Military concentrated along capitals, northern and northwestern frontiers. Cavalrymen had to provide their own horses and equipment – most striking force. Armed with crossbows, lances, and swords. http://www.galen-frysinger.ws/china/tangdynasty12.jpg
Beginning in the Tang dynasty, the primary subject matter of Chinese painting was the landscape , known as shanshui (mountain-water) painting. In these landscapes, usually monochromatic and sparse, the purpose was not to reproduce exactly the appearance of nature but rather to grasp an emotion or atmosphere so as to catch the &quot;rhythm&quot; of nature.
Dish in the Shape of a Leaf , Tang dynasty (618–906), late 7th–early 8th century China Silver with parcel gilding Night-Shining White , Tang dynasty (618–906), 8th century Attributed to Han Gan (Chinese, active 742–56) China Handscroll; ink on paper
Phoenix-headed ewer , Tang dynasty (618–906), late 7th–first half of 8th century China Earthenware with three-color Floral medallions , Tang dynasty (618–906), late 8th–early 9th century China Silk, Weft-faced compound twill
Seated Buddha , Tang dynasty (618–906), ca. 650 China Dry lacquer with traces of gilt and polychrome pigments Standing court lady , Tang dynasty (618–906), mid-7th century China Earthenware with pigment
Classical poetry reached its zenith during the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). The early Tang period was best known for its lushi (regulated verse), an eight-line poem with five or seven words in each line; zi (verse following strict rules of prosody); and jueju (truncated verse), a four-line poem with five or seven words in each line. The two best-known poets of the period were Li Bai (701-762) and Du Fu (712-770). Li Bai was known for the romanticism of his poetry; Du Fu was seen as a Confucian moralist with a strict sense of duty toward society. Later Tang poets developed greater realism and social criticism and refined the art of narration. One of the best known of the later Tang poets was Bai Juyi (772-846), whose poems were an inspired and critical comment on the society of his time. Called the Poet Immortal , Li Bai is often regarded, along with Du Fu, as one of the two greatest poets in China's literary history. Approximately 1,100 of his poems remain today. The Western world was introduced to Li Bai's works through the very liberal translations of Japanese versions of his poems made by Ezra Pound. Li Bai is best known for the extravagant imagination and striking Taoist imagery in his poetry, as well as for his great love for liquor. Like Du Fu, he spent much of his life travelling, although in his case it was because his wealth allowed him to, rather than because his poverty forced him. He is said to have drowned in the Yangtze River, having fallen from his boat while drunkenly trying to embrace the reflection of the moon. Du Fu or Tu Fu (712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. Along with Li Bai (Li Po), he is frequently called the greatest of the Chinese poets. His own greatest ambition was to help his country by becoming a successful civil servant, but he proved unable to make the necessary accommodations. His life, like the whole country, was devastated by the An Lushan Rebellion of 755, and the last 15 years of his life were a time of almost constant unrest. Initially unpopular, his works came to be hugely influential in both Chinese and Japanese culture. He has been called Poet-Historian and the Poet-Sage by Chinese critics, while the range of his work has allowed him to be introduced to Western readers as &quot;the Chinese Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Wordsworth, Béranger, Hugo or Baudelaire&quot;. (Hung p. 1).
In addition to his political achievements, Wang Anshi was a noted poet. He wrote poems in the shi form, modelled on those of Du Fu . He was traditionally classed as one of the Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song Zeng Gong ( 曾鞏 ; style name: Zigu 子固 ; 1019 - 1083 ) was a scholar and historian of the Song Dynasty in China. He was one of the supporters of the New Classical Prose Movement 新古文運動 and is regarded as founder of one of the eight great schools of thought of the Tang and Song dynasties ( 唐宋八大家 ). Zeng Gong was born in Nanfeng 南豐 , Jianchang 建昌 (modern Nanfeng , Jiangxi province). He is said to have wrote Liu lun 六論 when he was only twelve. After the work was praised by Ouyang Xiu , one of the intellectual leaders of the era, Zeng Gong became widely known among literary circles. At the age of eighteen, (in 1037 ) he moved to Yushan county 玉山縣 (in modern Jiangxi) to accompany his father Zeng Yizhan 曾易占 , who had been appointed magistrate there. Whilst in Yushan, he travelled extensively in its hinterlands and wrote You Xinzhou Yushan xiaoyan ji ( 遊信州玉山小岩記 ). The work was divided into five sections. The first describes the geography of Yushan, followed by sections on the caves, rocks etc. Zeng's youthful descriptions show his vivid imagination and literary talent. In his twenties, Zeng Gong travelled widely throughout China, befriending the would be reformer Wang Anshi and later recommending him to Ouyang Xiu. Su Shi ( Simplified Chinese : 苏轼 , Traditional Chinese : 蘇軾 ; pinyin : Sū Shì) ( 1037 - 1101 ) was a writer , poet , artist , calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty , one of the major poets of the Song era. His zi or courtesy name is Zizhan ( 子瞻 ) and his hao or pseudonym Dongpo Jushi ( 東坡居士 , i.e., Resident of Dongpo), and he is often referred to as Su Dongpo ( Simplified Chinese : 苏东坡 , Traditional Chinese : 蘇東坡 ; pinyin : Sū DōngPō).
