Intro To Urban Vegetables V.2


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Intro To Urban Vegetables V.2

  1. 1. Introduction to Vegetable Gardening Prepared by: Dale Longfellow Hennepin County Master Gardener 2008
  2. 2. Session Objectives To learn:  How to decide what to plant.  How to successfully raise vegetables and herbs so you can enjoy your gardening experience.  Vegetable and herb selection. Seeds versus transplants.  When to plant.  How to decide what to plant. 
  3. 3. Session Objectives, Con’t. Some problems that you may encounter.  Watering issues.  Insects.  Diseases.  Weeds.  How you will know when it’s time to  harvest.
  4. 4. Subjects that We Will Not Review Preparing your soil.  Mulching.  Composting.  How to lay out your garden. 
  5. 5. What Do You Want to Plant? On a piece of paper write down two or  three vegetables or herbs that you think you may want to plant in your garden plot. Why did you select those? 
  6. 6. Buying Seed
  7. 7. Buying Seed Seed is available from many sources, and  the prices will vary greatly. The number of seeds in a packet impact its cost. • New hybrids cost more. • Rare or unusual plants cost more. • Coated or fungicide treated seeds cost more. • Moisture resistant packaging costs more. • Look for sale prices, but try to buy seed that is • packaged for the current growing season.
  8. 8. Germination Test Days to Fully Emerged Radicles 2005 Burpee 2005 Burpee Day Cucumber Cucumber Hybrid II Bush Champion (n=10) (n=10) 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 3 0 4 7 7 5 NA 3 Total 100% 100%
  9. 9. Seed Package Is a Good Source of Information It tells you for what year the  seed is packaged. How and when to plant the  seed. When the seed will emerge.  Approximately how many days  to harvest. Many seed packets will also tell  you a bit about the vegetable or herb, uses for it, and its flavor.
  10. 10. Some Seeds Can be Started Indoors
  11. 11. Saving Seed from Your Garden Tomatoes, peppers, beans and peas are good choices  for seed saving. These plants have flowers that are self-pollinating, and seeds that require little or no special treatment before storage. Seeds from biennial crops such as carrots or beets are  harder to save, since the plants need two growing seasons to set seed. Plants with separate male and female flowers, like corn  and vine crops, may cross-pollinate, so it is difficult to keep the seed strain pure.
  12. 12. Starting Seeds Indoors – Start Early Cell packs. Some plants may quickly  outgrow cell packs. After they are cleaned, cell packs can be re-used from year-to-year. Small peat pots, can be planted  directly into the ground. Plugs can also be set directly into the  ground.
  13. 13. Starting Seed Indoors Con’t. Milk cartons or ice cream pails can be  used, but the seedling roots may grow together and be injured during transplanting. It is best to use divided containers. When the seeds sprout they will need  light.
  14. 14. Starting Seeds Indoors It’s best to grow seedlings  under grow lights. You can buy grow lights, or  make your own using standard shop lights with two fluorescent tubes per fixture. Use either cool white  fluorescent tubes or a combination of cool white and warm or natural daylight tubes. Keep lights 4quot; above plants  for 12 – 16 hours per day.
  15. 15. Starting Seeds Indoors Seed starting mixes are usually a  combination of vermiculite and peat. They are sterile, light weight, and free from seeds. Before moving outdoors, start hardening off  seedlings by moving them outside for increasingly longer periods each day. Keep them away from pets, and don’t forget to bring them in at night.
  16. 16. Buying Transplants Many stores sell a variety of  vegetables and herbs for transplanting. If you don’t have a way to raise your own tomatoes, peppers, some vine crops, or herbs this is a good alternative to get a jump start.
  17. 17. Transplants Con’t. Buy This! Not This! Choose plants with good  roots that are healthy, stocky, medium-sized, and free of disease or insects. Avoid yellow, spindly, or  oversized plants. Avoid those with spotted foliage, brown marks on the stems, or knots on the roots.
