Disaster Management


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Disaster Management

  1. 1. Disaster Management
  2. 2. Thought of the Day“KUN FAYAKUN”is an Arabic phrase inQuranIt meansThe Lord says“Be, and it is”Disaster Management 2
  3. 3. TermsCapacity• A combination of all the strengths and resources available within acommunity, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or theeffects of a disaster.Disaster• A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or society causingwidespread human, material, economic or environmental losses whichexceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using itsown resources. It results from the combination of hazards, conditions ofvulnerability and insufficient capacity to reduce the potential negativeconsequences of risk.Disaster risk management (DRM)• The comprehensive approach to reduce the adverse impacts of a disaster.DRM encompasses all actions taken before, during, and after the disasters.It includes activities on mitigation, preparedness, emergencyresponse, recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.Disaster Management 3
  4. 4. TermsDisaster risk reduction (DRR)/disaster reduction• The measures aimed to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughouta society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and preparedness) theadverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainabledevelopment.Early warning• The provision of timely and effective information, through identifiedinstitutions, to communities and individuals so that they can take action toreduce their risks and prepare for effective response.Emergency• An event, usually sudden, that puts at risk the life or well being of at least oneperson.Forecast• Estimate of the occurrence of a future event (UNESCO, WMO). This term isused with different meanings in different disciplines.Disaster Management 4
  5. 5. TermsMeteorological disaster• Disasters resulting from meteorological phenomena, such asfloods, cyclones, droughts, glacial lake outbursts, landslides due to heavy rainand avalanches.Risk assessment/analysis• A methodology to determine the nature and extent of risk by analyzingpotential hazards and evaluating existing vulnerability that could pose apotential threat to people, property, livelihoods and the environment.Sustainable development• Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising theability of future generations to meet their own needs.Vulnerability• The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community orsociety to the impact of hazards.Disaster Management 5
  6. 6. CATASTROPHE“… any natural or manmade incident, includingterrorism, that results in extraordinary levels ofmass casualties, damage, or disruption severelyaffecting thepopulation, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or governmentfunctions.”Disaster Management 6
  7. 7. Continuum of MagnitudeDisaster Management 7Emergency Disaster CatastropheExtinctionLevel Event
  8. 8. ResilienceResilience is the ability of asystem, community orsociety exposed to hazardstoresist, absorb, accommodate and recover from theeffects of a hazard in atimely and efficientmanner, including throughthe preservation andrestoration of its essentialbasic structures.Disaster Management 8
  9. 9. Disaster is an OpportunityDisaster Management 9
  10. 10. Rising Exposure to Cyclones andHurricanes, 2000-2050Disaster Management 10
  11. 11. Strategic Emergency ManagementPlan (SEMP)The inner circle includes all of theelements that influence the developmentof the SEMP,such as:• updates of environmental scans;• ongoing/regular all-hazards riskassessments;• engaged leadership;• regular training;• regular exercises; and• a Capability Improvement Process(CAIP)—the whole-of-governmentapproach to the collection and analysis ofgovernment response for exercises andreal eventsDisaster Management 11
  12. 12. The Planning Context• EM-Related Plans• SEMP• Operational plans• Regional EM plans• Regional operationalplans• Security plans• Business continuityplans• Inter-agency plansDisaster Management 12
  13. 13. The Planning Context• Assessments• Environmental scans• Criticality assessmentsincluding data on criticalinfrastructure• Business impact analyses• Threat assessments• Vulnerability assessments• Risk assessments• All-hazards riskassessmentsDisaster Management 13
  14. 14. Disaster Risk Management FrameworkDisaster Management 14
  15. 15. Core Response Management Systems• Core responsemanagement systemsare similar for mostdisaster types.• It reduces confusion ifall responses have thesame basicorganization.• It’s less expensive.Disaster Management 15
  16. 16. Challenges to Decision Makingvs Basic GoalsChallenges to Decision Making• Where Uncomfortable Officials• Meet in Unfamiliar Surroundings• To Play Unaccustomed Roles• Making Unpopular Decisions• Based on Inadequate Information• And in Much Too Little TimeBasic GoalsStanding Orders for All Disasters:• Establish/re-establishcommunication with affectedarea.• Secure and complete search andrescue.• Meet basic human needs formedicaltreatment, water, food, shelter, and emergency fuels• Restore critical infrastructure.• Open schools and localbusinesses.• Begin the recovery.Disaster Management 16
