Theme 4 Part 2


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Theme 4 Part 2

  1. 1. English Colonies of North America<br />Lindsey Miller<br />History 140<br />
  2. 2. American Colonies: Ch 6 - Virginia<br />Promoters <br /><ul><li>Queen lacked money to finance oversea colonies
  3. 3. Licensed private adventurers to venture overseas
  4. 4. These were primarily well-connected gentlemen from southwest countries of England
  5. 5. Such as Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins
  6. 6. These adventurers were known as the “West Country Men”
  7. 7. Also designed the English assault on Spanish empire
  8. 8. Primary goals for going to America:
  9. 9. Plant Christian religion, traffic, and to conquer
  10. 10. Also reduce homelessness, crime, and poverty in England</li></ul>Sir Francis Drake – One of the “West Country Men”<br />
  11. 11. American Colonies: Ch 6 Virginia<br />Roanoke<br /><ul><li> 1587
  12. 12. Another group sent to colonize Roanoke
  13. 13. Leader: John White
  14. 14. Returned to England for supplies
  15. 15. When he returned in 1590 he found the settlement abandoned</li></ul>1585:<br /> Sir Walter Ralegh sent 100 colonist to settle on Roanoke<br /> A small island <br />Poor location due to shoals and sand that made it difficult for English ships to land<br />Also had sandy infertile soil<br />Ultimately doomed to fail<br />Colonist demand food from local Algonquian Indians<br /> Chief refused eventually and was killed<br />Indians fled<br />Resulted in less food from the colonists since maize was no longer being grown<br />
  16. 16. American Colonies: Ch 6 Virginia<br /><ul><li>Powhatan
  17. 17. Chief of 33 united Algonquian tribes
  18. 18. Indians were intrigued by the technology of the English
  19. 19. Powhatan wanted to contain and subject the colonists
  20. 20. When demanded too much for food, lashed out
  21. 21. Captured Captain John Smith
  22. 22. Released him after mock execution ceremony thinking it would make Smith subordinate
  23. 23. Smith returned to colonies and continued to harass Powhatan
  24. 24. Brutal to Indians
  25. 25. Eventually Powhatan was forced to make peace</li></ul>English Colonists<br />1607 – English wanted to colonize at Chesapeake Bay after the failure of Roanoke<br /> This location had better harbors, fertile land, and navigable rivers<br />Wanted to assimilate natives to English ways<br />Thought Indians would supply them with foods<br />
  26. 26. American Colonies: Ch 6 Virginia<br />Tobacco<br />Colonists began cultivating corn, squash and beans<br /> Needed a market crop<br />1616 - Learned how to raise tobacco<br /> Large revenues gained from taxing tobacco import<br />Consumers willing to pay high prices for tobacco<br />Crop thrived in Virginia environment<br />Sold in England for about 5 to 10 times as much as it cost to produce in Chesapeake<br />
  27. 27. American Colonies: Ch 9 Puritans and Indians<br /><ul><li>Natives
  28. 28. Tribes divided into different local bands
  29. 29. Each consisted of a few hundred people
  30. 30. Had leading sachem, lesser sachems, shamans, and prestigious warriors
  31. 31. Had highly productive horticulture
  32. 32. Grew different crops in the same field
  33. 33. Had controlled fires to clear forest
  34. 34. Regular burnings diminished mice, fleas, and parasites
  35. 35. Fertilized the forest floor
  36. 36. Labor was gender based
  37. 37. Men
  38. 38. Hunted, fished, were in war, and made tools/weapons
  39. 39. Women
  40. 40. Cared for children, built homes, gathered firewood, butchered animals, prepared meals, gathered shellfish, berries, roots and herbs
  41. 41. Planted, weeded, tended and harvested crops</li></li></ul><li>American Colonies Ch 9 Puritans and Indians<br />Pequot War<br />1636<br />Conflict between New English and Indians<br /> English wanted Pequot Indians to pay heavy tribute in wampum, and give children up as hostages<br />War was declared<br />English attacked and burned a Pequot village<br />Spent rest of the year capturing and killing remaining Pequot<br /> Indians were not united, making manipulation from English easy<br />1670: Colonists outnumbered the Indians of southern New England 3 to 1<br />Artist depiction of Pequot War<br />
  42. 42. American Colonies: Ch 9 Puritans and Indians<br />1620-30s<br />Puritans concentrated on expanding rather than converting<br />1640s<br />Reverend John Eliot took lead on mission to convert Indians<br /> Missions demanded Indians to give up their culture<br />Covert or die mentality<br />Converting<br />Puritans believed first step was getting Indians to settle into communities<br />Made communities for them: Praying Towns<br />These towns were appealing to small and weak bands of Indians<br />These groups saw praying towns as last hope for preserving their group identification<br />In the towns had to abandon Algonquian names, body grease, and traditional sports<br />Had to learn long Puritan mode of work<br />Long days of agricultural labor<br />Rest and worship on the Sabbath<br />
  43. 43. American Colonies: Ch 9 – Puritans and Indians<br />King Philip’s War<br /> Bloodiest Indian War<br />Each side had muskets<br />1675 <br />Indians destroyed 12 colonist townsin search for revenge for the alienation of their land<br />Puritans felt compelled to kill Indians<br />Began killing Indians in praying towns<br />1676<br />Colonist realize they cannot win without Indian allies<br />Turned into a civil war among Indians<br />Allies taught colonists how to avoid ambush and track down rebels<br />Indian rebels ran out of food and ammunition<br />Resistance collapsed, began surrendering<br />War devastated Puritan settlements and Indian villages<br />Killed 1,000 English and 3,000 Indians<br />