  18. 18. Direct Seeding Con’t. Onion sets tolerate light frosts, and  can be planted early. Many of these early crops do not  do well in hot weather. Successive plantings are an option. 
  19. 19. Direct Seeding Salad vegetables like  lettuce, arugula, spinach and other vegetables like radishes, peas, beans, carrots, cauliflow er, cabbage, and chard can be direct seeded. Many seeds should be direct  seeded, and can be planted early as they will tolerate light frosts.
  20. 20. Frost Protection Some vegetables that are  especially sensitive to chilling injury include tomatoes, peppers, and squash. Sometimes early planting may  result in delayed growth from chilling injury that smaller, later planted transplants may surpass earlier planted transplants. Consider using:  Cold frames  Low tunnels  Plastic jugs 
  21. 21. When to Transplant Once the plants have been hardened  off, it’s time to plant. If you are transplanting veggies like tomatoes, cucumbers, melon, squash, p eppers, or eggplants, make sure that danger of frost has passed.
  22. 22. Transplant, Con’t. If possible, transplant on a cloudy day  late in the afternoon when the sun has passed its peak. If the plants wilt, they will generally  recover in a day or so. Trim peat pots down to the soil level,  or plant them below it.
  23. 23. Deciding What to Plant 15 Questions to Answer Do you have enough space for  the vegetative growth and roots? How much light will your  vegetables receive? Do you have access to an  adequate supply of water? What nutrients will your  vegetables require? Is there enough air circulation?  Time - How many days to  harvest?
  24. 24. Deciding What to Plant 15 Questions to Answer What cultivars?  What soil type(s) do you have?  Is this the right zone to raise  what you want? Are containers an option?  Are raised beds an option?  How will you use or share it?  Are some vegetables or herbs  easier to purchase than grow? How much time do you have?  How experienced are you? 
  25. 25. Deciding What to Plant Rotate where you plant your vegetables in your  garden from year to year. Try not to plant the same vegetable or its relative in the same place two years in a row. This helps maintain the mineral balance in the soil, reduce the risk of disease, and makes better use of organic matter. Absolutely do not plant tomatoes, peppers, potatoes,  eggplants in the same location as you did last year. Try for a 3 year rotation. Cabbage  Tomatoes  Peas  Peppers  Green Beans  Winter squash  Lettuce  Onions  Eggplant 
  26. 26. Leafy Vegetables There are many  types. Leaf lettuce (loose,  head, semi-head, or upright) Endive  Spinach  Arugula 
  27. 27. Leafy Vegetables These are some of the first to plant in  your garden, as they withstand cool temperatures. Harvest before it gets real hot. They have small root systems so there  needs to be a good supply of nutrients in the surface soil.
  28. 28. Leafy Vegetables Sow these directly in the garden early in  the spring. For many leafy vegetables, it is possible to plant a fall crop in late summer. Weed well because they can’t compete  with weeds.
  29. 29. Brassica Examples are:  broccoli, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, Br ussel sprouts, and turnips. Cole crops grow well in any soil that is  well-drained and moisture retentive.
  30. 30. Brassica Start cabbage, broccoli, kohlrabi, and  cauliflower indoors in April and transplant to the garden May 10. Cabbage may be set out earlier if the season permits. Space them 18 inches apart. Cauliflower must be blanched to maintain the desired white head - tie the leaves around the head as soon as the small curds are 2 inches across.
  31. 31. Tomato Trivia Did you know that  there are over 10,000 varieties of tomatoes? The largest tomato on  record is 7 pounds and was grown in Oklahoma. The scientific name is  lycopersicon lycopersicum, which means wolf peach.
