Solid Waste Management


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Solid Waste Management

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management
  2. 2. Thought of the DayCleanliness is Half of Faith… Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) Solid Waste Management 2
  3. 3. Waste• Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that contain complex and sometimes hazardous substances.• Solid wastes also include sewage sludge, agricultural refuse, demolition wastes, and mining residues.• Technically, solid waste also refers to liquids and gases in containers Solid Waste Management 3
  4. 4. Flow of Materials and Waste in Industrial Society Solid Waste Management 4
  5. 5. Sources• Residential• Commercial• Institutional• Industrial (non process wastes)• Municipal Solid Waste (Construction and Demolition)• Municipal Services (excluding treatment facilities)• Treatment Facilities• Industrial• Agricultural Solid Waste Management 5
  6. 6. Functional Elements of SWM System• Waste generation• Waste handling and separation, storage, and processing at the source• Collection• Transfer and transport• Separation, processing, and transformation of solid waste• Disposal Solid Waste Management 6
  7. 7. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT• Source Reduction• Recycling and Composting• Combustion (Waste-to- Energy)• Landfills Solid Waste Management 7
  8. 8. Management Options IWM (a) Interactive (b) hierarchical Solid Waste Management 8
  12. 12. Capital Costs• Collection• Materials Recovery Facilities (MRFs)• Composting• Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) Facilities• Landfilling• Operation And Maintenance (O&M) Costs• Collection O&M Costs• MRF O&M Costs• Composting O&M Costs Solid Waste Management 12
  13. 13. Regulations• Floodplains• Endangered Species• Surface Water• Groundwater• Disease Vectors• Air• Safety Solid Waste Management 13
  14. 14. Planning1. Geologic, hydrologic, and climatic circumstances, and theprotection of ground and surface waters2. Collection, storage, processing, and disposal methods3. Methods for closing dumps4. Transportation5. Profile of industries6. Waste composition and quantity7. Political, economic, organizational, financial, andmanagement issues8. Regulatory powers9. Types of waste management systems10. Markets for recovered materials and energy Solid Waste Management 14
  15. 15. Materials Generated in Municipal Solid Waste Solid Waste Management 15
  16. 16. Materials Generated in Municipal Solid Waste 1960-2005 Solid Waste Management 16
  17. 17. Solid Waste Management 17
  18. 18. Recovery for Recycling and Composting• Materials Recovery• Durable Goods Recovery• Nondurable Goods Recovery• Containers and Packaging Recovery Solid Waste Management 18
  19. 19. Management of Municipal Solid Waste 1960-2005 Solid Waste Management 19
  20. 20. Source Reduction Terms• Waste• Source reduction (also known as waste prevention) or reuse of materials• Waste reduction and minimization• Reuse and refurbishing• Light weighting packaging• Source expansion (opposite)• Functional product groupings Solid Waste Management 20
  21. 21. EFFECTS OF SOURCE REDUCTIONEconomic• Reduced pollution from trucks and disposal• Less resource depletion from excess packaging not generated• Economic development of area’s reuse and repair industries• Reduced need for landfill capacity Solid Waste Management 21
  22. 22. EFFECTS OF SOURCE REDUCTIONEnvironmental• Choice of and extraction of raw materials• Transport and processing of those materials• Manufacture of products from those materials• Use of those products• Fate at end of life (life-cycle assessment)Waste Composition• As consumption changes, quantity and composition of solid waste generated changes Solid Waste Management 22
  23. 23. Light Weighting• The process of reducing the amount of a particular material per unit of product is known as light weighting Solid Waste Management 23
  24. 24. State Involvement• Assistance• Bans and Restrictions• Deposit and Refund Systems• Exchange, Donation, and Sale• Taxes• Reuse/Repair Industries• Consumer and Student Education• Unit Pricing for Waste Reduction - Can systems, Bag systems, Weight-based systems• Waste Audits and Source Reduction Plans• Yard Waste Programs Solid Waste Management 24
  25. 25. DEVELOPING A SOURCE REDUCTION PLAN- Four Steps1. Establish an overall source reduction goal that is separate from the recycling goal with specification of:• The baseline year• Target year• Type of reduction to be measured (from the current total waste generation levels, from current per capita generation levels, or from the projected increase) Solid Waste Management 25
  26. 26. DEVELOPING A SOURCE REDUCTION PLAN-Four Steps2. Determine separate goals desired for:• Generating sectors (residential, commercial, and institutional)• Materials (paper, glass, plastics, organics, etc.)• Products (Styrofoam cups, glass bottles, tires, cardboard boxes, newspapers, etc.) Solid Waste Management 26
  27. 27. DEVELOPING A SOURCE REDUCTION PLAN-Four Steps3. Select unit of measurement:• Weight• Volume• Weight and volume (preferable, if possible) Solid Waste Management 27
  28. 28. DEVELOPING A SOURCE REDUCTION PLAN-Four Steps4. Selected measurement methodology:• Waste audits• Sampling (including weighing-in places such as transfer stations)• Surveys• Purchases (tracking sales) Solid Waste Management 28
