on campus. The other feature we can highlight were the white benches in thecourtyard and the pillars that circle around of next to KLC. Academic Center North has the oldsoccer field outside and the dark tinted window expansion that we can use in a promotionalcampaign. Gender played a role deciding what major resources were important to thedifferent sexes in choosing a school. Females focused on the library, classrooms, studentunion, open space, and buildings that hold a major. Males focused more on computer andtechnology resources, research and lab and varsity athletics facilities. (June) The Wolfgram Memorial Library has a rather peculiar shape to it. The triangle-shapedconstruction differentiates the library in the Widener community. Statistics have shown that aslightly higher number of women than men were attending graduate schools. Statistics havealso shown that the number of graduate-bound minorities were on the rise, so it was wiser tospend a little more effort to market towards women and minority undergraduates who werelooking to get into a graduate school. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 12/37
  13. 13. >Decisions, Decisions All of this research and history means nothing if we cannot understand how ourcurrent and future prospects decide on what to do and where to. So to effectively plan acampaign for them, we must effectively think like them. And define decision-making theoryallows use to do just that and created something that did fit our specific needs. Decision-making was a thought process that must understood before a campaign,idea, plan, or product was put into action. It does not matter who or what the end product/result was for. If people were involved in some way, then the decision making process has toexamined and/or defined to cater to the specific needs of a project or campaigns targetaudience or market. Barry F. Anderson, a professor at Portland State University with a PhD in ExperimentalPsychology. His book, The Three Secrets of Wise Decision Making, focuses on the threesecrets of decision-making. The three secrets were Courage, Creativity, and BalancedJudgment. Courage was the ability to rational when faced with a choice or problem. Creativityallows someone to fully understand a situation from all angles. Balanced Judgment gives theopportunity to approach a single decision in an even manner. (Anderson) These three parts were do not decide on choices alone. Everyone references valuesand alternatives at some point to come up with a well thought out choice in a matter. And ifwe forget to take in consideration the values and alternatives of certain cultures, gender, orsocio-economic class when creating a persuasive or informative campaign for the HumanSexuality Graduate Program (HSGP) of Widener University, could lead to negative publicity Human Sexuality Graduate Program 13/37
  14. 14. and/or a negative image. Values were factored into every decision, whether or not it was realized. Valuesshould stated more as goals rather than problems. Alternatives were exactly that. Anotheropportunity or disadvantage to consider when trying to make a decision. Values caninfluence alternative decisions and vice versa. (Anderson) All alternatives should comparedto the set values before choosing a decision that fits everything. By understanding how decisions were reached and rationalized in the human mind, itbecomes easier to create a project, product or campaign for a particular target audience.However, before we were able to just jump into crafting material for HSGP, we mustunderstand the image they have now and the image they want to achieve. Some once said“Image was everything”.>Image was Everything As of right now, we cant go right into the production stage of our campaign without firstreviewing the ins and outs of an organizational image. Every action or idea we plan or createhad an effect on the overall image in the mind of not only potential prospects but even thefaculty that attends Widener University, especially those in the department of HumanSexuality. That was why it was important for us to gather a basic understanding oforganizational image. Corley designed a chart that defines the 6 basic levels of image. Construed ExternalImage was how an organizations membership perceive the outsiders to view theorganization. The next image step was Projected Image. That was the message that theorganization may or may not want to send out and it was generally the dominant image Human Sexuality Graduate Program 14/37
  15. 15. recalled by an outsider when speaking of an organization. Desired Future Image was whatthe organization want to have both internal and external people remember sometime in thenear future. (Corley) There was no need to continue because Wideners Human SexualityProgram was on the bottom of the chart. However for reference, the last stage of image wasReputation.“Relatively stable, long-term, collective judgments by outsiders of an organizations actionsand achievements” (Corley). Let me just say that even though it sounds as though it wasalways positive, there were many cases where Reputation can a negative in the collectiveminds of the people. And as my undergraduate Professor Bartoo said, “It was better to haveno reputation than a bad one”. The situation with the Human Sexuality Places us on the bottom rung, or even lower.This was only because most community members of Widener were unaware of the Universityhaving a nationally accredited graduate program in Human Sexuality which was the only oneof its kind in the world. So before we try to go forward and reach out into the world with ourmessage and materials, we must inform Wideners own society and let the word get around. Itisnt good business to have the world know of you but people in your own organizationunaware of your presence or existence.>What Moves You? Appeals and Media We have the basic of creating a well thought out campaign, however we were missingthe actual process for materials and themes. Every campaign or project follows a certaintheme or appeal to better attune to the mind of its target audience and get them to react orrespond to a piece of promotional in the fashion that the creators wanted. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 15/37
