1
Hands-On Activity 1: Archaeology
Mystery Packet: Artifact Interpretation: Modern coins and notes: In archaeology, hundre...
2
Hands-On Activity 2: Archaeology
Artifact Interpretation: Coins and notes from the 15th
to 18th
century
Using the same a...
3
Hands-On Activity 2: Archaeology
Using the artifact sheet below, glue a picture of your artifact into the frame. Answer ...
4
Hands-On Activity 3: Archaeology
5
Hands-On Activity 4: Archaeology
To find out what Singapore was like in the 14th
century, uncovering ceramic shards from...
6
Stoneware: Stoneware shards came from
Guangdong province. They are more durable and
made in kilns. Stoneware was also fo...
7
A: Writings of Abdullah Mushi (1848):
There were many old fruit trees here.
Durian, duku, lime, langsat, petai, jering
a...
8
Hands-On Activity 1: Anthropology
Task 1: Use a magnifying glass and look at the photograph in greater detail. What deta...
9
Article 1: KudaKepang - Malaysian Dance and Theatre
10
It is said that it was created by the WaliSongo or
Nine Saints, who were instrumental in spreading the
religion of Isla...
11
When the "possessed" dancer is performing the dance in trance conditions, he can display unusual abilities, such as eat...
12
13
Hands-On Activity 2: Anthropology
Task 1: Read Wang Da Yuan‟s account of Singapore
The people at Pancur/Banzu are gener...
14
Salt: A Brief Big History
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=big+history+%2B+salt
Article 1
There is something...
15
Salt is undeniably one of the world's first seasonings. But it seems in the early days, it was difficult to obtain, and...
16
http://www.topholidaysbali.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/traditional-salt-process-1.jpg
The filtering journey ends wit...
17
Hands-On Activity 2: Anthropology (Cont)
Task 3: Answer these questions
Why was salt making important for civilizations...
18
Hands-On Activity: Historical Eyewitness Accounts
Task 1: Use the following eyewitness accounts to reconstruct your own...
19
Exercise: Jigsaw
Gajah Mada: I am Gajah Mada, Prime Ministry of
the Majapahit Empire based in Trowalun, Java.
We pay ou...
20
JIGSAW TASK: PUTTING THE DIFFERENT LENSES TOGETHER
Break up into different groups of between 4 to 5 people.
Ensure that...
21
www.worldoftemasek.com
Task 2:
Do a children‟s museum writeout for kids below the age of 12 so that they can understand...
22
Curriculum DesignFor Teachers: Unit Planning/ Conceptual Understanding
Key conceptual themes:A broad , integrating conc...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Historical inquiry for s1 workshop notes (anthropology, archaeology and accounts)

1,005 views

Published on

These are a set of notes form a workshop conducted for S1 History Teachers on how to interpret Singapore History in pre-modern times (14th century to 15th century) using the historical lenses of archaeology, anthropology and historical accounts.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,005
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Historical inquiry for s1 workshop notes (anthropology, archaeology and accounts)

  1. 1. 1 Hands-On Activity 1: Archaeology Mystery Packet: Artifact Interpretation: Modern coins and notes: In archaeology, hundred and often thousands of artifacts (man-made objects used as a tool or weapon) are found at a site. Sometimes a single object will provide a lot of detail about a society. A coin is an example because it has the potential to give information about leaders, values, technological accomplishments, language, political system and a numerical system in operation, as well as the date of manufacture of the coin. It is a difficult task because sometimes archaeologists are tempted to make inferences based on t heir modern day knowledge. They look at historical patterns to the items (like where they are found etc) to ask new questions about the items. They also have a hypotheses that they test as they proceed with their research. They usually state their conclusions by saying that something “may have” or “probably” occurred. Task 1: Imagine that you are an archaeologist who lived 100 years from the present date and your task is to find out how humans lived on earth in 2014. What conclusions would you draw? Select an artifact: Use a coin or dollar note from your wallet. Suspend your judgment: You are an archaeologist who lives in Singapore in 3014. You are tasked to find out about what Singapore was like in 2014. Training experience: You have an exemplar from a previous archaeologist on how you can go abut doing you task. Remember that you are from the future and you are investigating an unknown society. Remember to use such words as “may have”, “probably” and infer using only information from the items you are analyzing. (An example is provide below) A sample answer involving examining a US penny might look something like this Name of artefact: ________________ Artefact Number: ________________ This society had access to minerals, probably through mining or trading. Their men wore facial hair and liked having beards. The people believed in a kind of deity or God. They made open-air, stone-like monumental architecture. They had knowledge of the Latin and English Language. They had a numerical system which includes the number one. They are organized into a system of states which are united or linked together to a larger country called America. This object is not wearable.
