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21st Century Fluencies


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21st Century Fluencies

  1. 1. Sergey Lobachev, McMaster University April 11, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Information fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Visual fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Numeracy / statistical fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Media fluency </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Why fluencies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new trends in scholarship? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new concept? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how this affects libraries? </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  3. 3. <ul><li>Information growth and dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Net Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy vs. fluency </li></ul><ul><li>The role of academic libraries </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  4. 4. <ul><li>In the beginning, there was the Word </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  5. 5. <ul><li>Then script came along </li></ul><ul><li>and the Library </li></ul><ul><li>and the Library was Good </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  6. 6. April 11, 2008 Traditional literacy is the ability to read and to write.
  7. 7. April 11, 2008
  8. 8. <ul><li>Almost 800 MB of recorded information is produced per person each year </li></ul><ul><li>New stored information grew about 30% a year between 1999 and 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>92% of new information is stored on magnetic media, primarily hard disks. Film represents 7% of the total, paper documents of all kinds comprise only 0.01% of the total. </li></ul><ul><li>How much information? , Research project (2003), SIMS, University of California, Berkeley </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  9. 9. <ul><li>Total number of active periodicals around the world doubles every twenty years </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of book titles published in the US doubles every twenty five years </li></ul><ul><li>STM journals publish approximately 1,2 million peer-reviewed articles every year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regazzi, J. (2004). The Shifting Sands of Open Access Publishing: a Publisher’s View, Serials Review , 30 (4), 275-280; Mabe, M. (2003). The Growth and Number of Journals, Serials 16(2), 191-197. </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ It is clear that we are all drowning in a sea of information. The challenge is to learn to swim in that sea, rather than drown in it.” </li></ul><ul><li>How much information? , Research project (2000), SIMS, University of California, Berkeley </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  11. 11. April 11, 2008
  12. 12. <ul><li>Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital : The rise of the net generation . New York ; London: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Frand, J. L. (2000). The information-age mindset: Changes in students and implications for higher education. EDUCAUSE Review , 35(5), 15-24. </li></ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  13. 13. <ul><li>Before students leave college </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 hours playing videogames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 emails and instant messages sent and received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 hours talking on cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20,000 hours watching TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 hours reading books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prensky, M. (2001). Do They really think differently? , On the Horizon, 9(6), 1-9. </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>They no longer perceive knowledge as a practical goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They consider results and action more important than collection and analysis of facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To solve a problem, they use trial-and-error approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are more active, more curious, and self-reliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are cut-and-paste generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tapscott, D. (1998), Frand, J. (2000), Prensky, M. (2001) </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  15. 15. <ul><li>Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research (CIBER), University College London. (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>College students' perceptions of libraries and information resources : A report to the OCLC membership . Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center. (2006) </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  16. 16. April 11, 2008 Assumptions Reality They are more confident with technology <ul><ul><li>True: but only 6-12% of students are interested in Web 2.0 </li></ul></ul>They prefer interactive systems True They prefer digital and visual forms of communications Not proved They do not tolerate information delay Myth They are cut-and-paste generation <ul><ul><li>True: students’ creativity is limited </li></ul></ul>They prefer quick information in form of digested chunk, rather than full text <ul><ul><li>Myth: students equally trust all information sources </li></ul></ul>They are expert searchers <ul><ul><li>Myth: students rely on online information, but they prefer horizontal information seeking </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. April 11, 2008 Potter, W. J. (2004). Theory of media literacy : A cognitive approach . Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. Basic skills Advanced skills recognition of referents analysis recognition of patterns evaluation associating definitions - matching of meaning to patterns grouping, filtering induction, deduction synthesis abstracting
  18. 18. April 11, 2008
  19. 19. <ul><li>American Library Association. Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. Final Report (Chicago: American Library Association, 1989.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  20. 20. <ul><li>Bradley University (IL) Strategic plan (1990) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information fluency is an important component of educational process that might shape both its own future and the future of the institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Associated Colleges of the South (1999) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information fluency project </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  21. 21. <ul><li>Associated Colleges of the South (1999) </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  22. 22. <ul><li>Daniel Callison, professor and Executive Associate Dean at Indiana University School of Library and Information Science (2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to evaluate information and its sources critically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to employ critical thinking to derive evidence from information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to use information to accomplish specific purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to use modern computer technologies to select, analyze , and infer conclusion from information </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  23. 