Environmental Impact Assessment


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Environmental Impact Assessment

  1. 1. Environmental Impact AssessmentEIA
  2. 2. Thought of the DayThe Living in theMoment ConceptEnvironmental Impact Assessment 2
  3. 3. DOMAINS OF ENVIRONMENTPhysical• Air• Water• LandEcological• Flora• FaunaSocio-economic• Social• Economic• CulturalEnvironmental Impact Assessment 3
  4. 4. Environmental Impact AssessmentEIAWHAT IS EIA?An important procedure forensuring that the likelyeffects of new developmenton the environment are fullyunderstood and taken intoaccount before thedevelopment is allowed togo aheadEnvironmental Impact Assessment 4
  5. 5. What EIA can do?• Modify and improve design• Ensure efficient resource use• Enhance social aspects• Identify measures for monitoring andmanaging impacts• Inform decision-making• Provide justification for a proposalEnvironmental Impact Assessment 5
  6. 6. Origin of EIA in Pakistan• The EIA process was strengthened underSection 12 of Pakistan Environment ProtectionAct (PEPA), 1997• Guidelines were prepared with a thoroughconsultative process with the stakeholders• Initial Environmental Examination IEE/EIARegulations, 2000 notified.Environmental Impact Assessment 6
  7. 7. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act1997• Penalties• Upto One Million Rupees (Rs 10,00,000) witha daily penalty of Rs 100,000• Environmental Tribunals• Judge• National Environmental Quality Standards(NEQS)• Arrest WarrantsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 7
  8. 8. List of Projects Requiring IEE/EIA• Agriculture, livestock and fisheries, etc.• Energy• Manufacturing and processing• Mining and mineral processing• Transport• Water management, dams, irrigation and floodprotection• Waste Disposal• Urban development and tourism• Environmentally sensitive areasEnvironmental Impact Assessment 8
  9. 9. FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF EIAEnvironmental Impact Assessment 9
  10. 10. Description of a Project• Type of project• Need for project• Location (use maps showing general location, specific location, project boundaryand project site layout)• Size or magnitude of operation including any associated activities required by orfor the project• Proposed schedule for approval and implementation• Description of the project including drawings showing project layout, componentsof project, etc. This information should be of the same type and extent as isincluded in feasibility reports for proposed projects, in order to give a clear pictureof the project and its operations.Environmental Impact Assessment 10
  11. 11. EIA processes in sequences ofapplication• Project Screening• Scoping• Baseline Data Collection• Identification ofEnvironmental Impacts• Impact PredictionComparison of Alternatives• Comparison of Alternatives• Mitigation Measures• Public Consultation andParticipation• Environmental Monitoring• Environmental AuditingEnvironmental Impact Assessment 11
  12. 12. Screening• important to establishmechanisms byidentifying projectswhich requires EIA, andthis process of selectionof project is referred toas "Screening“Environmental Impact Assessment 12
  13. 13. Project Scoping• Scoping is to determinewhat should be thecoverage or scope of theEIA study for a projectproposal as havingpotentially significantenvironmental impacts.Environmental Impact Assessment 13
  14. 14. Baseline Data Collection• Baseline information isimportant reference point forconducting EIA.• The term "baseline" refers tothe collection of backgroundinformation on thebiophysical, social andeconomic settings proposedproject area.Baseline data are collected fortwo main purposes:• to provide a description of thestatus and trends ofenvironmental factors (e.g., airpollutant concentrations)against which predictedchanges can be compared andevaluated in terms ofimportance, and• to provide a means ofdetecting actual change bymonitoring once a project hasbeen initiatedEnvironmental Impact Assessment 14
  15. 15. Identification of EnvironmentalImpacts• Biological and Physio-chemical Impacts• Social Impact• demographic impacts, socio-economic impacts, institutionalimpacts, gender impact• Cultural Impacts• Health Impact• Economic Impact• labor force requirements, size ofinvestment, likely demographicchangesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 15
  16. 16. Impact Prediction Comparison ofAlternativesConsiderations for ImpactPrediction• Magnitude of Impact• Extent of Impact• Duration of ImpactUncertainty in ImpactPredictionEnvironmental Impact Assessment 16
  17. 17. Comparison of Alternatives• Qualitative approach• Quantitative approach• Ranking, rating orscaling approach• Weighting approach• Weighting-ranking/rating/scalingapproachEnvironmental Impact Assessment 17