  17. 17. Pakistan Earthquake - Oct 2005A Snapshot Of Scale And Magnitude• Magnitude : 7.6 on the Richter Scale - 30,000 sq Km• Affected Area : 30,000 sq Km (Nine Districts – Inhospitable Terrain)• Human Loss : 73,338 Dead and &128,304 Severely Injured• Physical Loss:– 3 .5 Million Rendered Homeless, over 600,000 Houses Destroyed– 5,344 Education Facilities Destroyed– 307 Health Facilities Destroyed– 715 Government Sector Buildings Damaged– 2,393 Km Roads Damaged• The Challenge :– Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of Destroyed Infrastructure (Over 12,000 Projects)– Renewal of Livelihood, Protection of Environment, Re-establishment of Telecom and PowerNetworks and Rehabilitation of Vulnerable Population– Clearance of Massive Slides and Tons of Rubble• Colossal Economic Loss Leaving Behind a Reconstruction Bill of over US$ 5 billionDisaster Management 17
  18. 18. Pakistan Earthquake - Oct 2005Disaster Management 18
  19. 19. • The earthquake in Haiti• 12th Jan 2010• left 1.5 millionhomeless• killed 149,095 people ofwhich 6300 died in apotentially preventablecholera outbreak whichinfected a further450,000 residentsHaiti Earthquake 2010Disaster Management 19
  20. 20. Floods in Pakistan 2010• Floods in Pakistan• July to August 2010• affected 20 millionpeople and destroyedhealth facilitiesDisaster Management 20
  21. 21. Famine in Africa 2011• The famine in Africa in 2011• affected 10 million people acrossseveral countries• Large population displacement createdadditional public health challenges toareas that have poorly developedhealth systems• lack disaster preparedness• Immediate priorities included –provision of water, sanitation, shelter• trained staff to address widespreadacute malnutrition• surveillance for outbreaks• vaccine programs for preventablediseases• funding• inter-agency coordinationDisaster Management 21
  22. 22. Earthquake & Tsunami Japan 2011• The earthquake and tsunami in Japan• 11th March 2011• caused destruction of healthcarefacilities• Initial shortages of food• Water• Fuel• aid materials• rescue teams to the affected ruralpopulation• 400,000 people were evacuated toshelters with no heating in freezingtemperatures• Japan had invested in disastermanagement• had created a more resilient healthsystem which continued to function inspite of the challengesDisaster Management 22
  23. 23. World’s Costliest DisastersDisaster Management 23
  24. 24. Economic and Insured LossesDisaster Management 24
  25. 25. Overall and Insured Losses fromCatastrophesDisaster Management 25
  26. 26. Economic Losses due to NaturalCatastrophesDisaster Management 26
  27. 27. Major Disasters since 2010Disaster Management 27
  28. 28. Disasters Affect EveryoneDisaster Management 28
  29. 29. Disaster Management 29
  30. 30. Public Health Emergency PreparednessThe capability of the publichealth and health-caresystems, communities, andindividuals toprevent, protectagainst, quickly respondto, and recover from healthemergencies, particularlythose whosescale, timing, orunpredictability threatens tooverwhelm routinecapabilitiesDisaster Management 30
  31. 31. Health System Priorities in All-HazardsDisaster Management WHO1. Leadership andgovernance• International, national and cross-boundary systems ofgovernance, coordination andresponse for all hazards disasters2. Health workforce• Public health training in disastermanagement and evaluation3. Medicalproducts, vaccines andtechnology• Stockpiling disaster-relatedmedications and equipment, andtheir distribution4. Health information• Communications – inter-agency, two-way with the publicand the role of the media as partof disaster management strategy5. Health financing• Health finance system anddisaster management fundingissues6. Service delivery• Community preparednessstrategies to increase communityresilienceDisaster Management 31
  32. 32. The Complexity Paradigm• disaster managementproblems in the futurewill be more complex• population growth• climate change• regulatory requirements• short-term thinkingmust be rejected• planning over longertime horizonsDisaster Management 32
  33. 33. The Uncertainty Paradigm• uncertainty in timeand space• uncertainty caused byinherent variability ofphysical components• uncertainty caused bya fundamental lack ofknowledge• decrease in disasterdata availabilityDisaster Management 33
  34. 34. Sources of UncertaintyDisaster Management 34
  35. 35. Integrated Disaster ManagementIntegrated disastermanagement is aniterative process ofdecision making regardingprevention of, responseto, and recovery from, adisaster.Disaster Management 35
  36. 36. INTEGRATED DISASTER MANAGEMENTACTIVITIESMitigation• long-term planning• identifying vulnerabilityof every part of theterritory to particulartypes of hazards• identification of stepsthat should be taken tominimize the risks• proactive measures takenbefore an emergency ordisaster occursSteps can include:• modifying building codesto ensure buildings canwithstand earthquakeand high winds• forbidding building onland that is prone toflooding• Identification ofevacuation proceduresDisaster Management 36
  37. 37. INTEGRATED DISASTER MANAGEMENTACTIVITIESLand Use Planning andManagement• Promoting appropriate landuse for local conditions• keeps people and propertyout of hazardous areas• provides more affordablehousing and livingconditions,• protects the environment• reduces the costs of growthand developmentDisaster Management 37