  16. 16. Advertising appeals help to create an engaging campaign theme, or a product themeor even a poster or TV commercial. The best choice in choosing an appeal was to pick theone that best relates with your target audience. Advertising appeals were used to capture the attention of the target audience and/orsell a product, service, or cause upon the specified market. Advertising appeals werenormally broken into 2 over-arching sections: Emotional appeals and Rational appeals.(Wikipedia) Rational appeals focuses on the actual experience a product or service provides.There was comparisons to other brands and information stating why one product was betterthan another. Emotional appeals presents a product or a service to a consumers mental or socialneeds. The pros and cons of a product were never really discussed openly in anadvertisement. This appeal relies more on generating a positive or negative response in aconsumer. (Wikipedia) Honestly, we tried a number of different appeals and angles in order to figure out whatconnects with our target audience better. The appeals we had in mind were Elitist appeal anda family appeal. And another appeal was self-fulfillment/ survival. Being the only GraduateProgram in the world for Human Sexuality, the feeling of elitism was very easy to focus on.We were juggling the idea of family as an appeal because enrollment and successfulcompletion of a graduate program brings with it promise of a better future and a secure jobarea. It provides extra money that could used for your daughters college fund along with anew car when she gets of age. And self-fulfillment/survival was simply an appeal that focuseson the individual bettering their self at life and fighting for survival in an unstable job market. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 16/37
  17. 17. >Human SEXuality. Sex as a Possible Appeal Sex as an appeal for Human Sexuality. You knew there was a high chance of it comingup or being mentioned. Sex as an advertisement appeal bombards a consumer on a dailybasis. It was almost impossible to try to use some form of the media without running across atleast one sexually suggestive ad. It peppers the media landscape from TV to the Internet. Butthere were reasons it was used so much. And reasons why more sexually ads seem to targetmales rather than females. However, before we just decide to slap a half naked chick on ourlogo, we must first come to grips with how each gender views sexual messages and sex as awhole. As far as advertising appeals go, sex was in second place behind self-preservation(looking out for numero uno). The appeal for sex comes from biological and instinctivebeginnings. Both genders views sex differently. The focus of sex to men was to spread theirgenetic DNA as far as possible, so they care little about the woman inherent qualities. Thequalities men look for in a woman were beauty and sexual attractiveness. (Taflinger) On thatlittle note alone, it was possible to see why a half naked chick on a car in a beer commercialwith instantly capture the attention of a guy who was watching TV. Women were different because they have a greater interest in the children they hopeto produce one day. Women were selective because they want a man who genetic materialor DNA to help to raise a healthy child. Her focus was not just on looks, but a variety ofcriteria that includes status, future holdings, personality, etc. They had the same sexualdesires as men; they just repressed it as they check out other criteria. (Taflinger) This explained why sexual advertisements were shifted to men more rather thanwomen. It was easier to attract men then women using a sexual approach. Women too have Human Sexuality Graduate Program 17/37
  18. 18. the desires, but through the use of their intelligence and criteria, the same response will notgained so easily as it was in men. And due to the time and space restraints, the workrequirement for sexually charged ads for women wasnt as effective as compared to men.(Taflinger) Any type of campaign or product that tried to take a sexual angle must realize that menand women differ on the subject. The project must be planned out and approached from allangles to best decide how to entice use of a product or service from both sexes. And inHuman Sexuality where it can be any combination of men and/or women being discussed, itdidnt make much sense to focus on strictly men-women relations or even advertise orsuggest it. The difficulty was coming up with a campaign that was full of sexual tension ANDappeals to all sexual orientations without offending anyone. And seeing the slim chances ofthat actually happening effectively, it was better to not get caught up on it.>Effectiveness of Multimedia Presentations This section focused on the best methods that were proven to work. Methods such asappeals, themes, format, medium, etc. These were the same things we were thinking aboutwhen working on the campaign for the Graduate Program. This study was conducted to see how effective advertising was. A group was tested inSao Paulo, Brazil to measure how effective an ad was in several magazines. In eightmagazines, four ads ran for ten weeks. At the end of the ten weeks, clinic performance hadrisen 54 percent above baseline. “Interpersonal communications can maintain performancein voluntary sterilization programs, mass media promotion may necessary for programgrowth.”(De Castro) Before the study, the researchers measured how many vasectomies were performed Human Sexuality Graduate Program 18/37
