Air Pollution


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Air Pollution

  1. 1. Air Pollution
  2. 2. Thought of the DayDo unto others as you wouldhave them do unto you… Hazrat Isa (A.S) Air Pollution 2
  3. 3. Air PollutionThe presence in the atmosphere of one or moreair contaminants in sufficient quantities and ofsuch characteristics and duration as to beinjurious to human, plant, or animal life, tohealth, or to property, or to unreasonablyinterfere with the enjoyment of life or property Air Pollution 3
  4. 4. The Atmosphere Air Pollution 4
  5. 5. Composition of the Atmosphere Air Pollution 5
  6. 6. Air PollutantAn air pollutant can beconsidered as a substancein the air that, in highenoughconcentrations, producesa detrimentalenvironmental effect Air Pollution 6
  7. 7. Environmental EffectAn environmental effectis defined as a measurableor perceivable detrimentalchange resulting fromcontact with an airpollutant Air Pollution 7
  8. 8. Ambient AirAmbient air is the air towhich the general publichas access, i.e. anyunconfined portion of theatmosphereAmbient concentrationThe appropriately timeaveraged concentration ofa substance at a locationto which the generalpublic has access Air Pollution 8
  9. 9. Air PollutantsThe two basic physicalforms of air pollutants are Particulate Matter Gases Carbon Monoxide (CO) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Dioxides (NO2) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Air Pollution 9
  10. 10. Particulate Matter• A criteria air pollutant • Particulate pollution can• Particulate matter includes dust, soot, and other tiny bits of solid materials that are cause eye, nose, and released into and move around in the air• Particulates are produced by many throat initiation and other sources health problems• burning of diesel fuels by trucks and buses• incineration of garbage• mixing and application of fertilizers and pesticides• road construction• industrial processes such as steel making, mining operations• agricultural burning (field and slash burning)• fireplaces and woodstoves Air Pollution 10
  11. 11. Particulate Matter Air Pollution 11
  12. 12. Relative Size of Particles Air Pollution 12
  13. 13. PM 10, 2.5, 0.1 Air Pollution 13
  14. 14. Types and Sources of Air PollutionA primary pollutant is one thatis emitted into the atmospheredirectly from the source of thepollutant and retains the samechemical formA secondary pollutant is onethat is formed by atmosphericreactions of precursor orprimary emissions. Secondarypollutants undergo a chemicalchange once they reach theatmosphere Air Pollution 14
  15. 15. Natural Sources (Biogenic)VolcanoesWind StormsSand StormsForest FiresPollenNatural DecompositionNatural Radioactivity Air Pollution 15
  16. 16. Dust Storm over Southwestern Asia• The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this natural-color image on March 20, 2012 Air Pollution 16
  17. 17. Man Made Sources (Anthropogenic)Mobile Sources Automobiles Trains Aero planesStationary Sources (NonMoving Sources) Power Plants Industrial Facilities Air Pollution 17
  18. 18. Criteria PollutantsThe criteria pollutants are Carbon Monoxide (CO) Sulfur Oxides (SOx) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Ozone (O3) Lead (Pb) Particulate Matter (PM) Air Pollution 18
  19. 19. Carbon Monoxide (CO)• Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas• slightly lighter than air• produced through the incomplete combustion of carbon• operations of internal combustion engines, such as automobiles• CO enters the bloodstream and reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body’s organs and tissues• most serious for people with cardiovascular disease• Exposures to elevated carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with impairment of visual perception, work capacity, manual dexterity, learning ability, and performance of complex tasks Air Pollution 19
  20. 20. Sulfur dioxide (SO2)• Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a corrosive, poisonous gas• produced in power plants, particularly use high-sulfur coal as a fuel• SO2 and oxides of nitrogen after being released into the atmosphere, can be chemically converted into sulfates and nitrates• may later be deposited on the ground in the form of so-called acid rain or snow• At high concentrations, SO2 affects breathing and produces respiratory illness• alterations in the defenses of the lungs• aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease• Sulfur dioxide can also produce damage on trees and agricultural crops Air Pollution 20
  21. 21. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)• Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is produced when fuels are burned at high temperatures• main sources are transportation vehicles and power plants• NO and NO2 are inhaled, they can irritate the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory infections such as influenza• continued or frequent exposure to high concentrations causes increased incidence of acute respiratory disease in children• Nitrogen oxides are also an important precursor of both ozone and acidic precipitation• may affect both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems• limit for nitrogen dioxide is also designed to support the limit for ozone Air Pollution 21
  22. 22. Ozone (O3)• Ozone (O3) is formed in the atmosphere as a result of chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons (HCs)• If inhaled, damages lung tissue• reduces lung function• sensitizes the lungs to other irritants• Scientific evidence indicates that ambient levels of ozone not only affect people with impaired respiratory systems, such as asthmatics, but healthy adults and children• Specific effects, particularly at elevated concentrations, include eye and lung irritation• Ozone is also responsible for several billion dollars of agricultural crop loss in the United States each year. Air Pollution 22