  2. 2. 2 Hands-On Activity 2: Archaeology Artifact Interpretation: Coins and notes from the 15th to 18th century Using the same artifact worksheet. Analyze the following artifacts using historical knowledge which you have just read about. Artifact 1: Copper coins from the Kallang River and Empress Place Background Information: Such coins were found at Empress Place, Singapore and the Kallang River. They are made of copper and have the word 1 Duit on it. Artifact 2: Gold coins from the Johor-Riau Sultanate minted between 1527-1564 Background Information: Some gold coins found from the Kallang River was minted in the time of Sultan AlauddinRiayat Shah (1527-1564). They are octagonal in shape and inscribed with the name of the Sultan on one side. The other side has his honorofic title “Vice-Gerant of the Faithful”. Vice-Gerant means a person exercising delegated power on behalf of a sovereign or ruler.
  3. 3. 3 Hands-On Activity 2: Archaeology Using the artifact sheet below, glue a picture of your artifact into the frame. Answer each question using the artifact record. Draw or insert picture Name of Artifact: ________________________ Artifact Number: _________________________ Describe what does the artifact look like? Is there any writing on it? Is it large / small? What colour is it? What is it made of? Who might have used it? What do you think it was used for? Who do you think made it? What can we learn about technology or techniques at the time it was made? What does the artifact tell you about the period? What does it tell you about the people who would have used it or who might have been affected by it? Can you think of a similar object that is used today for the same purpose? If you could talk to the person who made or owned this artifact, what questions would you ask?
  4. 4. 4 Hands-On Activity 3: Archaeology
  5. 5. 5 Hands-On Activity 4: Archaeology To find out what Singapore was like in the 14th century, uncovering ceramic shards from the period is sometimes very useful in telling us the kind of trade connections and lives that people led. Receptacles like jars, pots, dishes and plates can be broken into thousands of pieces but their fragments are virtually indestructible. They are very durable and unlike silk, cloth, food or wooden products, they can tell us much about history, they can tell us much about history. Listed are three kinds of ceramic shards found in Singapore‟s archaeological digs. What does it tell you about life in Singapore? Many of the shards were found at Fort Canning Hill or Bukit Larangan. 1. What does this tell you about the people who lived on Bukit Larangan? 2. Why do you think porcelain was so valuable? 3. What did people see in porcelain? 4. Why do you think Wang Da Yuan listed all the different kinds of ceramics (material, shape, size, colour and decoration) found in different Southeast Asian ports) Try using the photographs and information given to you to piece the answers together. [This can also be an activity using the ceramic shards from the resource package prepared) Earthern ware: Earthernware are made from local clay found in the inland parts of Singapore. They are found in large quantities near river areas. Some of them were part of huge jars. Others were small and dainty with little water spouts. Some of them also have paddle-marked decorations. 1. What can you see in the picture? These are shards of earthern ware of different colours. Some of them have paddle-marked patterns 2. What does the picture and description tell you about trade in Singapore in the past? Since earthern ware is made from loca clay. It tells us that people used locally made products and possibly exported them. 3. What do you think theywere used for? Since there were huge jars as well as small an dainty ones with water spouts, they could have been used to store and carry water for everyday use, especially since they were all found near river areas