  19. 19. over the course of a few years. After the advertising, the researchers found that the number ofvasectomies the clinic performed had doubled. This information showed how importantadvertising was in order to reach our audience. This shows how critical it was that we not onlyadvertise, but reach our audience. This study was relevant to us because it shows how critical printed media was to ourproject. Currently, the Human Sexuality Program had little to no advertising. As a result,awareness of the program was relatively low among students at Widener. This was alsoreflected in the number of students who were enrolled in the program (150). By creatingadvertising that can used in any and all relevant publications, awareness of the program willgo up, which will eventually cause more students to enroll in the program. Conducted by Peter Faraday and Alistair Sutcliffe and contains information on how todesign effective multimedia presentations, this study was unique in that it uses research andscientific studies to explain what makes for a good multimedia presentation. Of particular use to us was the analysis of the data that the authors provide. Peoplewho rely on images exclusively during a PowerPoint presentation often have difficultyrecalling the information.(Faraday) To combat this, it was important to verbally re-enforceinformation so that listeners better comprehend the information. In addition, the study finds that information that was combined with speech was verywell recalled. (Faraday) For example, if we were to incorporate animation into a multimediapresentation, it was important to use it as an aid during a speech. The study was relevant to us because we designed various multimedia presentationsfor the Human Sexuality Program to use in the future. By utilizing the information in thisstudy, we designed presentations that were effective in communicating to those who wereinterested in the program. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 19/37
  20. 20. Focus Group Analysis>Background The Human Sexuality Department of Widener University was going through some challengingtimes getting recruitment numbers up. The challenge came from a lack of general awareness of theProgram in the University and around the educational world. Senior Capstone of the CommunicationsDepartment tasked us with researching the most effective way to go about raising the image of anunderrepresented organization. This was the purpose of the Literature Review, to gather secondaryresearch that helps to get an understanding of the ideas others used to deal with similar issues.However, we needed primary research to develop a potent and well-thought out campaign.>Planning There are two ways we went about gathering primary research: qualitative and quantitative.Qualitative research is in-depth interviews and focus groups (content over quantity). Quantitativeresearch is a survey and/or other multiple choice or quick answer form (quantity over content). Muchisnt learn from each participant but it is less time-intensive and cost-effective. Decisions were made todo a focus group with a small survey to lead off the following discussion. The survey consisted of 17 questions. 1 of the questions has 11 media choices whereparticipants determined which medium is more effective than the others. Participants asnwered eachquestion on a scale with six degrees: strongly disagree, moderately disagree, disagree, agree,moderately agree, strongly agree. The questions focused on what makes a campus attractive, whatmedium delivers the message the clearest to the individual, and decision making and what influences it. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 20/37
  21. 21. The participants for the focus group was by Dr. Dyson (Department Head of the HumanSexuality Program). We were aiming for 6-8 participants who were currently enrolled HumanSexuality graduate students. We were trying to get an equal number of males and females in order tobalance out the ideas and suggestions during the discussion. The room hosted the focus group in wasLathem Classroom 4. The date was November 30, 2006 at 5:00pm. We served pizza and soda to allparticipants and compensated them for their time spent by giving them $20 dollars each. The latter halfof the focus group (after the survey) was documented on video and burned to DVD to be viewed andanalyzed.>Focus Group November 30, 2006 at 5:00pm. Instead of a max of 8 people showing up,13 participantsattended the focus group. About 8 were graduate students, the other 5 were undergrads from differentmajors that provided outside viewpoints. There were 7 females and 6 males. We didnt have enoughsurvey print-outs to give to every one, so we had to run and print some out. Also due to the increasenumber of participants, the compensation had to be reduced from the initial $20 to $10. Another issuethat came up was the absence of a boom microphone for the video camera. We resolved that issuesimply by laying out 2 separate hand held microphones and put one on the left side of the room andputting the other on the right side of the room. After these problems were settled, the actual focus groupwent quite smoothly. During the discussion portion of the focus group, useful suggestions and ideaswere spoken about. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 21/37