  38. 38. INTEGRATED DISASTER MANAGEMENTACTIVITIESEngineering• state-of-the-artengineering approaches• reducing mortality ratesfrom hazards anddisastersDisaster Management 38
  39. 39. INTEGRATED DISASTER MANAGEMENTACTIVITIESBuilding Codes andStandards• quality of buildings andinfrastructure is directlyrelated to loss of life• Injuries• financial costs ofdisasters• disaster-resilientconstructionBuilding codes provide theminimum acceptablerequirements necessary(a) to preserve the publicsafety, health, andwelfare(b) to protect the propertyand the builtenvironmentDisaster Management 39
  40. 40. INTEGRATED DISASTER MANAGEMENTACTIVITIESPrediction, Forecast, andWarning• effective warning systemcomprises four elements• Failure in any one partcan mean failure of thewhole system1. Risk knowledge phase• systematic data collectionand risk assessments2. Monitoring phase• development of hazardmonitoring and earlywarning services3. Dissemination andcommunication phase4. Response capabilitydevelopment phaseDisaster Management 40
  41. 41. INTEGRATED DISASTER MANAGEMENTACTIVITIESInsurance• now available for somebut not all naturaldisasters• now available for somebut not all naturaldisastersDisaster Management 41
  42. 42. Preparedness• formulating, testing, and exercising disasterplans• providing training fordisaster responders andthe general public• communicating withthe public and othersabout disastervulnerabilityDisaster Management 42
  43. 43. Response• emergency sheltering• search and rescue• care of injured• damage assessment• emergency measures• coordination• communications• ongoing situationassessment• resource mobilizationduring emergency period 14,500 meals ready to eat15,000 liters of water by airDisaster Management 43
  44. 44. Recovery• Reconstruction• Restoration• Rehabilitation• Post disasterdevelopmentDisaster Management 44
  45. 45. Disaster Management Acts• EmergencyManagement Act• National DisasterMitigation Strategy• Joint EmergencyPreparedness Program• Emergency ResponseDisaster Management 45
  46. 46. Systems Thinking and IntegratedDisaster Management• What is a System?• S : X → Y• X is an input vector andY is an output vector• a system is a set ofoperations thattransforms input vectorX into output vector YDisaster Management 46
  47. 47. Systems Approach to DisasterManagement• SIMULATION1. Development of a model of the system,2. Operation of the model3. Observation and interpretation of the resultingoutputs• SYSTEM DYNAMICS SIMULATION• understanding the system and itsboundaries• identifying the key variables• describing the processes that affectvariables through mathematicalrelationships,• mapping the structure of the model, and• simulating the model for understandingits behaviorDisaster Management 47
  48. 48. Systems Approach to DisasterManagement• OPTIMIZATION• MULTIOBJECTIVE ANALYSIS• DISASTER RISKMANAGEMENT• Risk analysis, Disaster prevention andPreparedness for disaster• COMPUTER SUPPORT:DECISION SUPPORTSYSTEMS (DSS)• Problem identification, Problemformulation, “What If” capability(adaptability), Use of analytical models(facilitation), Use of graphics ( fast response)Disaster Management 48
  49. 49. EvacuationDisaster Management 49
  50. 50. The Environmental Health ShelterAssessment ToolThe Environmental Health ShelterAssessment Tool is intended to• Serve as a standardized instrument forrapidly assessing environmental healthconditions in shelter facilities• Assist in identifying and prioritizinghealth and safety issues in shelters• Provide shelter management officialswith data and an assessment ofenvironmental health conditions andrecommendations for improvement• Capture data and createdocumentation for use in futureplanning and improvement ofsheltersDisaster Management 50
  51. 51. Supply Chain ManagementDisaster Management 51
  52. 52. Disaster RisksDisaster Management 52
  53. 53. Vulnerability Conceptual FrameworkDisaster Management 53
  54. 54. Process Stages in VulnerabilityAssessmentDisaster Management 54
  55. 55. Shifting Approaches In DisasterManagement Bangladesh• Institutional Restructuring toReflect a Shift in DisasterManagement• Increasing roles andresponsibilities of NGOs• Developments in theInstitutional Framework:Introduction to theComprehensive DisasterManagement Plan (CDMP)• Shift from relief and responseto disaster risk managementDisaster Management 55
  56. 56. ISSUES IN FUTURE DISASTERMANAGEMENT• Climate Change• Temperature Extremes• Precipitation Extremes• Drought• Tropical Cyclones• Severe Weather Events• Sea-Level Rise• Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF)Disaster Management 56
  57. 57. Integrated Environmental ObservationNetworkDisaster Management 57
  58. 58. Tsunami Early Warning SystemsDisaster Management 58
  59. 59. NOAA GOES-13 satellite showing Hurricane Ireneon August 25, 2011 at 10:10 a.m.Disaster Management 59
  60. 60. Simulation ModelsCategory 2 StormDisaster Management 60
  61. 61. Green vs. Gray Infrastructure CostsDisaster Management 61
  62. 62. FEMA Trailer TypesDisaster Management 62
  63. 63. Building America Structural Insulated Panel(BASIP) HomesDisaster Management 63
  64. 64. Katrina & Kernel CottagesDisaster Management 64
  65. 65. Three dimensional map rendition offlooding event-Purdue UniversityDisaster Management 65
  66. 66. Satellite ImageVolcanic EruptionDisaster Management 66
  67. 67. Thank YouDisaster Management 67