  6. 6. 6 Stoneware: Stoneware shards came from Guangdong province. They are more durable and made in kilns. Stoneware was also found in many parts of Singapore. They lack regular shape and are not decorated. Some are said to store mercury which is a substance used for purify gold. Why do you think there is so much stoneware found in Singapore? What kind of trade can be linked to this? Porcelain: Porcelain is a hard, white, translucent ceramic made by firing a pure clay and then glazing it with different colored materials. Famous Greenwarepottery called celadon are expensive because they are made only in Longquan in Zhejiang province found in the interior of China. Blue and white porcelain are also expensive because it is made fromkaolin clay found mainly in Jingdezhen area in Jiangxi province in the mountainous regions of China. Celadon being uncovered at St Andrew‟s Cathedral Blue and white porcelain fragment unearthed in SIngapore
  7. 7. 7 A: Writings of Abdullah Mushi (1848): There were many old fruit trees here. Durian, duku, lime, langsat, petai, jering and pomelo. Some of these trees were of great size B: Excavation in 1928: Gold Jewelry found C: John Crawfurd 1822): There was a building platformabout 12 m on each side. It had an enclosed area in the centre. A B C D E D: Excavation in 1984 and 1988: Large amounts of glass fragments, beads and ceramic moulds were found here F Hand-On-Activity 5: Archaeology E: Excavation in the 1990s in the North bank of the Singapore River: Earthernware for water containers and cooking ports from Sumatra, Java , Thailand and China found. AlsoQingbai, celadon and blue and white ceramics from China. Metal objects like coins, fishing hooks, spear tips and glass fragments found here. F: The wall on the north boundary of the ancient down of Singapore was 5 meters wide at the base and about 2.75 metres in height. The rampart wet up the hillside. There was a trench on its outer edge. The earthworks were not intended for use for rifles and cannons Based on the information given in the boxes, what was A, B, C, D,E and F used for in pre-modern Singapura? Possible help words: Royal Gardens Servant living quarters Royal Palace Main settlement Trading Area Eartherndefence wall Ritual place of worship
  8. 8. 8 Hands-On Activity 1: Anthropology Task 1: Use a magnifying glass and look at the photograph in greater detail. What details can you tell about the horse and clothes being worn by the rider? Task 2: Read the articles or/and watch a video about the importance of horses in Southeast Asia in dance culture Video 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6BUZPOvWYM
  9. 9. 9 Article 1: KudaKepang - Malaysian Dance and Theatre
  10. 10. 10 It is said that it was created by the WaliSongo or Nine Saints, who were instrumental in spreading the religion of Islam in the Indonesian island of Jawv; for the dance dramatises tales of holy wars won for Islam. However, it is also believed to have totemistic origins. The dance, now popular in the state of Johor, is usually performed by nine to 15 dancers, all garbed in traditional Javanese clothes. The dancers are usually all men, though women dancers are not uncommon these days. However, seldom, if ever, will you see both genders performing this dance together. In a performance, each dancer sits astride a mock horse, and they re-enact the battles to the beat of a percussion ensemble usually consisting of drums, gongs and angklungs. A dancer known as the Danyang will take the lead by directing the other dancers using a whip. The dance is believed to have strong links to the spirit world. It is not uncommon to see a KudaKepang dancer entering a trance during a performance. The two-dimensional mock horse - which is traditionally made out of hide or pleated bamboo, and is painted and decorated to resemble a horse - is said to harbour spirits which have to be appeased in a pre-dance ceremony conducted by a bomoh (medicine man). These days, this belief and practice are not encouraged. The KudaKepang has now become a regular fixture in grand occasions such as the birthday of the Sultan of Johor, state government celebrations, and cultural shows. - http://www.best-of-langkawi.com/culture/28-culture-kuda-kepang.html Article 2: Kuda Lumping Kuda Lumping (literally flat horse; also known as JaranKepang or Jathilan in Javanese) is a traditional Javanese dance depicting a group of horsemen. Dancers "ride" horses made from woven bamboo and decorated with colorful paints and cloth. Generally, the dance portrays troops riding horses, but another type of Kuda Lumping performance also incorporates trances and magic tricks.
  11. 11. 11 When the "possessed" dancer is performing the dance in trance conditions, he can display unusual abilities, such as eating glass and resistance to the effects of whipping or hot coals. Although the dance is native to Java, Indonesia, it also performed by Javanese communities in Suriname, Malaysia and Singapore. Origins: Kuda Lumping is known under different names in different areas. While Kuda Lumping is the most common name in West Java, in Central Java it is known as JaranKepang or Jathilan in East Java; in Bali, it is known as Sang HyangJaran.[2] In Bali Sanghyang dance refer to the type of dance involving trance by spirit identified as hyang. Performance: Kuda Lumping may be performed in celebration of a special event, such as a religious festivals or a boy‟s rite of passage. It may also be performed as entertainment, in a busker style. Kuda Lumping is traditionally performed by a group of men drawn from the local community; this group can number from 2 to 8.The performers mount rattan horses and dance while traditional instruments such as the angklung, gongs, and drums are played This portion of the performance ends when a dancer enters a trance, which is traditionally said to be caused by spirit possession. In Sang HyangJaran, the audience may participate by forming a chorus and singing. During their trances, the dancers may pretend to eat grass or drink water. In some performances, dancers may walk on coals or eat glass or fire. The dancers also interact with the audience; in busker performances they may ask for money. In some areas the dancers serve as oracles to deliver prophecies. After awakening from their trances, performers claim not to remember anything done while performing - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuda_Lumping Task 3: Writing Task Imagine you are a time traveler who is transported back into 14th century Singapore, what would you have seen based on the sources. Task 4: Sketch/ Cartoon task Imagine that you need to work or collaborate with an artist, what would you see visually in 14th century Singapore.
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13 Hands-On Activity 2: Anthropology Task 1: Read Wang Da Yuan‟s account of Singapore The people at Pancur/Banzu are generally honest. They wear their hair short and wear false gold-patterned satin wrapped around their heads. There is a red-oiled cloth wrapped around their body. They boil sea water to get salt and process rice to produce rice wine. They trade in goods like satin, red gold, pottery and iron urns Task 2: Read the article about Balinese traditional salt-makingand/ or watch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI6R45TxjBc Video 1: Traditional Salt Making in Bali Video 2: Importance of Salt making in History
  14. 14. 14 Salt: A Brief Big History http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=big+history+%2B+salt Article 1 There is something so precious about Balinese sea salt. First, a little bit about Salt History. Beyond its culinary contributions, salt has created and destroyed empires and played a prominent role in determining the power and location of many of the world's great cities. Hard to believe. Salt's mighty ability to preserve food was a foundation of civilization. For a start, it eliminated the dependence on the seasonal availability of food and allowed all those fearless seafaring folk to travel long distances with a bounty of preserved snacks. Enter terasi or shrimp paste, Indonesia's salt-preserved, fishy and ever-so-smelly beloved seasoning. But I digress.
  15. 15. 15 Salt is undeniably one of the world's first seasonings. But it seems in the early days, it was difficult to obtain, and thus became a highly valued trade item. As far back as the Bronze Age, salt roads were established and cities, states and duchies exacted heavy duties and taxes for salt passing thorough their territories. Until the twentieth century, salt was one of the prime movers of national economies and wars (it's starting to sound oh-so- familiar). An amazing act for a seasoning that now sits humbly on dinner tables in modest glass shakers. Even the word "salary" was derived from the Latin term "salarium" which was the name for a soldier's pay in the army of ancient Rome. The pay included a large ration of salt, Hands-On Activity 2: Anthropology (Cont) which was not only a taste sensation of high value but also a medium for exchange: thus the origin of the expression, "worth your salt". Balinese sea salt is produced in coastal regions around the island. In Kusamba, East Bali, you can see the small salt- making huts and coconut-drying trunks from the road. The work begins in the misty, early hours of the morning, when the sun is still yawning. The farmers rake the sand gently and sprinkle it lightly with water. A thin crust forms which is gently scooped up and tipped into the first of a series of coconut trunks that resemble a woody mouse-trap game (remember that one!).
  16. 16. 16 http://www.topholidaysbali.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/traditional-salt-process-1.jpg The filtering journey ends with a pool of concentrated salt water. The thick salt water is collected and poured into open-air trays and left to evaporate, relying on the heat of the fierce sun and gusty winds. Once the water has evaporated, the salt is crushed and ground without further refining. http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3708/10609510856_473ecb6e3b_o.jpg Adapted from: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/02/28/in-praise-balinese-sea-salt.html http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/01/29/producing-salt-traditional-way-smokey-ordeal.html
  17. 17. 17 Hands-On Activity 2: Anthropology (Cont) Task 3: Answer these questions Why was salt making important for civilizations? Based on what you have read, why do you think Wang Da Yuan mentioned „salt making‟ as an important industry for Singapura?
  18. 18. 18 Hands-On Activity: Historical Eyewitness Accounts Task 1: Use the following eyewitness accounts to reconstruct your own interpretation of how Singapore declined in the 1400s. a) Who were Singapore‟s main enemies? b) What are the possible reasons that led to the Fall of Singapore in the 1400s? c) What is the difference between the SejarahMelayu( Source 1) and Portuguese accounts on the fall of Singapore? (Source 5)? Why do they differ? IskandarShah:I am Iskandar Shah, the last ruler of Singapura. I accuased one of my wives of being unfaithful. To avenge this humiliation, her father, Sang Rajuna Tapa, opened the city gates to let in the Majapahit forces, who destroyed Singapura. Wang Dayuan: I am Wang Dayuan. I watched as the Siamese came with more than 80 ships and raided Dan M Xi. They laid siege to the city for a month but did not dare assault it. They retreated when an Imperial envoy from China passed by the area.
  19. 19. 19 Exercise: Jigsaw Gajah Mada: I am Gajah Mada, Prime Ministry of the Majapahit Empire based in Trowalun, Java. We pay our 30,000 soldiers in gold and silver. Our empire was largest in the reign of HayamWuruk (1334-1339). We dominated places like Sumatra and Palembang. I swear I will not enjoy palapauntil I have conquered all the nations on my list, including Singpaura., Tomes Pires: I am Tomes Pires, a Portuguese pharmacist who visited Southeast Asia and lived in Melaka from 1512 to 1515. The Javanese tell me that in 1360, a prince from Palembang rebelled against Majapahit rule. His revolt failed and he fled to Singapura where he killed the local Sang Aji, or Prince of the Island. He ruled with the help of the Celatest, but he had no trade links. The murder angered the King of Ayutthaya.
  20. 20. 20 JIGSAW TASK: PUTTING THE DIFFERENT LENSES TOGETHER Break up into different groups of between 4 to 5 people. Ensure that there is at least 1 anthropologist, 1 historian, 1 archaeologist on your team. Select any of the activities in this worksheet/workbook. You are a team of experts hired by the museum to do a project which depicts what life was like in Singapore in the 14 th century. Using the expertise you have picked up, you may choose any of the following tasks: Task 1: Sketch a scene of 14th century Singapore which depicts life in the 14 th century. Using arrows to indicate where your expertise as archaeologist, historian or anthropology comes into your project. An example is shown below. : Archaeology: John Crawafurd wrote about a 12m structure on top of Fort Canning Hill. It is possible that this was the palace of the rulers of Singapura. Anthropologist: Women play an important role in Southeast Asian Society. The story of the SejarahMelayu tells of Sri Tri Buana being adopted by a powerful Queen who owned 400 ships from Bintan. Women in Singapura also probably played an important rule in politics and
  21. 21. 21 www.worldoftemasek.com Task 2: Do a children‟s museum writeout for kids below the age of 12 so that they can understand what Singapore was like in the 14th century based on what you have learnt.
  22. 22. 22 Curriculum DesignFor Teachers: Unit Planning/ Conceptual Understanding Key conceptual themes:A broad , integrating concept that as the ‘cement’ or filter for students to process factual information in a cohesive manner. Eg.Interpreting Singapore’s Pre-Modern History (1300-1400) Generalization: They are general statements and allow for ideas transfer. They are not specific to a time, place, person or location. These are significant, conceptual and enduring ideas that students must understand at a deep level as a result of the unit study.Eg.Archaeology, anthropology and historical eyewitness accounts shapes historical interpretation. museums) Critical content: Eg. Wang Da Yuan visited Singapore in the 1330s. Salt was a major industry. Content concepts: Eg. Sri Tri Buana, Parmeswara, SejarahMelayu, Wang Da Yuan, Gajah Madah, Tumasik, Singapura, Majapahit, Siam Historical concept: Eg. Historical interpretation Key skills: Eg. Inference through artefact analysis. Performance Task: Eg. Fictional account of historical character using inference from anthropology, archaeology and eyewitness accounts.

×