  32. 32. Types of Tomatoes Heirloom and hybrid - each has 5 main sub-categories:  • Early type tomatoes • Main season tomatoes • Beefsteak tomatoes • Cherry tomatoes • Paste tomatoes Color: Red, Yellow, Pink, Orange, Green, Purple, Black, and  striped tomatoes. Specialty categories:  • Clusters or vine ripened types • Grape tomatoes • Varieties suited best to be sun-dried tomatoes
  33. 33. What to Look for When Buying Tomato Plants Indeterminate/vining tomatoes continue  growing in length throughout the season. They continue to set fruit until frost, and require substantial staking or caging.  Examples are: Beefsteak, Big Boy, Brandywine, Early Girl.
  34. 34. Tomato Plants Determinate/bush tomatoes are varieties  that grow to a fixed size, and ripen their fruit in a short period of time. Pruning or removing suckers is not necessary. Examples are:  Roma, Celebrity, Marglobe, Rutgers.
  35. 35. What to Look for When Buying Tomatoes How many days to harvest. Cherry  tomatoes mature much quicker than beefsteak tomatoes. Look for letters after the name on the  label/tag. They indicate disease resistance. V – verticillum wilt  F - fusarium wilt strain I  FF - fusarium wilt strain I & II  N - nematodes  T - tobacco mosaic virus  A - alternaria 
  36. 36. Snap Beans Bush beans 49 – 58  days to harvest. Pole beans 56 – 72  days to harvest. Plant May 15 to July 1.  Snap beans are easy  to freeze.
  37. 37. Potatoes White or Irish potatoes originated in the  Peruvian Andes. Plant potatoes as early in spring when the  garden soil can be easily worked. The soil should be dry. Loamy soil high in organic matter works  best for growing potatoes. If you have heavy clay soil, incorporate compost or peat moss to loosen it. Cut seed potatoes into pieces about the  size of an ice cube with at least one eye or bud per piece.
  38. 38. Growing Potatoes Cut seed potatoes, whether sulfur  treated or not, should be quot;curedquot; before they're planted in order to reduce rot. To cure them, spread potatoes out in a warm, humid place at 70°F. Let them sit for two days so cut surfaces dry. Dig a trench six inches wide and eight  inches deep. Place seed pieces cut side down ten to twelve inches apart. Rows should be three feet apart.
  39. 39. Potatoes Hilling or piling soil up along the stems  causes the stems to lengthen. Potato tubers form on runners that emerge from the plant stem, so the longer the stem, the more runners the plant will form, creating more potatoes. Tubers start to develop six to ten weeks  after planting. Harvest potatoes for over-winter storage  after their tops have died.
  40. 40. Carrots and Other Root Vegetables Carrots, beets, parsnips, radishes,  turnips, and rutabagas are the most commonly grown root crops. They all have similar cultural  requirements and grow best in cool weather. They may be planted early in the spring, and left in the garden until fall. The tops of beets and turnips are  commonly used as cooked greens, and can be harvested while the plants are young.
  41. 41. Carrots and Other Root Vegetables They grow best in a deep, loose soil that  retains moisture yet is well-drained. Root crops do not grow well in very acid soils. Do not use fresh manure. It can  stimulate branching of the roots, compromising the quality of the crop and may increase weed problems.
  42. 42. Carrots and Other Root Vegetables Plant radishes and turnips beginning  April 15 for a spring crop, and again August 1 for a fall crop. Carrots and beets beginning April 15. Plant parsnips beginning May 1, and rutabagas by May 15.
  43. 43. Vine Crops Vine crops can be seeded directly in the  garden. Plant cucumbers May 10. Space them at least 12 inches apart. Plant the other vine crops May 20. Space  muskmelon and watermelon plants 24 inches apart. Space pumpkin and squash 24 - 36 inches apart; use the closer spacing if the variety is a quot;bushquot; type. Spacing between rows should be 5 - 6 feet apart. If you wish you may start the vine crops  indoors and transplant them to the garden on the above dates.
  44. 44. Vine Crops Cucumbers, muskmelons, watermelons,  pumpkins, and squash are popular vine crops. Many of the vine crops, or cucurbits, are eaten as vegetables, but they are botanically fruits. They thrive best in hot weather, and all have similar cultural requirements. Vine crops quot;runquot; on the ground and take  up a lot of space. In small gardens they may be trained to a trellis, or bush-type varieties may be used.
