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T’ang Dynasty     The second of the four greatest dynasties, the Tangcombined aggressive military and economic expansion w...
Basic Theme: Recovery After the collapse of the Han Dynasty, the Period of Six  Dynasties arises (220-589 CE) Scholar-Ge...
T’ang Dynasty Emerges: Government   Chang’an: The Imperial City      1 million people, including foreigners       who we...
Government: Administration Military based on local militia loyal to Emperor; not  mercenaries Revenue system – based on ...
CultureGolden Age of Art and Literature     http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/dynasty-tang.cfmArt  Glazes on P...
Dish in the Shape                of a LeafNight ShiningWhite
Porcelain  Porcelain was first made in China in the 6th and 7th centuries CE from porcelainclay (known as kaolin, after th...
Glazed Porcelain                                       Stoneware Vase:                                       Cobalt blue g...
The range of subjects of T’ang poetry is diverse. Some reflect thesocial situations and conflicts at that time, revealing ...
TechnologyCast iron      Coal as fuelCrossbow       WaterwheelsGunpowder      Paper CurrencyCompass        Wheelba...
Religion:            Introduction - Rejection of Buddhism…                 Restoration of Confucianism Less focus on mate...
Collapse Revenue base began to erode Imperial land grants to notables who avoided taxes Upper levels of government begi...
SongDynasty966-1279
BeginningsFollows Five Dynasty Period and later Zhou PeriodGeneral Guo Wei rival of Later Zhou conquered middle Yangzi r...
Government Issued paper currency credited  growth of commerce Civil Service recruited for higher posts  from educated wh...
GovernmentGovernment SchoolsOpen to anyone ofabilityAllowed others a chance at office holdingPaid Mongols and others i...
CultureSong Poetry  Wáng Ānshí  Zeng GongPaintings focusing on LandscapesHarmony between humans and naturePatronized...
Summer Mountains
Scholar on Horseback with Traveling Hat
Chinese Song dynasty Henan jar
Glazed Clay Jar
TechnologyImproved          Ships with Farming            water-tight Techniques –       compartments Irrigation,       ...
Depletion of EmpireShrank in size, gave up land including Taipei,Abandoned TibetManchuria in Khitan controlVietnam and...
Collapse of Northern SongAlliance with Jurchen against KhitanUnimpressed with Song’s military abilitiesCaptured capital...
Collapse of Southern SongAttacks by Jurchen and Mongols  Attacks by Jurchen take over   Northern China  Song establish ...
Tang and song_dynasties_2010_revision
Tang and song_dynasties_2010_revision
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Tang and song_dynasties_2010_revision

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Tang and song_dynasties_2010_revision