  29. 29. Consumer Strategies for Source Reduction• Avoid unnecessary packaging• Adopt practices that reduce waste toxicity• Consider reusable products• Maintain and repair durable products• Reuse bags, containers and other items• Borrow, rent, or share items• Sell or donate goods instead of throwing them out• Compost yard trimmings and food scraps Solid Waste Management 29
  30. 30. Construction and Demolition• 136 million tons• 2.8 lb per person per day to landfills• Deconstruction Efforts• Careful dismantling of structures before or instead of demolition to maximize the recovery of materials Solid Waste Management 30
  31. 31. Special EventsWhole Earth Festival at the University of California• Use of biodegradable utensils and can liners• Separate collection of compost• Promotion of foods that do not require utensils• Serving foods such as pizza with a napkin instead of a plate• Educational booths to inform people about composting• Use of durable items (plates, utensile, etc.)• Reward program for food vendors utilizing innovative waste prevention programs• Not allowing the use of materials that would require disposal Solid Waste Management 31
  32. 32. Toxicity Reduction Solid Waste Management 32
  33. 33. TOXICITY-PRODUCT MANAGEMENT POLICY• Life-Cycle Analysis PRODUCTION• Product Bans MANAGEMENT POLICY• Packaging Policies • Clean Production• Product Labeling • Design for the• Targeted Product Environment Procurement • Toxics Use Reduction• Extended Producer • Integrated Pest Responsibility Management• Product Substitutes Solid Waste Management 33
  34. 34. COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTE1. The logistics of solid waste management2. The types of waste collection services3. The types of collection systems, equipment,and personnel requirements4. The collection routes5. The management of collection systems6. The collection system economics Solid Waste Management 34
  35. 35. Collection Vehicles for Collection of Source Separated Waste Solid Waste Management 35
  36. 36. Layout of Collection RoutesThe four general steps involved inestablishing collection routesinclude:1. Preparation of location maps showing pertinent data and information concerning the waste generation sources2. Data analysis and, as required, preparation of information summary tables3. Preliminary layout of routes4. Evaluation of the preliminary routes and the development of balanced routes by successive trials a) Route layout with overlap b) Route layout without overlap Solid Waste Management 36
  37. 37. Recycling MaterialsThe materials to be recycledcan include:• paper (newspaper, cardboard, m ixed paper, etc.)• glass (amber, green, and/or flint)• Cans (aluminum, ferrous, bimet al)• Plastics (PET, HDPE, PS, PVC, PP, Waste Management Solid L 37
  38. 38. RECOVERY OF RECYCLABLE MATERIALS FROM SOLID WASTEThere are three main methods that can be used torecover recyclable materials from MSW:1. Collection of source-separated recyclable materials byeither the generator or the collector, with and withoutsubsequent processing2. Commingled recyclables collection with processing atcentralized materials recovery facilities (MRFs)3. Mixed MSW collection with processing for recovery ofthe recyclable materials from the waste stream at mixed-waste processing or front-end processing facilities Solid Waste Management 38
  39. 39. Technical Considerations in the Planning and Design of MRFsThe technical planning and design of MRFsinvolves three basic steps:1. Feasibility analysis2. Preliminary design3. Final design Solid Waste Management 39
  40. 40. Feasibility Analysis• Functions of the MRF• Conceptual design• Siting• Economics• Ownership and operation• Procurement Solid Waste Management 40
  41. 41. Preliminary Design• Process flow diagrams• Prediction of materials recovery rates• Development of materials mass balances and loading rates for the unit operations (conveyors, screens, shredders, etc.), which make up the MRF• Selection of processing equipment• Facility layout and design• Staffing needs• Environmental issues• Health and safety issues Solid Waste Management 41
  42. 42. Final Design• Preparation of final plans and specifications that will be used for construction• Preparation of environmental documents• Preparation of detailed cost estimates• Preparation of the procurement documents Solid Waste Management 42
  43. 43. Materials Flow Diagram for Source Separated Recyclables Solid Waste Management 43
  44. 44. Material Flow in MRF forSource-Separated Materials Solid Waste Management 44
  45. 45. EQUIPMENT FOR PROCESSING OF RECYCLABLES• Manual sorting facilities• Equipment and facilities for materials transport• Equipment for size reduction• Equipment for component separation• Equipment for densification• Weighing facilities• Movable equipment• Storage facilities Solid Waste Management 45
  46. 46. Environmental Impacts• Groundwater Contamination• Dust Emissions• Noise• Vector Impacts• Odor Emissions• Vehicular Emissions Solid Waste Management 46
  47. 47. Hazardous Waste Categories• Ignitability includes liquids with a flash point, at standard temperature and pressure, less than 140°F• Corrosivity includes aqueous wastes with a pH at or below 2.0 (acids) or at or above 12.5 (bases)• Reactivity includes unstable chemicals, violent reactions with water, formation of explosive mixtures when mixed with water, etc• Toxicity includes poisons and other toxic substances that pose a threat to human health, domestic livestock, pets, or wildlife through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption Solid Waste Management 47