  18. 18. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES1. No Project Option2. Location/AlignmentAlternatives3. Process/DesignAlternatives4. Demand/ActivityAlternatives5. SchedulingAlternatives6. Input AlternativesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 18
  19. 19. Lahore Sports CityEnvironmental Impact Assessment 19
  20. 20. Lahore Sports City(Site Screening Criteria)• Accessibility• Land use and Land availability• Aesthetics• Water Availability• Potential of Infrastructure Development• Environmental and Social IssuesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 20
  21. 21. Site OptionsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 21
  22. 22. Key elements for assessing impactsignificance• Ecological• effects on plant and animalhabitat• rare and endangered species• ecosystem resilience, sensitivity,bio-diversity and carryingcapacity• viability of local speciespopulations• EnvironmentalStandards• Social and Economical• effects on human health andsafety• potential loss of species withcurrent or potential value, orcommercially availableproduction (farmland)• recreational or aesthetic value• demands on public resourcessuch as social service• demands on transportation andother infrastructures• demographic effectsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 22
  23. 23. Mitigation Measures• recommended actionsto reduce, avoid oroffset the potentialadverse environmentalconsequences ofdevelopment activities• maximize projectbenefits• minimize undesirableimpactsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 23
  24. 24. Mitigation Measures• Mitigation measuresrequires funding• Mitigation measuresshould be integrated inthe project design• Mitigation measures isnot limited to one pointin the EIA process• Link between mitigationand monitoringEnvironmental Impact Assessment 24
  25. 25. Public Consultation and Participation• Local people• Project beneficiaries• NGOs• Voluntary organizations• Private sector• National/localgovernments• Scientist/experts• Private sectorEnvironmental Impact Assessment 25
  26. 26. Methods for stakeholder involvement• Public meetings• Advisory panels• Public informationcenters• Interviews• Questionnaires• Participatory AppraisaltechniquesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 26
  27. 27. Environmental Monitoring• an activity undertaken toprovide specific informationon the characteristics andfunctions of environmentaland social variables in spaceand timeEnvironmental monitoring istherefore one of the mostimportant components of an EIA• ensuring that impacts do notexceed the legal standards• checking the implementationof mitigation measures in themanner described in the EIAreport• providing early warning ofpotential environmentaldamagesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 27
  28. 28. Principles of Monitoring• Determine the indicators to beused in monitoring activities• Collection of meaningful andrelevant information• Application ofmeasurable criteria in relation tochosen indicators• Reviewing objective judgmentson the information collected• Draw tangible conclusions basedon the processing of information• Making rational decision basedon the conclusion drawn• Recommendation of improvedmitigation measures to beundertakenEnvironmental Impact Assessment 28
  29. 29. Types of Monitoring• Baseline Monitoring• pre-audit study• Impact Monitoring• Compliance MonitoringEnvironmental Impact Assessment 29
  30. 30. Environmental Auditing• an audit assess the actualenvironmental impact• the accuracy of prediction• the effectiveness ofenvironmental impactmitigation• enhancement measures• the functioning ofmonitoring mechanismsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 30
  31. 31. Types of Audit• Decision Point Audit• Implementation Audit• Performance Audit• Project Impact Audit• Predictive TechniqueAudit• EIA Procedures AuditEnvironmental Impact Assessment 31
  32. 32. Environmental Auditing Plan• condition ofnatural/social/economicalresources prior to projectimplementation• mitigation measuresimplemented are effectiveto control adverse impact• degraded landscape havebeen restored into originalcondition• effect on the local economyof project implementationEnvironmental Impact Assessment 32
  33. 33. Public HearingPublic Hearing of Environmental ImpactAssessment of 225 MW Thermal PowerRFO Fired Power Plant Near SheikhupuraPublic Hearing of Zero Point InterchangeEnvironmental Impact Assessment 33
  34. 34. Public HearingPublic Hearing of Benazir Bhutto InternationalAirportPublic Consultation for Mirani DamProjectEnvironmental Impact Assessment 34
  35. 35. Transplantation of TreesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 35
  36. 36. Transplantation of TreesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 36