http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_of_art/director/images/as1973.120.1.L.jpg Summer Mountains , Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), 11th century Attributed to Qu Ding (Chinese, act. ca. 1023–ca. 1056); Inscribed by Qianlong, Emperor of China (Chinese, 1710–1798, r. 1736–1795); Formerly Attributed to Yan Wengui (Chinese, 970–1030) China
Chinese Song dynasty Henan jar China Song Dynasty ceramic 9 in. wide http://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/aany2005/pitcher/1.jpg
Glazed Clay Jar, Song Dynasty (960-1279), Victoria and Albert Museum, London.This deceptively simple form achieves its extraordinary beauty through its subtle variations of warm to cool colors and the dynamic contrast between the bulk of the body of the jar and its diminutive handles. http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/laa/defining_1.html
T’ang Dynasty The second of the four greatest dynasties, the Tangcombined aggressive military and economic expansion with political stability and creative achievement. Traffic alongthe Silk Road was brisk with both import and export trade.Among its notable artistic contributions were sophisticated figure painting, tricolored ceramic tomb figurines, and exquisite porcelain. A significant development of this period is the use of rare, cobalt blue glazes. The Tang revered both horses and camels, figures of which were placed in the burials of the royalty and aristocracy, along with gold and silver ornaments. 618-907 CE
Basic Theme: Recovery After the collapse of the Han Dynasty, the Period of Six Dynasties arises (220-589 CE) Scholar-Gentry declines…rise of landed nobility; hence, less emphasis on learning and merit positions; more focus on older traditions Non-Chinese nomads control much of China: division Buddhism introduced to China…replaces Confucianism with focus on spiritual life and self-renewalSUI DYNASTY (589-618 CE) Emperor Wendi: Lowers tax burden, ensures stable food supplies through establishment of granaries (storage) Emperor Yangdi: Legal code reformed; scholar-gentry restored to authority; yet…public works projects (Grand Canal) and military campaigns (Korea) deplete treasury;
T’ang Dynasty Emerges: Government Chang’an: The Imperial City 1 million people, including foreigners who were traders and merchants… cosmopolitan in nature 30 square miles Restoration of Confucian Ideals: Civil Service Exams Supported by government schools Limited to terms of 3 years Moved to different districts Reduced power of great families
Government: Administration Military based on local militia loyal to Emperor; not mercenaries Revenue system – based on land tax Government monopoly on salt, tea, and liquor Rebuilt road and canal network with post stationsTheme: Consolidation Under T’ang Empire expands into Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korea Continued restoration of scholar-gentry as basis for proper, stable governance through Confucian ideals: continued restoration-improvement of civil service exams…adds second level of examination for lower-level government positions. While technically based on merit, government positions
CultureGolden Age of Art and Literature http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/dynasty-tang.cfmArt Glazes on Pottery Focused on Human Figure Monochromatic: Use of one color with varied shading
Porcelain Porcelain was first made in China in the 6th and 7th centuries CE from porcelainclay (known as kaolin, after the Gaoling Mountains of southeastern China). Chinesepotters mixed the kaolin clay with a powder ground from a stone called baidunzi, a rock that contains feldspar, a glassy mineral. It is fired at very high temperatures above 2372°F (1300°C), which causes the surface of the clay to melt and become smooth as glass. Early porcelains were undecorated and were used by the Imperial court and exported as far as the Middle East. Blue and white porcelain is painted with bluepaint made from cobalt and then covered with a clear glaze, which can withstand the high temperatures of the kiln. Other kinds of porcelain are painted after the object has been fired in the kiln. The word "porcelain" comes from an Italian word porcellana or "little femalepig," the Italian name for small white cowrie shells. The first Italian travelers to China saw beautiful Chinese porcelains and thought that these ceramics were made from ground-up sea shells. The name has remained, however, even though they are not made from shells.