  48. 48. PROBLEMS OF HAZARDOUS PRODUCTS• Health Risks• Fire Risks• Toxic Loading• HW in Wastewater Solid Waste Management 48
  49. 49. SPECIAL WASTES• Batteries• Used Oil• Scrap Tires• Construction and Demolition Debris• Computer and other electronic solid waste Solid Waste Management 49
  50. 50. Scrap Tires Materials• Synthetic rubber• Natural rubber• Sulfur and sulfur compounds• Silica• Phenolic resin• Oil (aromatic, naphthenic, paraffin ic, etc.)• Fabric (polyester, nylon, etc.)• Petroleum waxes• Pigments (zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, etc.)• Carbon black• Fatty acids• Inert materials• Steel wire Solid Waste Management 50
  51. 51. Cleanup After Disasters Solid Waste Management 51
  52. 52. COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES• Composting is the biological decomposition of the biodegradable organic fraction of MSW under controlled conditions to a state sufficiently stable for nuisance-free storage and handling and for safe use in land applications Solid Waste Management 52
  53. 53. Typical Process Flow Diagram for Composting Solid Waste Management 53
  54. 54. Biology of CompostingOrganisms actively involved in composting canbe classified into six broad groups:1. Bacteria2. Actinomycetes3. Fungi4. Protozoa5. Worms6. some larvae Solid Waste Management 54
  55. 55. ClassificationAerobic vs. Anaerobic• aerobic decomposition• invalidating anaerobic compostingMesophylic vs. Thermophylic• Mesophilic is the temperature range from about 5 to 45°C.Thermophilic is the temperature range from about 45 to 75°C Solid Waste Management 55
  56. 56. Compost PhasesLag Phase. The lag phase begins assoon as composting conditions areestablished. It is a period ofadaptation of the microbescharacteristically present in thewaste.Active Phase. The transition from lagphase to active phase is marked byan exponential increase in microbialnumbers and a correspondingintensification of microbial activity.Unless countermeasures aretaken, the temperature may peak at70°C or higher Solid Waste Management 56
  57. 57. Compost Phases• Maturation or Curing Phase. In the maturation phase, the proportion of material that is resistant steadily rises and microbial proliferation correspondingly declines. Temperature begins an inexorable decline, which persists until ambient temperature is reached. Solid Waste Management 57
  58. 58. Environmental Factors and Parameters• Nutrients and Substrate• Chemical Elements• Availability of Nutrients• Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio• Particle Size• Oxygen (COD, BOD) Solid Waste Management 58
  59. 59. Moisture ContentMaximum• permissible maximum• optimum contentInterstitial Volume (porosity)1. the size of individual particles2. the configuration of the particles3. the extent to which individual particles maintain their respective configurationMinimumpH LevelTemperatureMesophylic vs. ThermophylicComposting Solid Waste Management 59
  60. 60. Performance Parameters1. oxygen uptake2. temperature3. moisture content4. pH5. odor6. color7. destruction of volatile matter8. stability Solid Waste Management 60
  61. 61. Compost Systems1. windrow• turned type• forced aeration• static pile2. in-vessel• horizontal drum• vertical silo• open tankAeration Mechanisms Solid Waste Management 61
  62. 62. Waste to Energy CombustionIncineration Technologies Disadvantages• The volume and weight of the • The capital cost is high waste are reduced • Skilled operators are required• Waste reduction is immediate • Not all materials are• Waste can be incinerated on- incinerable site • Supplemental fuel is required• Air discharges can be to initiate effectively controlled• Incineration requires a relatively small disposal area• using heat-recovery techniques, cost of operation reduced Solid Waste Management 62
  63. 63. Types of Solid Waste Incinerators1. Open burning2. Single-chamber incinerators3. Open-pit incinerators4. Multiple-chamber incinerators5. Controlled air incinerators6. Central-station disposal7. Rotary kiln incinerators Solid Waste Management 63
  64. 64. Landfilling• Landfilling is the term used to describe the process by which solid waste and solid waste residuals are placed in a landfill a) After geo-• Waste dumps or membrane liner has been installed uncontrolled land b) After two lifts of disposal sites solid waste c) Landfill with final• Secure landfills for cover Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Management 64
  65. 65. Layout of Landfill Site Solid Waste Management 65
  66. 66. Phases in Generation of Landfill Gases Solid Waste Management 66
  67. 67. Gas Production in Landfills Solid Waste Management 67
  68. 68. LeachateA liquid produced as waterpercolates throughwastes, collectingcontaminants Composition of Leachate Solid Waste Management 68
  69. 69. Waste Busters Lahore Solid Waste Management 69
  70. 70. Waste Busters Lahore Solid Waste Management 70
  71. 71. Transfer Station/Disposal Site Solid Waste Management 71
  72. 72. For a Cleaner Tomorrow Solid Waste Management 72
  73. 73. Thank You Solid Waste Management 73