  22. 22. >Focus Group Breakdown The first question asked of the participants was if they are going to attend graduate school andwhat specific factors play a role in their choice. Some common answers were: the overall status of theprogram, how much it costs and how long will it take. The next question asked was “Does locationmatter at all?” and the answer to that was not really. A male student replied saying that their goal is tostay locally and go to graduate school later when a company or business they work for is willing tocover most of their graduate school expenses. Question three asked about the biggest factor in choosingWidener University as a graduate school for Human Sexuality. A participant in the group said that shegraduated college with a degree in Communications. However, during her freshman year in college,she took a course in human sexuality which sparked her interest in the field. Her thesis for herCommunications degree centered around sexuality in human sexuality, that led her to pursue a post-graduate degree at Widener University for Human Sexuality. Questions four asked what would thecurrently enrolled graduate students would want to show current undergrad Seniors to spark an interestin the Human Sexuality Program at Widener University. Other than being one of the only nationallyaccredited programs in the U.S. for this chosen field, a female participant stated that the diversity of thestudents at all of Widener really helped sell the university to her. Also mentioned was the importanceof being near a big city but not actually in it. Personality of the professors helped sell the Program. Itcreated a personal experience because of the size of the community and the level of attention facultymembers given their students. The question six asked did the intimacy of student/teacher relationshipsshould be something that should be marketed. Replies from the group came out as saying that ifWidener markets their small, close-knit community, they should have a commitment of keeping it thatway. He said if that is what they market and enrollment goes up, then the actual personality is lost dueto increase numbers. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 22/37
  23. 23. The discussion then led to what medium influences the choices made or being made aboutgraduate school. A website was said to be the most effective medium. And if all other media referencedback to that website, it will be that much more effective. Participants agreed that usability andaccessibility of the website plays a key role in the usefulness of the website. The second mediumbrought up was billboards. The reasoning behind this is because so many people are driving andtraveling, it makes a great cost-effective first impression into the minds of students. The third mediumis word of mouth, due to the size of the school, word of mouth might be more effective than saynewspapers or other various forms of media. No matter what media chosen, the more information givenon what makes a specific school so special or great is more useful than just repeating that it is a goodschool. Another resource that can help spread the Widener name is sending representatives to collegefairs often hosted at local high schools. An undergrad says that Widener wasnt available at the collegefairs he attended and it would have been a positive influence. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 23/37
  24. 24. Focus Group 2: Analysis The second focus group was held on February 27, 2007 in Lathem Hall. The focus groupconsisted of three members, all three of which are Graduate students who are currently enrolled in theHuman Sexuality program. The three students were recruited by Dr. Dyson and had previouslyparticipated in the first focus group. In selecting members for the focus group, a smaller group was selected in order to have an in-depth discussion on the materials. The first focus group was comprised of a dozen individuals, 2/3 ofwhich were neither Graduate students nor enrolled in the Human Sexuality program. We found that bylimiting the focus group to a fewer amount of people, it would better stimulate discussion amongst theparticipants than a larger focus group would have. Early versions of the Power-Point presentation,promotional photos, and the newspaper article were discussed. The discussion began with a discussion of the promotional photos that were taken of BruceHall, the building that is currently being used for Human Sexuality classes. In addition, the photographswill be used in both the PowerPoint presentation and the brochure. And they are useful in showing offthe campus. The photographs showed off all the different rooms of the building as well as its exterior.Photographs of note included several photographs of the computer lab, several photographs of theexterior of the building, a photograph of a projection screen, photographs of the lounge, photographs ofseveral plaques and posters, and a high-contrast image of a meeting room. The focus group agreed that many of the images would work better as PowerPoint slides ratherthan promotional photographs. The focus group felt that although the photographs were framed welland used dynamic camera angles, the lack of students in the photographs did not communicate the Human Sexuality Graduate Program 24/37
