The mystical world of twins begins with their journey together in the womb.
For this literature review, I will be looking at hereditary factors as well as criminality factors of twins in order to create my review.
Rushton etc.. studied 573 pairs of twins, a sample that consisted of 206 monozygotic (MZ) females, 90 MZ males, 133 dizygotic (DZ) females, 46 DZ males, and 98 DZ opposite-sex pairs, for comparability of altruism, empathy, nurturance, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. Furthermore, they concluded that males were hereditably more aggressive than female twins, therefore setting the stage for male monozygotic twins to be more bonded towards criminality than female monozygotic twins. Rowe’s study finds a genetic factor to the social bonds for delinquent acts in the male twins and no shared environmental components for the behaviors.
and their 50 “long-firm frauds,” which also included the murder and disappearance of several men in order to maintain their status. Plimmer further.Which leads one to understand that the criminal intent is already imbedded within the twins genes; however, if the gene is present as well as the environment that reinforces the criminal behavior there is no other conclusion than that of crime being the destiny for both of the twins.
Inducing the conclusion that hereditary genes do not always need to lead to a negative outcome, but can also carry good qualities as those portrayed by the Wilson twins.
To develop this area of study further, I would ask: What percentage of identical twin males have police records by the age of 25?What is the criminology factor between identical twins raised apart?
Review Paper Powerpoint
Do Identical Twins Share Similar Criminal Behaviors Maria L Guy Argosy University
Introduction Identical twins = MonozygoticResulting from a single egg fertilized by a single sperm cell then splitting into two identical fetuses.Such twins share identical DNA, are always the same sex and blood type (twin-pregnancy- and-beyond.com, 2011).
With so much shared DNA data, the possibility for shared criminal behaviors I propose to be relatively high.I believe there would be a high correlation of crime activity between the two identical twins.
Rushton, J. P., Fulker, D. W., Neale, M. C., Nias, D. K. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1986) found that60% of was altruism, empathy, nurturance, aggressiveness, and assertiveness was attributed to genetics and virtually 0% was due to the twin’s common environment.Rowe (1985) further reinforced the findings above as his study of teenage twin youths found that61% of female twins engaged in one or more delinquent acts; and71% of male twins engaged in one or more delinquent acts.
Plimmer (2004) studied the Krays twin’s case which indicates that before their crimes the Krays’ twins were “showing signs of what kind of lives they were prepared to live” (Plimmer, pg. 24, 2004). From an early age these twins, as I propose that most twins, show a deviation of behavior towards criminality, which is not necessarily due to their environment, but due to their shared genetics.Murphy (1997) studied criminal twins through the works of Charlotte Haldane whom stated, “Taking the record of any criminal, we could predict the behavior of a monozygotic twin placed in the same environment. Crime is destiny” (Murphy, 1997).
Opposite direction Not all of these twins have hereditability for criminology; the opposite is true as well.Rees (1994) wrote a piece on Mike and Mitch Wilson who are monozygotic twins who share a love for police work. Rees (1994) stated that the twins “have so many similarities, it’s hard to tell the two apart even for people who know them best.”
ConclusionThe prevailing argument of my literature review is that there is a connection between identical twins, where if one has criminality qualities the other twin will also have a level of criminality due to their shared DNA. The literature also set a part the sexes of the twins, male twins are more prevalent towards violence and criminality where females are not. Although the literature review found that environment might play a small role in criminality behaviors, the dominant factor for criminality remains to be the shared DNA.
The research of twin studies has been around for a long time, just as criminality has been. In today’s environment, criminality is more of a problem than ever. Walmsley (2005) reports that the United States has the highest prison population in the world, therefore it is vital for researchers to be focusing on where criminology stems from whether it be hereditary, environmental or both. Furthermore, by searching for and discovering the exact factors of criminology then there can be a solution for the overcrowded prisons. Such a discovery could change the world by opening a new era of relatively crime free living.
ReferencesPlimmer, J. (2004, Mar 07). THE KRAYS twins who ruled the east end through sick violence; serial killers, cold-blooded murderers and gun-toting gangsters.. Sunday Mercury, pp. 24-24. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/322262456?accountid=34899Murphey, D. (1997). Crime as destiny: A study of criminal twins. The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies, 22(2), 254-254. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/216810026?accountid=34899LAURI REES,- East Oregonian. (1994, Nov 09). Twins have criminals seeing double. The Oregonian, pp. B.15-B15. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/416842336?accountid=34899Rushton, J. P., Fulker, D. W., Neale, M. C., Nias, D. K. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Altruism and aggression: The heritability of individual differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(6), 1192-1198. doi:10.1037/0022- 35220.127.116.112ROWE, D. C. (1985), SIBLING INTERACTION AND SELFREPORTED DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR: A STUDY OF 265 TWIN PAIRS. Criminology, 23: 223–240. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00335.xWalmsley, R. (2005). World Prison Population List. Kings College London: International Centre for Prison Studies , 1-6.