Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Culture in a MulticulturalCulture in a Multicultural
World: Di...
2Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
What is Culture?
• What are your ideas?
• Culture refers to t...
3Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
What is Ethnicity?
• Ethnicity refers to a person’s
identific...
4Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
What is Race?
• Race refers to a group of
people related gene...
5Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Culture is both subjective and
objective
• Subjective:
– Beli...
6Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Culture is Multileveled and
Dynamic
• Multileveled:
– Micro (...
7Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Hoffstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Individualism- Collectivism
(...
8Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Individual vs. group orientation
• Confrontation and
conflict...
9Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Power Distance
The degree that people
accept an unequal
distr...
10Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Small Power Distance
• Minimized inequality
• Interdependenc...
11Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Large Power Distance
• Expected and desired
power and inequa...
12Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Leveraging Power Distance
• Examine your source of power and...
13Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
JapanJapan
SouthSouth
KoreaKorea
Achievement
Nurturing
Swede...
14Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Achievement vs. Nurturing
• Dominant values=
success and pro...
15Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Leveraging Achievement-
Nurturing
• Find ways to balance com...
16Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
High U. A.
Low U. A.
JapanJapan
GermanyGermany
SingaporeSing...
17Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Avoidance vs. tolerance
• Uncertainty = threat
• Fear of amb...
18Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Leveraging Uncertainty
Avoidance (Stability/Change)
• Balanc...
19Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
JapanJapan
NetherlandsNetherlands
RussiaRussia
Long-Term Ori...
20Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Long/Short-Term Orientation
20
21Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Multicultural Competence
• Possess:
– Adequate knowledge,
at...
22Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
How to build multicultural competence
• Individual variables...
23Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Understanding personal filters -Exercise
• Share a prejudice...
24Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Multicultural competence -2-
• Situational level variables:
...
25Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Multicultural competence -3-
• Realistic self-efficacy based...
26Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Multicultural competence -4-
• Effective working alliance ba...
27Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Best Multicultural Experience (Divide in pairs)
• What was t...
28Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Ethical Considerations for Leaders
• Nondiscrimination
• Com...
29Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Ethical Considerations -2-
• Communication Skills
– Intercul...
30Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Ethical Considerations -3-
• Specific knowledge of major cul...
31Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
Recommended Readings
• Carr-Ruffino, Norma (1999). Diversity...
32Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
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Culture and Leadership