  45. 45. Vine Crops Muskmelons and watermelons prefer a sandy  loam soil that warms up early in the spring. Other vine crops do well in heavier soils, although more fruit belly rot may occur. You can also improve both heavy clay soils  and lighter sandy soils by adding organic matter. Addition of composted manure or other compost is beneficial for vine crops and improves soil structure. In midseason apply a side dressing of  nitrogen.
  46. 46. Harvest When Ready and Give Extra Produce to Friends and Neighbors “Pick zucchini before  they look like logs.” Cucumbers left on the  vine too long may decrease yield.
  47. 47. Summer Squash Late summer and fall squash need to be  fully ripe. Do not pick when your vines are wet as  this spreads disease.
  48. 48. Vine Sex 101 In vine crops some blossom drop is  normal. Many varieties have separate sexes  [Monoecious] in their flowers. Blossom drop of male flowers can be normal because only the female flowers produce fruit.
  49. 49. Herbs Are Flavorful and Aromatic They are an excellent companion for  the vegetable garden, and mostly grown for seasoning foods, but have lots of other uses.
  50. 50. Herbs Common culinary herbs from other  plant families include chives (Alliaceae), borage (Boraginaceae), tarragon (Asteraceae), and sorrel (Polygonaceae).
  51. 51. Herbs Many culinary herbs grown in Minnesota  are members of two plant families. The mint family, Lamiaceae, includes basil, oregano, marjoram, catnip, all the mints, as well as rosemary, thyme, lavender, summer savory, and sage, are all grown for their aromatic leaves. Hardy perennials in this family tend to be bushy and can become invasive.
  52. 52. Herbs Are Flavorful and Aromatic The carrot family, Apiaceae, includes  dill, parsley, chervil, cilantro (coriander), fennel, and lovage. They are all grown for foliage, and some for seeds as well. These plants have a more upright, leggy habit, and require somewhat moister conditions, and deeper, looser soil.
  53. 53. It’s a Jungle Out There! Some Cultural Dos and Don’ts
  54. 54. Watering Is Extremely Important Aim at the roots – not the leaves.  Water in the morning not in the evening.  Water the soil deeply. 
  55. 55. Watering Newly planted seed or seedlings need to  be watered right after planting and kept moist daily. Be consistent – do not let the soil become  excessively dry.
  56. 56. Weeding Is Fun (Not) Along with competing for moisture and  nutrients, weeds can harbor insects that carry diseases from plant to plant. They can bloom and set seeds that will  come back to haunt you next year and for years to come.
  57. 57. Weeding Many weeds can be pulled easily  out of garden soil after you've watered it. Others can be sliced off with a sharp flat hoe, but be careful where you aim.
  58. 58. A Few Common Pests and Diseases
  59. 59. Blossom End Rot - Solanaceae Family Problem Blossom end rot is  worse under droughty conditions. It is caused by inconsistent watering or too Photo Credit: Michelle Grabowski much fertilizer.
  60. 60. Blossom End Rot Symptoms begin as a small water-  soaked lesion at the blossom end of the fruit.. The lesion develops as the fruit enlarges and ripens.
  61. 61. Tobacco Mosaic Virus The use of cigarettes  or tobacco by the home gardener should be avoided. Tobacco mosaic  virus, often a contaminant of tobacco, can be transmitted from plant to plant simply
  62. 62. Cutworms May Appear Early in the Year Most cutworm damage  occurs on vegetable seedlings early in the season when plants are small and have tender tissue. Most damage caused occurs  when they chew stems of young plants at or slightly above or below the soil line.