  25. 25. collegiate atmosphere that they would like us to convey. The group also felt that a lack of outdoor shotshurt the photographs because they did not convey other areas of the university. We decided to wait until late March/early April to photograph more promotional pictures. Thefocus group felt that by waiting until spring, it would improve the outdoor pictures by showing theUniversity as the flowers are in bloom. In addition, the focus group felt that we should photographBruce Hall again in order to capture students in a classroom setting. The photographs were followed by a PowerPoint presentation that was created for use by theHuman Sexuality program when promoting the University and the program itself. The focus groupdiscussed both the design of the Power point and some of the content. The content contained in the PowerPoint provided detailed information about the HumanSexuality program. The text used in the PowerPoint used a blue and gold theme that was chosen due tothe colors being the official Widener colors. The backgrounds for the slides were comprised of thephotographs that were taken of Bruce Hall. The focus group felt that while they liked the thoughtprocess behind the colors, it often made the slides difficult to read. The group recommended that our group switch to colors that would be easier to read against thebackgrounds of the slides. However, the focus group did note that they liked the backgrounds of theslides and felt that they would work well with a different font and different colors. The final piece of materials that was presented to the focus group was a draft of the newspaperarticle that will also be used in creating a magazine article. The draft contained all the hard newsinformation about the program as well as information on enrolling in the program. The focus group felt that while the information contained in the article was factual, it needed ahook in order to grab the reader and make the article newsworthy. The program was hosting a tablelater in the week in the University Center that provided both information about the program itself aswell as other topics relating to human sexuality. The focus group suggested that we visit the University Human Sexuality Graduate Program 25/37
  26. 26. Center on that day in order to write about the events. Which of course we did and gathered pictures andsome information on more of the out-of-the-classroom activities. The focus group concluded after the discussion on the newspaper article. Our group found thatwhile the focus group liked the materials that we provided, we would need to utilize their comments inorder to strengthen the project. Additional photographs will be taken that will show more of the student body as well as moreof the University. The goal of the new photographs will be to show more of the University, which willthereby entice a potential student into enrolling into the Human Sexuality program. The PowerPointwill be redesigned to include less text on the individual slides as well as more contrast in the text thatwill allow the information to be more easily read. Finally, the focus group’s comments were taken intoconsideration on the second draft of the article that went to print. The Human Sexuality program’spresence at the University Center was used to bookend the article, which made the article newsworthyand therefore made the article more enticing to the reader. By taking the focus group’s comments intoconsideration, it will allow for better materials that will accurately portray the student body as well asencourage potential students to enroll in the program. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 26/37
  27. 27. Findings & Discussion Our client needed materials that would help increase the awareness of the Human SexualityGraduate Program available at Widener University. Our Proposal called for a 5% recognition increasein the academic world. We planned on doing that by using a logo to link a simple yet effective designwith the Human Sexuality program, a brochure was produced for take home purposes and to keep theHuman Sexuality program on top of mind. Other materials were created to enhance recollection of theHuman Sexuality program in the target audience. During this creation time, a lot of energy was spenton design choices and getting things just right.Design Choices>Logos The logo was by far the most revised piece of created content. It went through 3 overallchanges. The original logo ideas was supposed to be something abstract like designs or shapes. Wethen moved into silhouettes of people and even had an engaging DNA strand that the focus groupenjoyed from a design perspective but felt that it didnt convey the message of Human Sexuality to themasses. Our last effort was the words Human Sexuality set within a shield-like context just like theWidener logo. However due to the University it was decided that we couldnt use the shield. It wasdecided that the words Human Sexuality and the letters HS would become the logo. It is not only easyto replicate but it wouldnt be out of place on any type of promotional material or item produced orprocured by the Human Sexuality program. It is different yet subtle. The goal was to give the Human Human Sexuality Graduate Program 27/37