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Culture and Leadership

  1. 1. Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Culture in a MulticulturalCulture in a Multicultural World: Diversity ChallengesWorld: Diversity Challenges By Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.By Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.
  2. 2. 2Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. What is Culture? • What are your ideas? • Culture refers to the sum total of the ways of living built up by a group of human beings and transmitted from one generation to another. Includes values, norms, beliefs, attitudes, folkways, behavior styles, and traditions linked to form an integrated whole to preserve the society.
  3. 3. 3Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. What is Ethnicity? • Ethnicity refers to a person’s identification with a group of people of the same race or nationality who share a common and distinctive culture. It is connectedness based on commonalities (e.g., religion, nationality, region).
  4. 4. 4Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. What is Race? • Race refers to a group of people related genetically by common descent, blood, and heredity. It is not clear if race is more a biological or social construction. Race is culturally significant as a result of the social processes that sustain majority-minority status.
  5. 5. 5Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Culture is both subjective and objective • Subjective: – Beliefs – Values – Cognitive frameworks • Objective: – Observable patterned behavior
  6. 6. 6Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Culture is Multileveled and Dynamic • Multileveled: – Micro (Individual) – Macro (organizations and institutions) • Dynamic: – Product of ongoing social interaction – Build in community – Changes through daily decisions and behaviors
  7. 7. 7Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Hoffstede’s Cultural Dimensions Individualism- Collectivism (Welfare of the individual vs. unity of the group) Collectivists tend to: 1. Identify themselves by group membership 2. Give priority to group goals 3. Put more emphasis on harmonious relationships 4. Have more socially-based emotions (indebtedness) JapanJapan GermanyGermany UnitedUnited StatesStates Collectivism Individualism ChinaChina
  8. 8. 8Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Individual vs. group orientation • Confrontation and conflict are ok • Personal opinions= encouraged • Explicit communication • Guilt culture • Avoid confrontation and conflict • Personal divergent opinions = bad • Implicit communication • Shame culture
  9. 9. 9Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Power Distance The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in societyJapanJapan GermanyGermany UnitedUnited StatesStates FranceFrance High Power Distance Malaysia, ChinaMalaysia, China Low Power Distance
  10. 10. 10Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Small Power Distance • Minimized inequality • Interdependence • Equality and initiative expected • Decentralization= popular • Seeks consensus • Power is legitimate and subject to criteria of good and evil • Ideal boss= resourceful democrat
  11. 11. 11Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Large Power Distance • Expected and desired power and inequality • Dependency • Respect and obedience expected from subordinates • Centralization is popular • Might prevails over right • Ideal boss = benevolent autocrat. Accepts responsibility that goes with power.
  12. 12. 12Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Leveraging Power Distance • Examine your source of power and power dynamics in your organization. • Sources of power can be: external networks, internal allies, knowledge, credibility, availability or choices, formal authority, interpersonal skills, and intrapersonal skills. • Attempt to understand hopes, dreams, and needs and seek common ground. Look for win-win.
  13. 13. 13Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. JapanJapan SouthSouth KoreaKorea Achievement Nurturing SwedenSweden The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well- being of others (nurturing) Achievement-Nurturing UnitedUnited StatesStates
  14. 14. 14Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Achievement vs. Nurturing • Dominant values= success and progress • Important= money and things • Deal with facts, not with feelings • Live in order to work and win. Fears losing. • Conflict resolution by fighting • Only “the best” succeed. • Leaders= decisive and assertive • Dominant values= caring and preservation • Important= people and warm relationships • People deal both with facts and feelings • Work in order to live • Conflict resolution by compromise and negotiation • Emphasis on working and sharing together • Leaders= strive for consensus
  15. 15. 15Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Leveraging Achievement- Nurturing • Find ways to balance competition and collaboration and know who needs more of what. • Encourage collaboration among your team and direct reports. • Understand the culture of your organization’s leadership. • Consider interdependency. 15
  16. 16. 16Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. High U. A. Low U. A. JapanJapan GermanyGermany SingaporeSingapore Uncertainty Avoidance (Stability/Change) The degree that people feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high U.A.) or tolerate ambiguity (low U.A.) . UnitedUnited StatesStates
  17. 17. 17Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Avoidance vs. tolerance • Uncertainty = threat • Fear of ambiguity and risk • Different = dangerous • Tight rules even if they don’t work • High structure • Expertise and correct answers are expected • Always busy. High stress • Uncertainty = normal • Accepts ambiguity and risk • Different = curious • Lenient rules, not more than needed • Open-ended • “Not knowing” is ok • Hard working only when needed. Low stress
  18. 18. 18Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Leveraging Uncertainty Avoidance (Stability/Change) • Balance stability and change. “Preserve the core and stimulate progress.” --Collins and Porras • Don’t stifle creativity. Tap the richness of diverse talents. • Understand if your organization is more bureaucratic (b) or innovative (i). If b, encourage innovation on specific entities under different norms. If i, install systematic processes wherever it makes sense. 18
  19. 19. 19Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. JapanJapan NetherlandsNetherlands RussiaRussia Long-Term Orientation Short-Term Orientation ChinaChina The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long- term) versus past and present issues (short- term). Long/Short-Term Orientation UnitedUnited StatesStates
  20. 20. 20Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Long/Short-Term Orientation 20
  21. 21. 21Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Multicultural Competence • Possess: – Adequate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in relation to diverse cultural groups. Careful with stereotypes! – Knowledge about the impact of cultural group membership on clients and associates – Appropriate interventions skills in the delivery of culturally sensitive services
  22. 22. 22Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. How to build multicultural competence • Individual variables at a personal level: – patterns of cultural assumptions about mankind (worldview) – value system, beliefs, and prejudices – cultural group membership – theoretical orientation.
  23. 23. 23Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Understanding personal filters -Exercise • Share a prejudice you grew up with –what others said about a certain group. Examine it and see where it comes from • Explain when/if and how you became aware of the underlying messages. • As a group, compile a list of the prejudices that are still prevalent. Reflect if you hold any of them. • Look for exceptions • Develop a relationship with a member of the group you are prejudiced against
  24. 24. 24Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Multicultural competence -2- • Situational level variables: – Client’s, leaders, and workers presenting issues – Workforce issues – Readiness for change – Organizational environment – Organizational cultural issues and pressures
  25. 25. 25Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Multicultural competence -3- • Realistic self-efficacy based on: – general awareness of culture and its impact – actual performance – up-to-date knowledge of cultural issues – experience and reflection – ongoing dialogue with colleagues and clients – willingness to learn about other cultures (both “book knowledge” and experiential)
  26. 26. 26Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Multicultural competence -4- • Effective working alliance based on: – Mutual respect – Honesty about what is known and unknown about the other’s culture – Willingness to learn from others – Striving for equality in the relationship
  27. 27. 27Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Best Multicultural Experience (Divide in pairs) • What was the experience? – .Who were the people involved? – .What was your contribution? – .How did you feel/how did others feel? – .What was the outcome and how were your “rewarded”? – .How can you have more experiences like this yourself? – .How can more experiences like this be made to occur in your organization? – .Decide on an action you can take this week to make a difference regarding cultural differences. Make a commitment to let the other know and share what happened.
  28. 28. 28Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Ethical Considerations for Leaders • Nondiscrimination • Competence – Knowledge and awareness of cultural issues • Self-Knowledge – Awareness of own culture, assumptions, bias, attitudes, beliefs etc. – Comfort with difference – Openness to multicultural experiences – Respect for other cultures
  29. 29. 29Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Ethical Considerations -2- • Communication Skills – Intercultural communication skills – Language skills – Awareness of cultural differences in non- verbal behavior • Aware of Bias in Theory and Practice • Aware of Bias in Assessment Practices • Social Justice Perspective and Advocacy Orientation
  30. 30. 30Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Ethical Considerations -3- • Specific knowledge of major cultural groups’ worldview, values, history, help- seeking patterns, family factors, and culturally appropriate helping strategies • .Lifelong learning orientation
  31. 31. 31Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D. Recommended Readings • Carr-Ruffino, Norma (1999). Diversity success strategies. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. • Cox, Taylor Jr. (2001). Creating the Multicultural Organization: A Strategy for Capturing the Power of Diversity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. • Hofstede, Geert (1997). Culture and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill. • Morrison, Ann, and Crabtree, Kristen (1993). Developing Diversity in Organizations: A Digest of Selected Literature. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership. • Rosinski, Philippe (2008 ed.). Coaching Across Cultures: New tools for leveraging national, corporate & professional differences. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealby Publishing.. • Trompenaars, Fons, and Hampden-Turner, Charles (1998, 2nd ed.). Riding the Waves of Culture. New York:
  32. 32. 32Culture in a Multicultural World-by Ada Luz Gonzalez, Ph.D.

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