  1. 1. T’ang Dynasty The second of the four greatest dynasties, the Tangcombined aggressive military and economic expansion with political stability and creative achievement. Traffic alongthe Silk Road was brisk with both import and export trade.Among its notable artistic contributions were sophisticated figure painting, tricolored ceramic tomb figurines, and exquisite porcelain. A significant development of this period is the use of rare, cobalt blue glazes. The Tang revered both horses and camels, figures of which were placed in the burials of the royalty and aristocracy, along with gold and silver ornaments. 618-907 CE
  2. 2. Basic Theme: Recovery After the collapse of the Han Dynasty, the Period of Six Dynasties arises (220-589 CE) Scholar-Gentry declines…rise of landed nobility; hence, less emphasis on learning and merit positions; more focus on older traditions Non-Chinese nomads control much of China: division Buddhism introduced to China…replaces Confucianism with focus on spiritual life and self-renewalSUI DYNASTY (589-618 CE) Emperor Wendi: Lowers tax burden, ensures stable food supplies through establishment of granaries (storage) Emperor Yangdi: Legal code reformed; scholar-gentry restored to authority; yet…public works projects (Grand Canal) and military campaigns (Korea) deplete treasury;
  3. 3. T’ang Dynasty Emerges: Government Chang’an: The Imperial City  1 million people, including foreigners who were traders and merchants… cosmopolitan in nature  30 square miles Restoration of Confucian Ideals: Civil Service Exams  Supported by government schools  Limited to terms of 3 years  Moved to different districts  Reduced power of great families
  4. 4. Government: Administration Military based on local militia loyal to Emperor; not mercenaries Revenue system – based on land tax Government monopoly on salt, tea, and liquor Rebuilt road and canal network with post stationsTheme: Consolidation Under T’ang Empire expands into Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korea Continued restoration of scholar-gentry as basis for proper, stable governance through Confucian ideals: continued restoration-improvement of civil service exams…adds second level of examination for lower-level government positions. While technically based on merit, government positions
  5. 5. CultureGolden Age of Art and Literature http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/dynasty-tang.cfmArt  Glazes on Pottery  Focused on Human Figure  Monochromatic: Use of one color with varied shading
  6. 6. Dish in the Shape of a LeafNight ShiningWhite
  7. 7. Porcelain Porcelain was first made in China in the 6th and 7th centuries CE from porcelainclay (known as kaolin, after the Gaoling Mountains of southeastern China). Chinesepotters mixed the kaolin clay with a powder ground from a stone called baidunzi, a rock that contains feldspar, a glassy mineral. It is fired at very high temperatures above 2372°F (1300°C), which causes the surface of the clay to melt and become smooth as glass. Early porcelains were undecorated and were used by the Imperial court and exported as far as the Middle East. Blue and white porcelain is painted with bluepaint made from cobalt and then covered with a clear glaze, which can withstand the high temperatures of the kiln. Other kinds of porcelain are painted after the object has been fired in the kiln. The word "porcelain" comes from an Italian word porcellana or "little femalepig," the Italian name for small white cowrie shells. The first Italian travelers to China saw beautiful Chinese porcelains and thought that these ceramics were made from ground-up sea shells. The name has remained, however, even though they are not made from shells.
  8. 8. Glazed Porcelain Stoneware Vase: Cobalt blue glaze Stoneware with green glazeStoneware with abstract floral motif Earthenware with polychrome glaze
  9. 9. The range of subjects of T’ang poetry is diverse. Some reflect thesocial situations and conflicts at that time, revealing the darkness of feudal society; some sing the praises of just wars and express patriotic thought; some depict the beauty of the homeland; in addition, some describe personal aspirations and encounters,affection, friendship as well as joys and sorrows of life. In a word, neither the natural phenomena, nor the political movement, working life, social customs or personal feelings could skip the eyesight of the insightful poets, which became their themes for writing To Friend Tan-Chiu Poetry flourished as a My friend is lodging high in the Eastern Range, reflection of society and Dearly loving the beauty of valleys and hills. culture: a sign of the political At green Spring he lies in the empty woods, stability of the era And is still asleep when the sun shines on high. A pine-tree wind dusts his sleeves and coat; Poetry often reflected the A pebbly stream cleans his heart and ears. human relationship to nature I envy you, who far from strife and talk Are high-propped on a pillow of blue cloud. LI BAI (701-762 CE)
  10. 10. TechnologyCast iron Coal as fuelCrossbow WaterwheelsGunpowder Paper CurrencyCompass WheelbarrowPorcelain Wallpaper
  11. 11. Religion: Introduction - Rejection of Buddhism… Restoration of Confucianism Less focus on material, physical things….more on spirituality Zen Buddhism…focus on meditationBuddhism temporarily become state religion…but…discontent begins to take shape as Buddhism… Has foreign origins Suggests removal from society while Confucianism encourages engagement Tax exempt status of Buddhist monasteries 845 CE: Emperor Wuzong orders destruction of Buddhist temples and monasteries; monks and nuns must abandon completive Buddhist lives; Buddhism never fully recovers its status in Chinese society
  12. 12. Collapse Revenue base began to erode Imperial land grants to notables who avoided taxes Upper levels of government begin to be filled with imperial relations without civil service Population grew more quickly than land and money could support Began outlawing contact with other ethnicities Regional governors use disorder to seize greater authority; nomadic non-Chinese destabilize regional and central governments; empire increasingly divided Military increasingly staffed with mercenaries
  13. 13. SongDynasty966-1279
  14. 14. BeginningsFollows Five Dynasty Period and later Zhou PeriodGeneral Guo Wei rival of Later Zhou conquered middle Yangzi region of ChuKingdom of Shu of Sichuan
  15. 15. Government Issued paper currency credited growth of commerce Civil Service recruited for higher posts from educated who passed three levels of imperial examinations Personal Property assessed for Taxation Trained Militia and supplied with Arms  Strengthen Loyalty and Quality of Army
  16. 16. GovernmentGovernment SchoolsOpen to anyone ofabilityAllowed others a chance at office holdingPaid Mongols and others in silk and other goods as a way to pacify would be attackers
  17. 17. CultureSong Poetry  Wáng Ānshí  Zeng GongPaintings focusing on LandscapesHarmony between humans and naturePatronized by Rich Urban MerchantsPopularization of Vernacular Language
  18. 18. Summer Mountains
  19. 19. Scholar on Horseback with Traveling Hat
  20. 20. Chinese Song dynasty Henan jar
  21. 21. Glazed Clay Jar
  22. 22. TechnologyImproved Ships with Farming water-tight Techniques – compartments Irrigation, Waterwheels fertilization, Incline Planes metal tools and Canal Locks proto- machines Gunpowder Mortars
  23. 23. Depletion of EmpireShrank in size, gave up land including Taipei,Abandoned TibetManchuria in Khitan controlVietnam and Korea more independent
  24. 24. Collapse of Northern SongAlliance with Jurchen against KhitanUnimpressed with Song’s military abilitiesCaptured capital of Kaifeng 1126Treaty with Jurchen fixed border at Huai River  Pay annual tribute
  25. 25. Collapse of Southern SongAttacks by Jurchen and Mongols  Attacks by Jurchen take over Northern China  Song establish Southern Song Dynasty  Including Chinghis and Kubilai KhanMongols eventually take over Song China and establish Yuan Dyansty

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