  28. 28. Sexuality Graduate Program a positive reputation through the use of an accessible logo. The logo has a few different color schemes based on the clients request. He requested that thelogo have a blue text and white background. color scheme which would be the standard for logo.However, he also requested that more colors like black and yellow along with blue and white be usedfor easier drag and drop use on future materials the Program may create. The H and the S of the word Human Sexuality are written in a script font, French Script MT,while the rest of word is written in the standard Arial font for clarity. The highlight of the logo is reallythe way the H and S is lined up. The serifs connect sending the message of unity. It is a basic tactic,however it enforced in the mind of the viewer that the letters should be connected, and that helped toincrease user recall. This logo will find its way onto the brochure and the PowerPoints and any other material theProgram happens to release. All of the different colors schemes have already been created in a highresolution for drag and drop use of the Program. The importance of the logo is establish recognitionwithin each potential student who seems it. It is by far the most important piece of the campaign. Oneof the created materials that the logo was placed on was the brochure.>Brochure The front cover of the brochure uses Widener’s school colors of yellow and blue in order tokeep with the identity that Widener has created for itself. The two colors were taken exactly fromWidener’s logo (which can be found on Widener’s official website) so that the hues of both colors Human Sexuality Graduate Program 28/37
  29. 29. match the school’s colors exactly. The half circle that runs vertically across the front cover was used tolead the viewer’s eye from the photograph to the title and Widener logo. Underneath the photograph is title of the brochure, “Exploring a Graduate Degree in HumanSexuality.” The Human Sexuality Program’s logo was placed in the title in order to create familiarizethe viewer with the program’s logo. The front cover uses the version of the logo that completely spellsout the name of the program. However, a version of the logo was created that simply uses abbreviatesthe program as “HS” that can be used in the future when brand recognition for the logo is higher. In addition to the Human Sexuality logo, Widener’s logo and slogan are also featured on thecover in order to create continuity with previous Widener promotional items that have already beencreated. However, the words “available exclusively at” have been added above the logo toimmediately communicate to the viewer simply and effectively that the program is the only one of itskind in the entire country. The rest of the brochure is made up of five panels: four inside panels and the back cover. Eachof the five panels features a picture of a building on campus that is centered on the page while theremainder of the photograph above each building is the sky. This was done so that text could beapplied over each building while still remaining legible. The buildings chosen for the first four panelsare Old Main, the University Center, Bruce Hall, and Metropolitan Hall respectively. The four buildings were chosen out of every building on campus due to how each buildingappeared and what each building represented. Old Main was used in the History panel because, as oneof the oldest buildings on campus, it has a distinct architectural style that communicates theUniversity’s age. Bruce Hall was used for the Dual Degree panel because it is the building that allclasses for the program are held in. The remaining two photographs were chosen because, as newerbuildings, they show Widener University’s growth. The back photograph is a picture of the “W” that is located outside of the quads. This Human Sexuality Graduate Program 29/37
  30. 30. photograph was chosen for the back cover because the “W” represents the word “Widener,” whichfurther helps to create brand recognition with the viewer. Despite not having any text in the top half ofthe photograph, the picture was framed in the center in order to create continuity with the other fourpanels. The sidewalk beneath the “W” creates a vertical line that draws the viewer to the text that is atthe bottom of the page. The information in the brochure contains both short sentences as well as bullets to make theinformation easy to read. By having small sentences and bullets, it is easy for the viewer to skim thebrochure and get all the information inside without doing a lot of heavy reading. The text layout alsocreates a visually-appealing look that is easy on the eyes and goes with the high brow look of thebrochure. Two fonts were chosen for the inside of the brochure (one font for headlines and another forthe bulk of the text). Two fonts were chosen because it is visually appealing and creates continuitythroughout each of the panels. The headlines used sans-serif font because the bigger font size makes iteasy to read at a glance. A serif font was used for the rest of the text because the serifs help make thetext easier to read.>Newspaper Article The newspaper article is a 350 word article that appeared in The Dome, Widener University’sstudent newspaper. A draft of the article was first shown in the second focus group. The first draft ofthe article was heavily fact-based and focused entirely on what the Human Sexuality Program is. Thecomments from the focus group suggested that the article should take a more human approach to helpease the reader into the rest of the article. As a result, an introduction was added to the article that described an event that the program haddone recently. The description of the event was then used to direct the reader to the fact-based material Human Sexuality Graduate Program 30/37