23. <ul><li>Hannelore Rader, a Dean of University Libraries at the University of Louisville (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information fluency is the ability to navigate information structures and to evaluate information retrieved through these information structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information fluency includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>library literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>media literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>computer literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>research literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking skills </li></ul></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  24. 24. <ul><li>Nandita Mani, Shiffman Medical Library at Wayne State University in Detroit (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fluency” is more positive term than “literacy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency is the concept that underlines that the learning process is ongoing and does not come to a complete finish at any given time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluency does not require any type of measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of fluency could be different for any particular individual </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  25. 25. April 11, 2008
  26. 26. <ul><li>Numeracy / statistical literacy / data literacy/ quantitative literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an aggregate of skills, knowledge, beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>habits of mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving skills that people need in order to engage effectively in quantitative situations arising in life and work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical literacy: </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  27. 27. <ul><li>International Visual Literacy Association was established in Rochester, New York (1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Metros, professor of design technology at the Ohio State University and Kristina Woolsey, scientist at Apple computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital technologies broke the barriers between text and picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visual literacy includes the ability to understand, interpret, and produce images and visual messages </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  28. 28. <ul><li>Experience teaching visual literacy seminar (Susan Metros, Kristina Woolsey, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students lack the ability to express themselves visually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can create chart, but they can’t explain why one chart better than another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can view images, but they can’t make them </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  29. 29. <ul><li>Digital technologies changed information landscape (quantity and nature) </li></ul><ul><li>Text no longer dominates in communication; numerical data, visual images, sounds are also important </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency is an emerging concept </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency is associated with analysis, creativity, critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency is difficult to assess </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency comes with life-learning experiences </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  30. 30. April 11, 2008 Potter, W. J. (2004). Theory of media literacy : A cognitive approach . Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications. Basic skills Advanced skills recognition of referents analysis recognition of patterns evaluation associating definitions - matching of meaning to patterns grouping, filtering induction, deduction synthesis abstracting
  31. 31. April 11, 2008
  32. 32. <ul><li>Library as a space </li></ul><ul><li>Library as teaching and learning centre </li></ul><ul><li>Models for library instructions </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  33. 33. <ul><li>Making library a place where scholars and students can socialize and discuss research </li></ul><ul><li>Providing space for public lectures, meetings, conferences for all University Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging collaboration between different University Departments and disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Creating interdisciplinary learning space </li></ul><ul><li>Creating virtual space </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  34. 34. <ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many faculty assume that students develop information skills by doing their assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty are not involved in designing IL assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IL assignments are not graded </li></ul></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  35. 35. <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Alberta, 8 week IL courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McMaster University aims to launch the Honours Integrated Science program (iSci) in 2009 </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  36. 36. <ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires collaboration between librarians, faculty and administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires tremendous resources, including human resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico State University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaidhyanathan, Siva (2006). Afterword: Critical Information Studies . Cultural Studies , 20(2-3), 292-315. </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  37. 37. <ul><li>Focus on learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on development of advanced skills </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to think critically </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to create knowledge </li></ul>April 11, 2008
  38. 38. <ul><li>Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21st Century Fluencies Annotated bibliography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information fluency Bibliography on information fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media literacy Selected bibliography on media literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numeracy Bibliography on numeracy/statistical literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual literacy Selected bibliography on visual literacy </li></ul></ul>April 11, 2008
  39. 39. <ul><li>What skills students need in the 21 st century? </li></ul><ul><li>What model for library instruction is the best? </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency or literacy: is terminology important? </li></ul>April 11, 2008