Glazed Porcelain Stoneware Vase: Cobalt blue glaze Stoneware with green glazeStoneware with abstract floral motif Earthenware with polychrome glaze
The range of subjects of T’ang poetry is diverse. Some reflect thesocial situations and conflicts at that time, revealing the darkness of feudal society; some sing the praises of just wars and express patriotic thought; some depict the beauty of the homeland; in addition, some describe personal aspirations and encounters,affection, friendship as well as joys and sorrows of life. In a word, neither the natural phenomena, nor the political movement, working life, social customs or personal feelings could skip the eyesight of the insightful poets, which became their themes for writing To Friend Tan-Chiu Poetry flourished as a My friend is lodging high in the Eastern Range, reflection of society and Dearly loving the beauty of valleys and hills. culture: a sign of the political At green Spring he lies in the empty woods, stability of the era And is still asleep when the sun shines on high. A pine-tree wind dusts his sleeves and coat; Poetry often reflected the A pebbly stream cleans his heart and ears. human relationship to nature I envy you, who far from strife and talk Are high-propped on a pillow of blue cloud. LI BAI (701-762 CE)
TechnologyCast iron Coal as fuelCrossbow WaterwheelsGunpowder Paper CurrencyCompass WheelbarrowPorcelain Wallpaper
Religion: Introduction - Rejection of Buddhism… Restoration of Confucianism Less focus on material, physical things….more on spirituality Zen Buddhism…focus on meditationBuddhism temporarily become state religion…but…discontent begins to take shape as Buddhism… Has foreign origins Suggests removal from society while Confucianism encourages engagement Tax exempt status of Buddhist monasteries 845 CE: Emperor Wuzong orders destruction of Buddhist temples and monasteries; monks and nuns must abandon completive Buddhist lives; Buddhism never fully recovers its status in Chinese society
Collapse Revenue base began to erode Imperial land grants to notables who avoided taxes Upper levels of government begin to be filled with imperial relations without civil service Population grew more quickly than land and money could support Began outlawing contact with other ethnicities Regional governors use disorder to seize greater authority; nomadic non-Chinese destabilize regional and central governments; empire increasingly divided Military increasingly staffed with mercenaries
BeginningsFollows Five Dynasty Period and later Zhou PeriodGeneral Guo Wei rival of Later Zhou conquered middle Yangzi region of ChuKingdom of Shu of Sichuan
Government Issued paper currency credited growth of commerce Civil Service recruited for higher posts from educated who passed three levels of imperial examinations Personal Property assessed for Taxation Trained Militia and supplied with Arms Strengthen Loyalty and Quality of Army
GovernmentGovernment SchoolsOpen to anyone ofabilityAllowed others a chance at office holdingPaid Mongols and others in silk and other goods as a way to pacify would be attackers
CultureSong Poetry Wáng Ānshí Zeng GongPaintings focusing on LandscapesHarmony between humans and naturePatronized by Rich Urban MerchantsPopularization of Vernacular Language
TechnologyImproved Ships with Farming water-tight Techniques – compartments Irrigation, Waterwheels fertilization, Incline Planes metal tools and Canal Locks proto- machines Gunpowder Mortars
Depletion of EmpireShrank in size, gave up land including Taipei,Abandoned TibetManchuria in Khitan controlVietnam and Korea more independent
Collapse of Northern SongAlliance with Jurchen against KhitanUnimpressed with Song’s military abilitiesCaptured capital of Kaifeng 1126Treaty with Jurchen fixed border at Huai River Pay annual tribute
Collapse of Southern SongAttacks by Jurchen and Mongols Attacks by Jurchen take over Northern China Song establish Southern Song Dynasty Including Chinghis and Kubilai KhanMongols eventually take over Song China and establish Yuan Dyansty