  63. 63. Cutworms Common vegetable hosts include  asparagus, bean, cabbage, carrot, celery, corn, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato, and tomato. Control by placing aluminum foil or  cardboard collars around transplants
  64. 64. Bean Leaf Beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata. This beetle is an  occasional pest of snap beans. It is about 1/4 inch long, oval-shaped with the head visible from above. Most bean leaf beetles in Minnesota are yellowish-green with four black spots. Look for the black triangle at the top of its wing covers. Adult beetles prefer to eat young, tender plant tissue, creating round, 1/8 inch diameter holes.
  65. 65. Anthracnose on Snap Beans It develops quickly during  cool, wet conditions. Symptoms are usually first noticed as small, reddish brown spots on the pods. These spots later enlarge, becoming brown Photo Credit: North Dakota Sate University to black and sunken.
  66. 66. Bean Rust Caused by the fungus  Uromyces appendiculatus is not seed-borne. It survives winter in plant debris and produces spores in the spring that are wind blown. Bean rust typically appears as reddish-brown, raised pustules on the bottom of Photo Credit: University of MN Plant Clinic leaves and on pods, and are often surrounded by a yellow halo.
  67. 67. Early Blight May be a Problem for Potatoes, but Is Less of a Problem with Kennebecs Symptoms of usually appear  near the end of the season, but may appear earlier. Lesions are small (1-2 mm),  dry, and papery and may develop characteristic dark concentric rings of raised and necrotic tissue. As the disease progresses, the entire leaf can become yellow and then brown. Infected tubers develop dark,  sunken lesions that are often surrounded by a purplish raised border.
  68. 68. Colorado Potato Beetle Adult Colorado potato beetles are  oval in shape and 3/8 inch long. Females lay clusters of bright yellowish orange oval eggs on the underside of leaves. If left untreated, they can  completely defoliate plants. In addition to potatoes, they may also feed on eggplant, tomato, and peppers. Plant an early maturing variety to  escape much of the damage caused by adults emerging in midsummer.
  69. 69. Aster Yellows Disease Occurs on  carrots, lettuce, potatoes, to matoes and many other plants. Is spread by leafhoppers, and  control of the disease requires control of the insects. Diseased plants should be  pulled and destroyed. Treatment during the first  half of the growing season is most important. Complete control is difficult.
  70. 70. Aster Yellows in Carrots
  71. 71. Brassica and Cole Crop Problems Split heads are caused by heavy rain after  several weeks of drought, excess fertilizer, insects, or by not harvesting soon enough. It is more of a problem on the earlier varieties. Early heading is a problem in hot, dry weather. Start plants at proper times so they will head in cool weather and water them regularly. Buttoning is premature formation of the head  in cauliflower. Do not crowd plants in flats or allow them to become starved for nutrients.
  72. 72. Brassica and Cole Crop Problems Cabbage Maggots are small maggots  that attack the roots of most cole crops. Cabbage yellows is caused by fungus.  Control by using resistant plant varieties. Clubroot is caused by fungus. It is  worse in acid soils, so maintain pH in the recommended range.
  73. 73. Cabbage Looper or Cabbage Worm Cabbage loopers are velvet-green  loopers that feed on the foliage. Cabbage worms are chewing insects that feed on the foliage.
  74. 74. Damage From Cabbage Worm
  75. 75. Covering Cabbage Plants
  76. 76. Focus on Preventative Measures to Minimize Problems Rotate where you plant specific vegetables  each year. Plant disease resistant varieties.  Use natural barriers when possible.  Keep plants healthy and strong through  good cultural practices, remove trash, keep weed free, water properly, etc. Familiarize yourself with beneficial insects. 
  77. 77. Sources of Garden Information Used for This Presentation For Hennepin County residents call a  Master Gardener at 612-596-2118. http//  Several university web sites.  Seed catalogues 
  78. 78. Good Luck with Your Garden! Choose the right vegetables and herbs.  What will fit in your space and grow in your  soil. Consider nutritional value.  Plant what you enjoy eating.  Get your family involved.  Nurture your crop.  Savor your harvest. 
  79. 79. Developed by Hennepin County Master Gardeners. All rights reserved.