  31. 31. of the rest of the article. The article was kept short due to the standard length of a newspaper article.The article was written in a formal style to appeal to the formal, academic nature of the program itself.The article was published in early February.>PowerPoint The next part of materials that we crafted are 2 Powerpoint presentations. These are the secondmost important creations. The client and his associates go to a lot of conferences in order to spreadworld about the Human Sexuality Graduate Program in the academic fields. He specifically requested astraight forward PowerPoint with about seven slides that he can click through and animations will playand etc. However, we decided to do create another PowerPoint that would allow an interested studentto take control. This PowerPoint is like a pseudo-website in execution. There are links to click that willtake to certain portions of the PowerPoint, such as History and Career Advancement. Also there isbuttons that someone could click where the slide would be read aloud. This provides a form ofinteraction that most PowerPoints and gives us the one up on other presentations in conferences. Not tomention that most presentations will have straight forward PowerPoints and actions are normally adeciding in what attracts the most attention and recall. The PowerPoints will have all of the bells and whistles and animated logos and extra trimmingsin order to create a fun-filled mood which is just as unique as the Human Sexuality Program itself. The color scheme of a general black background with blue trim and white text is to make itvisual different form the many other PowerPoints it is bound to go up against at conferences. Also thecolor choices relate to the color choices of the logo specified by the client. Each PowerPoint will have have at least 7 slides of actual content. The Basic (PowerPoint withno interaction) will have History, Career Advancement, Dual Degree, Quotes, Certification and Contact Human Sexuality Graduate Program 31/37
  32. 32. info. It will have a gallery slide but it wont be of the same quality delivery as the InteractivePowerPoint will have. The main difference between the Interactive PowerPoint and the Basic is thatwith the Interactive, users can decided what they want to look at and in what order. Choices are a bigdecision in swaying the minds of potential consumers. A linear PowerPoint limits what one can do withthe technology to really wow and impress the consumer and competition. Other than the two verydifferent delivery systems, both PowerPoints will share the exact same content. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 32/37
  33. 33. Conclusion After a long year filled with its ups and downs, we finally reached the end of the project. It beena long time coming, and the dread for the project has been building up well over two years. Personally,we cant believe it ended so suddenly. It kind of just fizzled out. It was definitely an experience worthgoing through, after it was all said and done. If we were able to do this over again, there are several things that we would change. At thebeginning, we discussed the possibility within our group of developing a website. In the second half ofthe project, it became apparent that a website would no longer be feasible due to a lack of knowledgeabout website design. If we were able to do the year over again, Scott would have worked on the mostbasic materials earlier in the semester so that we could have possibly learned how to design a websitefor our client. The only real problem with website design (other than lack of advanced knowledge onthe subject) is that our creative freedoms would have been strictly limited due to the preset template theWidener website abides by. The major strengths of our project is that the materials that we presented our client were bothfunctional and high quality. For example, the brochure was done to the best of our ability and is bothvisually compelling and easy to read. By not having as many materials as some other groups, it allowedus to devote more time to the materials we did create. The quality over quantity method that we took letus have more time to develop our materials, which ultimately meant that our finished materials were ofa higher quality than they would have been otherwise. It is unfortunate though that a lot of ourmaterials and ideas fell to the way side due to the lack of a third member. Another strength is that we kept in contact with our client throughout both semesters, whichallowed us to constantly communicate with them. We found that our client’s input greatly aided us inboth the materials we created and the actual design process. Additionally, we found that what our focus Human Sexuality Graduate Program 33/37