  23. 23. Lead (Pb)• Lead (Pb) is a heavy, comparatively soft metal used as an additive to gasoline• household paint• shotgun pellets• stained-glass windows• When taken into the body, it accumulates in the blood, bones, and soft tissues• Because it is not readily excreted, it also affects the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and blood-forming organs• Excess exposure may cause neurological impairments such as seizures, mental retardation, and/or behavioral disorders. Air Pollution 23
  24. 24. Particulate Matter• Particulates are solids or liquids produced by the combustion of fuel in stationary power plants• diesel-powered vehicles• various industrial processes• produced by plowing and burning of agricultural fields• If particulates are inhaled, they can lead to respiratory symptoms• aggravate existing respiratory• cardiovascular disease• alter the defenses of the body against foreign materials, damage lung tissue, and produce latent cancers and premature mortality. Air Pollution 24
  25. 25. National Primary US Air Quality Standards Air Pollution 25
  26. 26. Table 1: Sources, Health and Welfare Effects for Criteria Pollutants. Pollutant Description Sources Health Effects Welfare EffectsCarbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless gas Motor vehicle exhaust, Headaches, reduced Contribute to the indoor sources include mental alertness, heart formation of smog. kerosene or wood burning attack, cardiovascular stoves. diseases, impaired fetal development, death.Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Colorless gas that Coal-fired power plants, Eye irritation, wheezing, Contribute to the dissolves in water vapor petroleum refineries, chest tightness, shortness formation of acid rain, to form acid, and interact manufacture of sulfuric of breath, lung damage. visibility impairment, with other gases and acid and smelting of ores plant and water damage, particles in the air. containing sulfur. aesthetic damage.Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Reddish brown, highly Motor vehicles, electric Susceptibility to Contribute to the reactive gas. utilities, and other respiratory infections, formation of smog, acid industrial, commercial, irritation of the lung and rain, water quality and residential sources respiratory symptoms deterioration, global that burn fuels. (e.g., cough, chest pain, warming, and visibility difficulty breathing). impairment.Ozone (O3) Gaseous pollutant when it Vehicle exhaust and Eye and throat irritation, Plant and ecosystem is formed in the certain other coughing, respiratory damage. troposphere. fumes. Formed from tract problems, asthma, other air pollutants in the lung damage. presence of sunlight.Lead (Pb) Metallic element Metal refineries, lead Anemia, high blood Affects animals and smelters, battery pressure, brain and kidney plants, affects aquatic manufacturers, iron and damage, neurological ecosystems. steel producers. disorders, cancer, lowered IQ.Particulate Matter (PM) Very small particles of Diesel engines, power Eye irritation, asthma, Visibility impairment, soot, dust, or other matter, plants, industries, bronchitis, lung damage, atmospheric deposition, including tiny droplets of windblown dust, wood cancer, heavy metal aesthetic damage. liquids. stoves. poisoning, cardiovascular Air Pollution 26 effects.
  27. 27. Perfect Combustion Air Pollution 27
  28. 28. Incomplete Combustion Air Pollution 28
  29. 29. Emissions Air Pollution 29
  30. 30. Anthropogenic Sources (Man-Made Sources)• Mobile Sources • On-Road Sources • Non-Road Sources• Stationary Sources • Point Source • Area Source Air Pollution 30
  31. 31. Mobiles Sources• Responsible for more than half of the air pollution • cars are primary source • vehicles produce 75-90% less pollution for each mile driven than their 1970 counterpart • no. of vehicles have increased immensely• Mobile Sources Pollutants • 45% VOC emissions • 50% NOx emissions • 60% CO emissions • 50% hazardous air pollutants in urban air Air Pollution 31
  32. 32. Mobile Sources Air Pollution 32
  33. 33. Air Quality Index• The Air Quality Index (AQI), also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is an index for reporting daily air quality Air Pollution 33
  34. 34. How does the AQI work?• Think of the AQI as a yardstick that runs from 0 to 500. The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern• An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the national air quality standard for the pollutant, which is the level EPA has set to protect public health Air Pollution 34
  35. 35. Air Quality Index NumericalLevels of Health Concern Meaning Value Air quality is considered satisfactory, Good 0-50 and air pollution poses little or no risk. Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a Moderate 51-100 moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. Members of sensitive groups may Unhealthy for 101-150 experience health effects. The general Sensitive Groups public is not likely to be affected. Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive Unhealthy 151-200 groups may experience more serious health effects. Health alert: everyone may experience Very Unhealthy 201-300 more serious health effects. Health warnings of emergency Hazardous > 300 conditions. The entire population is Air Pollution 35 more likely to be affected.
  36. 36. Air Pollution 36
  37. 37. Green House GasesCarbon DioxideWater VaporsMethaneNitrous OxideChlorofloro Carbons CFCsOzone Air Pollution 37
  38. 38. Acid Rain / Acid Deposition• Acid deposition occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere react with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form acidic compounds• These compounds fall to the earth in either dry form (gas and particles) known as Dry Deposition or wet form (rain, snow, and fog) known as Wet DepositionDuration of the reaction• It takes days or weeks for atmospheric SOx and NOx to be converted to acids and deposited on the earths surface, acid deposition occurs in a multistate scale hundreds of miles away from its sources Air Pollution 38
  39. 39. World Health Day 2012 Air Pollution 39
  40. 40. Thank You Air Pollution 40