Task Analysis


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Task Analysis

  1. 1. Cathy St. Pierre Susan Cho Chris Loiselle Jim Olaye Task Analysis
  2. 2. Task Analysis - The ID Process <ul><li>First Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the Subject Matter Expert (SME) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact them and determine meeting place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e – office or at location that has proper equipment or conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquire if any special equipment or training is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask (SME) what type of examples are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. – written reports, diagrams, pictures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Task Analysis - The ID Process <ul><li>Fifth Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you have two notepads, note cards, and a camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If conditions are favorable , use a laptop or PDA with keyboard for note taking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Six Step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to respect (SME)’s time during meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare ahead of time the summary of the problems and goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate the target audience so you set the stage for the analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek clarification on questions you may have during the meeting, not after the fact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature searches as part of SME prep would be advantageous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Task Analysis - The ID Process <ul><li>Before the task analysis begins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can identify the content you want to design the instruction around by brainstorming- flowcharts, concept mapping etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come up with goals and objectives of the instructional design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During the task analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified goals are broken down into greater detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The analysis should include both conceptual and procedural learning tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The information provided should be a mix of critical content and content that is nice to know. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your role as the ID : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is to organize and sequence the content provided by the (SME) by applying learning and instructional theories </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Task Analysis - The ID Process <ul><li>Helpful Hints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify tasks according to desired learning outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventorying tasks – identifying what tasks you want to complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting tasks – prioritize to choose the most appropriate tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposing tasks - describe the components of the tasks, goals and objectives to help define the instructional design you are trying to accomplish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing tasks – arranging tasks and ordering instruction that best facilitates learning </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Being your own (SME) <ul><li>Two major advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of access to and scheduling of meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are already familiar with the learners and problems they have with tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarity with the content may cause you to skip steps in analysis of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four items to counter disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find another SME and assume role of designer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask someone else to perform task analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have another expert identify missing steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to feedback from a novice and an expert </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Task analysis <ul><li>The most critical step in the instructional design process(Jonassen, Hannum, Tessmer, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Three problems to be solved by Task analysis </li></ul><ul><li>1)Task analysis defines the content required to solve the performance problems or alleviate a performance need. </li></ul><ul><li>2)The process forces the subject-matter expert to work through each individual step, subtle steps are more easily identified </li></ul><ul><li>3) Designers have opportunity to view the contents from the learner’s perspective. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Specific techniques for analyzing content and tasks <ul><li>Step1: How to conduct a topic analysis </li></ul><ul><li>: to be well suited for defining cognitive knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: How to conduct a procedural analysis </li></ul><ul><li>: for use with psychomotor tasks, job tasks, or cognitive knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Step3: The critical incident method </li></ul><ul><li>: to be useful for analyzing interpersonal skills </li></ul>
  9. 9. Topic Analysis <ul><li>Content structure </li></ul><ul><li>Fact </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Principles and Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Topic Analysis(cont.) <ul><li>Analyzing a topic </li></ul><ul><li>1)The learner analysis describes the learner’s knowledge of the content area </li></ul><ul><li>2) The SME is often source of information concerning the learner’s entry-level knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>a basis for determining the level of detail needed in this initial analysis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Procedural Analysis <ul><li>Breaking down the mental and/or physical steps that the learner must go through so that the task can be successfully achieved </li></ul><ul><li>The steps that make up a task are arranged linearly and sequentially, illustrating where the learner begins and ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow chart, Table format are used </li></ul>
  12. 12. Procedural Analysis(cont.) <ul><li>Application of steps (Smith & Ragan, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Step1. Determine whether a particular procedure is applicable. </li></ul><ul><li>Step2. Recall the steps of the procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Step3. Apply the steps in order, with decision steps if required. </li></ul><ul><li>Step4. Confirm that the end result is reasonable. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Procedural Analysis(cont.) <ul><li>Flowchart of a procedure </li></ul>
  14. 14. Procedural Analysis(cont.) <ul><li>Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant cues and feedback are identified? </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis identifies the generally acceptable procedure? </li></ul><ul><li>The decision steps identified? </li></ul><ul><li>All steps accurately described? </li></ul><ul><li>Critical steps, could result in personal injury, equipment damage, or other loss, are identified? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Procedural Analysis(cont.) <ul><li>Applied Cognitive Task Analysis(Militello and Hutton,1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Step1: The designer asks a SME to identify three to six broad steps that are performed as part of this task. </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: A knowledge audit that is used to generate examples of the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Step3: To conduct a simulation interview the expert describes how he/she would solve a realistic problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Step4: To create a cognitive demands table that synthesizes the information from the first three steps. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Jonassen, D., Hannum, w., & Tessmer, M. (1999). “ Task Analysis methods for instructional design” . Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. </li></ul><ul><li>Militello, L.G., & Hutton, R.J. B. (1998). Applied cognitive task analysis: A Practitioner's toolkit for understanding cognitive task demands. Ergonomics, 41, 1618-1641. </li></ul><ul><li>Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., & Kemp, J.E. “ D e signing Effective Instruction ” , 5 th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, P. and Ragan, T. (1999). Instructional design (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul>