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Theme 1

  1. 1. Theme 1<br /> History, Science, and Trade<br />Lindsey Miller<br /> History 140 <br />
  2. 2. Source one –What is History? <br />People are curious by nature<br />Desire to learn history as a way to learn from past<br />Understand where ideas and current life originated<br />History can be verified through primary and secondary sources<br />Proof also comes from: <br /><ul><li>reliable witnesses,
  3. 3. logical possibility,
  4. 4. observational cause and effects </li></li></ul><li>Source one<br />Modern technology now often used to solve old mysteries and verify history<br />Example:<br /> DNA testing <br />Satellite Position/Undersea Technology<br />History can be verified with evidence and multiple resources<br /><ul><li>Helps solve questions like:
  5. 5. How world works
  6. 6. What things are
  7. 7. Why events occurred
  8. 8. What are the affects</li></li></ul><li>Source two- Journey of Man<br /><ul><li>Spencer Wells, a geneticist, sought to discover where humans came from
  9. 9. Used DNA samples from groups all over the world to trace a common ancestor for Homo sapiens
  10. 10. Ancestor goes back 60,000 years to Africa
  11. 11. Blood samples from many groups all have common marker – genetic similarity
  12. 12. Wells looked for changes in DNA sequence
  13. 13. “If two people share a change, then they are likely to share an ancestor”
  14. 14. This study impossible to do without current technology</li></ul>Pictured, a San matriarch of the San Bushmen in Africa is the oldest genetically distinct population of humans<br />
  15. 15. Source three - Catastrophe<br /><ul><li> David Keyes sought to explain mystery from the past
  16. 16. Writings he discovered told of weird climatic changes:
  17. 17. Times of dim sunlight
  18. 18. Time of only four hours of sunlight
  19. 19. Unordinary weather
  20. 20. Used various sources to find proof, and evidence for his theory
  21. 21. Used a mix of modern science, and primary sources</li></ul>The study of tree rings, as pictured, were used in Keyes research. <br />
  22. 22. Catastrophe – Sources and Conclusion<br />Sources Included:<br /><ul><li>Tree rings – with the study of tree ring growth, scientists can see how much a tree grew in one year – implying good climate or bad.
  23. 23. Studies of polar icecaps- similarly contains information about climatic change throughout history
  24. 24. Study of primary and secondary writings from around 535 discuss times of little sunlight – further evidence
  25. 25. Carbon Dating – carbon dating charcoal in dirt layers can provide an estimated date</li></ul>Conclusion:<br /><ul><li>Major climatic change – such as the one that occurred in ~535 can have many affects
  26. 26. Disease – plague possibly tied to catastrophe
  27. 27. Temperature affects how bacteria form
  28. 28. Crops
  29. 29. Affected dry and wet cycles
  30. 30. Temperature changed
  31. 31. Less crops – less food
  32. 32. Communications
  33. 33. satellites would not work
  34. 34. aircraft transport interrupted</li></li></ul><li>Source four – America Before Columbus<br /><ul><li> Once believed Americas were not highly populated when Spanish arrived
  35. 35. Modern studies may prove otherwise
  36. 36. Jesuit records of births and deaths of the time show many more deaths than birth
  37. 37. Sudden surge in death rate most likely caused by disease:
  38. 38. Europeans brought diseases unseen by the natives
  39. 39. In coastal New England killed 90% of population
  40. 40. Population estimated after reviewing the records by 90-112 million
  41. 41. Estimated population before was 1.15 million</li></ul>Art depicting Spanish interacting with natives<br />
  42. 42. Source Four- Lost Cities of The AMAZON<br /><ul><li> Chronicler noted large cities and towns in the Amazons
  43. 43. Many did not believe this was possible and saw little evidence
  44. 44. Modern science and researching has brought forward potential proof otherwise</li></ul>Pictured here, a modern Kuikuro village provides insight into the past<br />
  45. 45. Source Four- Lost Cities of Amazon<br />Evidence<br />Conclusion<br />Artifacts discovered <br />Old pottery – 1500 years old and very sophisticated<br />Possible implication of more civilized group<br />Could indicate settled society – versus nomadic one<br />Soil Management<br /> Black soil – terra preta discovered around Amazon<br />Very fertile – could support large cities<br />Man-made mixture, required soil management<br />Currently no one knows how to make it<br />Kuikuro Natives<br />Studying the residential natives gives insight into the past<br />Natives use similar techniques their ancestors used<br />Made dams to capture fish<br />Large permanent houses, with storage for food<br />Orchards, gardens, and fields all hundred to thousands years old still exists<br />Wooden Roads and Structures<br />After modern research clear evidence of possible large cities and populations living in the Amazon<br />Without the discover and use of various sources this conclusion could not have been made<br />
  46. 46. Source five – European Voyages and how the world changed <br /><ul><li>Plants and Animals
  47. 47. Exchange of animals and plants affected world
  48. 48. Europeans brought horses over to Americas
  49. 49. Changed how natives hunted
  50. 50. Gave plains Indians mastery over their environment
  51. 51. Crops
  52. 52. Potatoes
  53. 53. Helped feed Europe
  54. 54. Easy to plant and cultivate
  55. 55. Sugar Cane
  56. 56. Resulted in slaves being brought from Africa to harvest
  57. 57. Columbus helped unite the world and carried a major impact
  58. 58. Through Columbus Exchange the entire world was changed</li></li></ul><li>Theme one - Conclusion<br />Many mysteries and ideas from history have been changed due to modern research<br /> Examples:<br />Now have possible theory to the ancestry of Homo sapiens<br />Impossible to do without modern genetic forensics<br />Solved historical mystery of unusual climate changes<br />Can help current society predict affects of major climate changes<br />Re-evaluated view of Americas before and after Columbus<br />Larger population than thought before<br />In Amazon – more civilized and larger towns <br />Overall the past allows modern society to learn more and affect our future but none of this would be possible without evidence through research<br />