Colm Campbell - Foro Social para impulsar el proceso de paz

1,194 views

Published on

Foro Soziala erakunde anitz eta pluralek batera nazioarteko erakundeekin elkarlanean burututako ekimen bat da. Haren xedea gizartearen parte-hartzea sustatzea da bake prozesua bultzatzearren.

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,194
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
524
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Colm Campbell - Foro Social para impulsar el proceso de paz

  1. 1. Prof. Colm Campbell Transitional Justice Institute, School ofLaw, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland
  2. 2. International Trends Transitional justice and the democratic state  Northern Ireland  Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission Transnational norm-diffusion. Legal norms and ideational norms (‘peace process’) Increasing focus on violations by armed opposition groups Increasing role of ‘bottom up’ initiatives
  3. 3. Comparative Perspectives The ‘Big Four’, South Africa, Israel/Palestine, Northern Ireland and the Basque Country. Entrenched conflict & rechstsstaat Transnational frame diffusion: SA  NI  Basque Country: meso and macro levels Pacto de olvido: palimpsest of the transition from Francoism
  4. 4. Categorizing the BasqueTransition Ending a crime wave?  Political shifts  International resonance An open-ended process?  The strength of the pacto de olvido  The Garzón episode  CAH from the civil war A bounded transition?
  5. 5. A bounded transition? Legacies from the conflict post-Franco Early prisoner releases Reconciliation initiatives Political unbanning (Sortu) Memorialization initiatives Initiatives on victims and survivors Art 3 ECHR issues (prisoner ill-treatment) Space and validation for bottom-up initiatives
  6. 6. Who is a ‘victim’? 2007 Law of Historical Memory (Spanish) opponents of Franco recognized Basque decree of 2011 implementing above includes ETA members in Franco period Victims of ETA are recognized as victims in a Spanish law of 2011 A Basque Law of 2008 recognizes as victims those harmed by GAL (as well as ETA)
  7. 7. ETA violence The palimpsest of the past ETA violence under Franco ETA violence in the democratic period (7-fold increase in violence in decade after democracy) % of civilians killed: 37% to 65% Comparisons with contemporary terrorism Militants as victim-perpetrators
  8. 8. Conclusions Strong evidence of ‘peace process’ frame diffusion from NI and SA to the Basque Country Although frayed the pacto de olvido remains strong Even with the pact in place there is a ample space for transitional moves on prisoners, memorialization, and reconciliation (including apologies), with contributions both from state and non-state actors.

×