Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Social Sciences Perspective for Social Work 2

  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Social Sciences perspective for Social Work II Jc Lohith Shetty PGDPM, MSW, MBA, UGC - NET  Asst Professor  St Aloysius College (Autonomous)     Trainer – Junior Chamber International President - 2014, JCI Mangalore
  2. 2. • Statutory Instructions: • This is not a study material & only a teaching aid. • There is constant changes made to this teaching material & those changes are not updated in Slide Share. • This slide is prepared as teaching aid only, so it can be understood & interpreted rightly only after attending my classes.
  3. 3. Intro to Indian Society.ppt Historical Morning of the Indian Society Traditional Hindu Society: It laid emphasis on religion and magic in behavioural norms and values, implying continuity with a real or imagined past. A. Broadly it can be understood as one in which: 1. Individual’s status is determined by his birth and he does not strive for social mobility. 2. Individual’s behaviour is governed by customs, traditions, norms and values having deep links with the past. 3. Social organization provides regularity and predictability in social interaction based on hierarchy. 4. Kinship relations predominate in interaction and individual identifies himself with primary group. 5. Individual is given more importance in social relations than what his position actually warrants.
  4. 4. 6. People are conservative. 7. Economy is simple i.e. tool economy not machine. 8. Mythical thoughts were predominant no logical resourcing. 9. Superstitious beliefs were predominant 10. Like most other religious women were suppressed. B. Basic Tenets and Doctrines of Hindu Society: I. Theological ideas – a) Karma (deeds) b) Dharma (morality) c) Punarjanma (rebirth) d) Atma (soul) e) Papa (sin) f) Punya (merit) and g) Moksha (salvation) II. Purity and impurity (Shudha and Ashudha) III. Hierarchy - a) division in Varanas, b) In charismatic qualities (Guna) c) In values regarding life gods Kama (sex and material gods of sensory enjoyments), Artha (achieving wealth), Dharma (moral obligation in social, religious and cultural realms), Moksha (pursuit of salvation).
  5. 5. C. Idol Worship D. Monolithic charter (many gods) E. Ashramas: Stages of Life in Realizing the Ideal of Life a) Brahmacharya (student life) b) Grahasthya (family life) c) Vanaprastha (retired life) and d) Sannyasa (life of renunciation) F. Varanas a) Brahmanas – engaged in priestly function, teaching, medicine etc. b) Kshatriyas – engaged in war, ruling and administration. c) Vaishyas – engaged in agriculture, trade and commerce. d) Sudras – engaged in unskilled work and as labourers.
  6. 6. Indian Society through the Ages:  Impact of Cultural Renaissance and Buddhism  Impact of Islam  Impact of West and Modernization  Impact of modern Education System Factors in continuity and change in Indian Society:  Political Independence and Democratic values  Urbanization  Industrialization  Increase in Education  Legislative Measures  Change in Caste system  Social Movement and Social Awareness  Feminism  Globalization
  7. 7. Tribal Society: Society in India by Ram Ahuja According to July 11, 1995-Hindustan Times 8.08% of Indian population is constituted by Tribes. Isolated from larger cultural influences They believe in spirits, magic and witch craft They have their own taboos Most tribes believe in Animisms
  8. 8. Some Important features of tribes: A. B. C. D. E. F. Common Name Common Territory Common Language Common Culture Endogamy Political Organizations – Own administration and judgement G. Practice their own herbal medicines H. Tribal leadership
  9. 9. Tribal Problem: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. They hold small and uneconomic land holdings Isolated from civilization and amenities Illiteracy Ignorance of law and constitution Blind faith and exploitation deforestation Declaration and National forest Reservoirs Mining and land acquisition Poor hygiene and accommodation and health facilities 9. Exploitation 10.Bonded labours 11.Human trafficking / Women Trafficking 12.Displacement and Resettlement
  10. 10. The Indian Rural Community: Characteristics 1. Joint Family system 2. Agriculture Dependent 3. Handicraft and Folk Culture 4. Religious 5. Caste System 6. Illiteracy – High and Ignorance 7. Superstitious belief 8. Less Modernized 9. Low access to health care 10.Gender inequality 11.Power structure dominates
  11. 11. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Problems - Rural Community: High birth-rate and death rate Illiteracy and ignorance High exploitation of suppressed class Low per-capita income Breakdown of family structure Employment opportunities – Low Lack of educational Lack of health care facilities Superstitious belief and spiritual medicines High gender inequality and discrimination Child marriage Bounded Labour Caste discrimination, class discrimination Remote legislative and judicial approach High dependency on nature and natural calamities Lack of cleanliness and hygiene Lack of awareness and prevention of illness
  12. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Indian Urban Community characteristics: Nuclear / extended family Higher level of literacy Higher per-capita Income Sophisticated and automated life style Higher involvement and membership in territory groups 6. Employment of both the spouse is observed highly 7. Weaker family bond 8. Industrialization 9. Over population 10.Good infrastructure and facility 11.Higher surveillance and security