  34. 34. groups felt about certain materials wasn’t always the same as what our client wanted. By keeping inclose contact, it allowed us to work out the differences and strike a balance between the wants andneeds of the client and the wants and needs of the members of the focus group (graduate students: ourtarget audience.) Our biggest weakness was a lack of materials. As mentioned above, we would have ideallydone a website. By creating a website, it would increase the awareness of the Human SexualityProgram more than a brochure or PowerPoint ever could. However, a lack of time meant that wewouldn’t be able to develop a functional website. Another possible material that could have beencreated is a promotional video. However, this was ruled out early on as there was no feasible way forthe video to be distributed and reach its target audience effectively, not to even mention the lack ofvideo filming and editing skill between the original three group members. The end product wouldnthave been up the the standards of the other videos presented. Our second greatest weakness was overcoming the difficulty of losing a group member. We didnot find out about the loss of our group member until two months before the due date, which meant thatwe had to work even harder than we did before in order to pick up the slack. We did recover from theloss, however having an extra group member would have meant that a lot more materials could havebeen created and with better quality. Another set of eyes proofing all of the materials we created isnever a bad idea. Overall, however, we maintained a strong sense of what our client wanted and therefore wewere able to help them reach their goals. At the start of last semester, the Human Sexuality Programhad no real effective or flashy promotional materials. The materials that we provided our client were asuccess and allowed them to reach their target audience without really ripping the representatives of theHuman Sexuality Program out of their element. They used PowerPoints before in order to sell theirorganization and they will continue use them, albeit with a bit more flash and visual substance. They Human Sexuality Graduate Program 34/37
  35. 35. will still hand out brochures to interested patrons who visit the Widener booth at conferences, however,there is now a flashier, more colorful brochure to really entice someone to come to Widener. It showsoff images of the campus while still providing the necessary facts a graduate student needs to make aneducated decision. We arent trying to change the way the Human Sexuality Graduate Program atWidener University is selling itself, just improving the techniques it already has. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 35/37
  36. 36. Works CitedAchrol, Ravi S. (1991) Evolution of the Marketing Organization: New Forms for Turbulent Environments. Journal of Marketing. 55. (4). 77-93.Brown, Heath A. (2005) Graduate Enrollment and Degrees. Research data presented by the Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, DC.Corley, Kevin G., Gioia, Dennis A., Schultz, Majken (2000). Organizational Identity, Image, and Adaptive Instability. The Academy of Management Review. 25. (1). 63-81.De Castro, Marcos Paulo P., Duarte Franco, Eliane F., Foreit, Karen G. (1989) The Impact of Mass Media Advertising on a Voluntary Sterilization Program in Brazil. Studies in Family Planning.20. (2), 107-116.Faraday, Peter., Sutcliffe, Alistair. (1997) Designing effective multimedia presentations. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. 272-278.Fu, Ping Ping., Tsui, Anne S. (2003). Utilizing Printed Media to Understand Desired Leadership Attributes in the Peoples Republic of China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 20.(4).Goyette, Kimberly A., Mullen, Ann L., Soares, Joseph A. (2003). Who goes to Graduate School? Social and Academic Correlates of Educational Continuation after College. Sociology of Education. 76. (2). 143-169.June, Audrey Williams. (2006) Facilities Play a Key Role in Students Enrollment Decision, Study Find. Chronicle of Higher Education. 52. (40). A27.Leiblum, Sandra R. (2001). Sexual and Relationship Theory. Routledge. 16. (1)Lehman, James. Powers, Donald E. (2005). GRE Candidates perceptions of the importance of graduate admissions factors. Research in Higher Education. 19. (2).Maguire, Kenneth Micheal.(2005). Introduction to human sexuality for professional psychology graduate students (Doctoral dissertation, Widener University, Institute for Graduate Clinical Psychology, 2005). Dissertations Abstracts International-B. 66. (6), 3417.Mayer, Richard E. (1997) Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist. 32. (1), 1-19.Perna, Laura W. (2004) Understanding the Decision to Enroll in Graduate School: Sex and Racial/ethnic Group Differences. Journal of Higher Education. 75. Human Sexuality Graduate Program 36/37
  37. 37. Roering, Kenneth J., Ruekert, Robert W., Walker, Orville C. (1985) The Organization of Marketing Activities: A Contingency Theory of Structure and Performance. Journal of Marketing. 49. (1). 13-25.Taflinger, Richard F. (1996). Taking Advantage: You and Me, Babe: Sex and Advertising. Retrieved October 23, 2006, from the World Wide Web: http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~taflinge/sex.htmlWikipedia (2006). Advertising Appeals. Wikipedia. Retrieved October 23, 2006, from the World Wide Web:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising_appeals Human Sexuality Graduate Program 37/37

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