FUNDAMENTALS OF
Database
Systems
SIXTH EDITION
This page intentionally left blank
FUNDAMENTALS OF
Database
Systems
SIXTH EDITION
Ramez Elmasri
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
The University...
Editor in Chief: Michael Hirsch
Acquisitions Editor: Matt Goldstein
Editorial Assistant: Chelsea Bell
Managing Editor: Jef...
To Katrina, Thomas, and Dora
(and also to Ficky)
R. E.
To my wife Aruna, mother Vijaya,
and to my entire family
for their ...
This page intentionally left blank
vii
This book introduces the fundamental concepts nec-
essary for designing, using, and implementing
database systems and ...
■ Our presentation on spatial databases and multimedia databases has been
expanded and updated in Chapter 26
■ A new Chapt...
Preface ix
■ Part 7 (Chapters 17 and 18) contains the chapters on file organizations,
indexing, and hashing
■ Part 8 inclu...
x Preface
covers the ODMG object model standard, and its object definition and query lan-
guages. Chapter 12 covers the XM...
search methods. Chapter 28 on data mining gives an overview of the process of data
mining and knowledge discovery, discuss...
The book is written so that it is possible to cover topics in various sequences. The
chapter dependency chart below shows ...
Supplemental Materials
Support material is available to all users of this book and additional material is
available to qua...
Dennis McLeod, Rahul Patel, Nicholas Roussopoulos, David Stemple,
Michael Stonebraker, Frank Tompa, and Kyu-Young Whang.
■...
Contents
■ part 1
Introduction to Databases ■
chapter 1 Databases and Database Users 3
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 An Example 6...
xvi Contents
■ part 2
The Relational Data Model and SQL ■
chapter 3 The Relational Data Model and Relational
Database Cons...
chapter 6 The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus
145
6.1 Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT 147
6.2 R...
xviii Contents
chapter 8 The Enhanced Entity-Relationship
(EER) Model 245
8.1 Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance 24...
Contents xix
10.6 Summary 345
Review Questions 347
Selected Bibliography 348
■ part 4
Object, Object-Relational, and XML: ...
■ part 5
Database Programming Techniques ■
chapter 13 Introduction to SQL Programming
Techniques 447
13.1 Database Program...
15.6 Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form 531
15.7 Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form 534
15.8 Summary 535
R...
17.9 Other Primary File Organizations 616
17.10 Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology 617
17.11 New Storage Syst...
Review Questions 723
Exercises 724
Selected Bibliography 725
chapter 20 Physical Database Design and Tuning 727
20.1 Physi...
xxiv Contents
22.8 Summary 802
Review Questions 803
Exercises 804
Selected Bibliography 804
chapter 23 Database Recovery T...
Contents xxv
Review Questions 872
Exercises 873
Selected Bibliography 874
chapter 25 Distributed Databases 877
25.1 Distri...
xxvi Contents
chapter 27 Introduction to Information Retrieval
and Web Search 993
27.1 Information Retrieval (IR) Concepts...
29.8 Summary 1081
Review Questions 1081
Selected Bibliography 1082
appendix A Alternative Diagrammatic Notations
for ER Mo...
This page intentionally left blank
part 1
Introduction
to Databases
This page intentionally left blank
3
Databases and
Database Users
Databases and database systems are an essential
component of life in modern society: most o...
4 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
simple UNIVERSITY database example to illustrate our discussion. Section 1.3
desc...
1.1 Introduction 5
ested in its contents. The end users of a database may perform business transactions
(for example, a cu...
6 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
miniworld, and generating reports from the data. Sharing a database allows multi-...
1.2 An Example 7
Database
System
Users/Programmers
Application Programs/Queries
Software to Process
Queries/Programs
Softw...
8 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
Name Student_number Class Major
Smith 17 1 CS
Brown 8 2 CS
STUDENT
Course_name Co...
1.3 Characteristics of the Database Approach 9
Database manipulation involves querying and updating. Examples of queries a...
10 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
able from the other user’s files. This redundancy in defining and storing data r...
Relation_name No_of_columns
STUDENT 4
COURSE 4
SECTION 5
GRADE_REPORT 3
PREREQUISITE 2
Column_name Data_type Belongs_to_re...
12 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
For example, a file access program may be written in such a way that it can acce...
1.3 Characteristics of the Database Approach 13
In the database approach, the detailed structure and organization of each ...
14 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
properties. The isolation property ensures that each transaction appears to exec...
1.4 Actors on the Scene 15
1.4.1 Database Administrators
In any organization where many people use the same resources, the...
16 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
Employees at receiving stations for shipping companies enter package
identificat...
1.6 Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach 17
■ Tool developers design and implement tools—the software packages that
facil...
18 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
Student_number Student_name Section_identifier Course_number Grade
17 Smith 112 ...
1.6 Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach 19
others are allowed to retrieve and update. Hence, the type of access operatio...
20 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
disk-to-memory buffering. However, because data buffering is crucial to the DBMS...
1.6 Advantages of Using the DBMS Approach 21
straints. The simplest type of integrity constraint involves specifying a dat...
22 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
provide active rules that can automatically initiate actions when certain events...
1.7 A Brief History of Database Applications 23
1.7 A Brief History of Database Applications
We now give a brief historica...
24 Chapter 1 Databases and Database Users
Early experimental relational systems developed in the late 1970s and the commer...
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Fundamentals of database_systems
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×