  13. 13. Problems of Indian Urban Community: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Slums High inequality of income Unemployment Drug addiction and mafia Divorce, separation, living to gather, extra marital unwedded mother affairs etc. 6) Home less 7) Juvenile delinquency 8) Prostitution 9) Child trafficking / women trafficking 10)Pollution and over crowding
  14. 14. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: Shankar Rao a) Raymond W Murry: “Social stratification is a horizontal division of society into ‘high’ and ‘lower’ social units”. b) Gisbert: “Social stratification is the division of society into permanent groups of categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority and subordination”. c) Lundberg: “A stratified society is one marked by inequality, by differences among people that are evaluated by them as being ‘lower’ and ‘higher’”
  15. 15. Characteristics: I. It is Social II. It is Ancient III. It is Universal IV. It is in diverse forms V. It is consequential
  16. 16. Caste system: • C H Cooley: “When a class is somewhat strictly hereditary, we may call it a caste”. • MacIver and Page: “When status is wholly predetermined so that men are sort to their lot without any hope of changing it, then the class takes the extreme form of caste”. • A W Green: “Caste is a system of stratification in which mobility up and down the states ladder, at least ideally may not occur”.
  17. 17. Characteristics of Caste: • • • • Caste as a hierarchical division of society Sentimental division of society Restriction on Food habits Restriction on social relations social and religious disabilities of certain castes • The civil and religious privilege of certain castes • Restrictions on Occupational choice • Restrictions on marriage
  18. 18. Causes for changes in Caste System: 1. 2. 3. 4. Uniform Legal System Impact of Modern Education and westernization Industrialization, Urbanization, Westernization Influence of modern transport and communication system 5. Raise of Non Brahmin Movement Jyothirao Pooley 1873. 6. Various social legislations 7. Increase in organizational power of castes 8. Protection of SC and OBC 9. Freedom struggle and democracy 10.Liberty and equality
  19. 19. The Estate System: Social Class • Ogburn and Nimkoff: “A Social Class is the aggregate of persons having essentially the same social status in a given society”. • MacIver and Page: “A SC is any portion of the community marked of from the rest by social status”. • Lapire: “A SC is culturally defined group that is accorded a particular position of status within the population as a whole”.
  20. 20. Nature and Characteristics: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Class a status group Achieved status and not ascribed status It is universal Mode of feeling and pride or inferiority Element of prestige Element of sterility Mode of living Social class an open group Social class an economic group Class consciousness
  21. 21. Caste Class 1. Particular Universal 2. Ascribed status Achieved status 3. Closed System Open System 4. Devine Origin Secular 5. Purity and Impurity Feeling of Disparity 6. Regulation of Relations Limits Relations 7. Greater Social Distance Less Social Distance 8. Conservative Progressive 9. Endogamous Group Not Endogamous 10. Complexity Simplicity 11. Caste Conscious Class Conscious
  22. 22. SOCIAL DISORGANISATION: • Robert Eolofairs: “Social Disorganization is a disturbance in the patterns a mechanism of human relations”. • Ogburn and Nimkoff: “When the harmonious relationship between the various parts of culture is disturbed, social disorganization ensures”. • Emile Durkheim: “Social Disorganization is a state of disequilibrium and a lack of social solidarity or consensus among the members of a society”.
  23. 23. Types of Disorganization: Elliot and Merrill • Personal or Individual disorganization like crime, insanity or mental derangement, prostitution, juvenile delinquency, alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling, suicide etc. • Family disorganization like divorce, desertion, separation, broken home, unwedded mothers, domestic violence and venereal disease etc. • Community disorganization like poverty, beggary, unemployment, overpopulation, lawlessness, political corruption etc.
  24. 24. Characteristics of Social Disorganization: 1. Conflict of Mores and of Institutions 2. Transfer of functions from one group to another 3. Individualization 4. Inconsistency between expectations and achievements 5. Inconsistency between status and rule
  25. 25. Causes of Social Disorganization: 1. Psychological Factors: a) Communication b) Problem of attitude 2. Cultural Lag 3. Physical or Geographic factors 4. Biological factors 5. Economic factors 6. Social Problems leading to Social Disorganization 7. Degeneration of values 8. Disintegration and confusion of roles 9. Political subordination 10.Decline of social control 11.Disruptive social change
  26. 26. Social Problems and Causes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Juvenile delinquency Youth unrest Problems of aged Over population Unemployment and underemployment Poverty Beggary Problems of Under Privileged Corruption and Black money