  37. 37. Mangla Dam Raising Project• A population of about 50,000persons is being affected• About 8000 houses and otherbuildings are being affected• A total of 6,388 hectares of land(residential, agriculture and barren)is to be acquired• 28 brick kilns will be abandoned• An unprecedented and veryattractive compensation packagefor the affectees has been provided• Pakistan Resettlement Policy isbeing followed for the resettlementand compensation processEnvironmental Impact Assessment 37
  38. 38. EIA Flow ChartEnvironmental Impact Assessment 38
  39. 39. Strategic Environment AssessmentSEA
  40. 40. Strategic Environmental AssessmentSEA• Social ImpactAssessment (SIA)• Cumulative ImpactAssessment (CIA)• Environmental andSocial ImpactAssessment (ESIA)Environmental Impact Assessment 40
  41. 41. EIA SEAApplied to specific and relatively short-term (life-cycle) projects and their specificationsApplied to policies, plans and programs with broad,long-term strategic perspectiveTakes place at early stage of project planning onceparameters are setIdeally, takes place at an early stage in strategicplanningConsiders limited range of project alternatives Considers a broad range of alternative scenariosUsually prepared and/or funded by the projectproponentsConducted independently of any specific projectproponentFocus on obtaining project permission, and rarelywith feedbackto policy, plan or program considerationFocus on decision on policy, plan and programimplicationsfor future lower-level decisionsWell-defined, linear process with clear beginning andendMulti-stage, iterative process with feedback loopsPreparation of an EIA document with prescribedformat and contentsis usually mandatory. This document provides abaseline referencefor monitoringMay not be formally documentedLimited review of cumulative impacts, often limitedto phases of a specific project. Does not coverregional-scale developmentsor multiple projectsInherently incorporates consideration of cumulativeimpactsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 41
  42. 42. Tools for predicting environmental andsocio-economic effects• Modeling or forecastingof direct environmentaleffects• Matrices and networkanalysis• Participatory orconsultative techniques• Geographical informationsystems as a tool toanalyze, organize andpresent informationEnvironmental Impact Assessment 42
  43. 43. Tools for analyzing and comparingoptions• Scenario analysis andmulti-criteria analysis• Risk analysis orassessment• Cost benefit analysis• Opinion surveys toidentify prioritiesEnvironmental Impact Assessment 43
  44. 44. A continuum of SEA applicationEnvironmental Impact Assessment 44
  45. 45. SEA benefits at a glance1. Supporting the integration ofenvironment anddevelopment2. Providing environmental-based evidence to supportinformed decisions3. Improving the identificationof new opportunities4. Preventing costly mistakes5. Building public engagementin decision making forimproved governance6. Facilitating transboundaryco-operationEnvironmental Impact Assessment 45
  46. 46. Thermal Power Generation Policy, Pakistan: anearly SEA would have helped• In the mid 1990s, rapidly expanding industrialactivity, increasing population• Pakistan’s Government decided to stimulateincreased power generation• Independent Power Plants Policy (IPPs) providedincentives for investments in thermal powergeneration• No SEA was made; instead investors had to submitan EIA without considering potential cumulativeeffects• Investors given freedom to choose thesite, technology and the fuel• plants were installed with little or no pollutioncontrol devices• Leading energy experts and the WAPDA raisedobjections to the policy but were ignored• EIA used down-stream decision making approach• individual projects, especially after deciding thesite, technology and fuel• thermal power stations using high-sulphur furnaceoil became clustered in one city and added to thealready polluted air• Alternatively, they were developed in a scatteredway in remote places, which made it difficult toconnect them with the national grid systemKey costs• Increased pollution• Relocation of plants –following publicpressure and lobbying –at considerable cost• Delayed delivery ofenergyEnvironmental Impact Assessment 46
  47. 47. The Circular Debt of Pakistan• According to USAID report on theCauses and Impacts of Power SectorCircular Debt in Pakistan• in 2008, the circular debt was Rs161.21 billion• increased to Rs 235.65 billion in 2009• circular debt in 2010 increased to Rs365.66 billion• in 2011, this amount swelled to Rs537.53 billion• During the current fiscal year circulardebt increased to Rs 872.41 billionEnvironmental Impact Assessment 47
  48. 48. Policy SEA Process StepsEnvironmental Impact Assessment 48
  49. 49. Conceptual Model of SEAEnvironmental Impact Assessment 49
  50. 50. Reducing Emissions fromDeforestation and Degradation(REDD+)Environmental Impact Assessment 50
  51. 51. Thank YouEnvironmental Impact Assessment 51